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1.
Mol Metab ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The T-box gene Tbx15 is abundantly expressed in adipose tissues, especially subcutaneous and brown fat. Although its expression is correlated with obesity, its precise biological role in adipose tissue is poorly understood in vivo. Here we investigated the function of Tbx15 in brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in vivo. METHODS: In the present study, we generated adipose-specific Tbx15 knockout (AKO) mice by crossing Tbx15 floxed mice with adiponectin-Cre mice to delineate Tbx15 function in adipose tissues. We systematically investigated the influence of Tbx15 on brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in mice, as well as the possible underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS: Upon cold exposure, adipocyte browning in inguinal adipose tissue was significantly impaired in Tbx15 AKO mice. Furthermore, ablation of Tbx15 blocked adipocyte browning induced by ß3 adrenergic agonist CL 316243, which did not appear to alter the expression of Tbx15. Analysis of DNA binding sites using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that TBX15 bound directly to a key region in the Prdm16 promoter, indicating it regulates transcription of Prdm16, the master gene for adipocyte thermogenesis and browning. Compared to control mice, Tbx15 AKO mice displayed increased body weight gain and decreased whole body energy expenditure in response to high fat diets. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that Tbx15 regulates adipocyte browning and might be a potential target for the treatment of obesity.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(60): 8744-8763, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268066

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction represents an important electrochemical reaction in several energy storage and conversion devices such as water electrolyzers and metal-air batteries. Developing efficient, inexpensive and durable electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has been one of the major focuses of applied electrochemistry and has attracted considerable research attention in the past decades. Non-oxide based transition metal compounds, typically transition metal phosphides (TMPs) and chalcogenides (TMCs), have recently emerged as new categories of OER pre-catalysts, demonstrated outstanding electrocatalytic performance as compared to the conventional oxide- or hydroxide-based OER catalysts for alkaline water electrolysis, and even shown promise to replace noble metals for proton-exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. In this feature article, we will summarize the latest advances in the development of TMP- and TMC-based OER electrocatalysts. In particular, we will discuss the electrochemical stability of TMPs and TMCs predicted using Pourbaix diagrams and their morphological, structural and compositional evolution under OER conditions. We will also point out some challenges to be addressed in this specific area of research and propose further investigations yet to be done.

3.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(6): 687-699, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160711

RESUMO

We recently derived mouse expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) from individual blastomeres by inhibiting the critical molecular pathways that predispose their differentiation. EPSCs had enriched molecular signatures of blastomeres and possessed developmental potency for all embryonic and extra-embryonic cell lineages. Here, we report the derivation of porcine EPSCs, which express key pluripotency genes, are genetically stable, permit genome editing, differentiate to derivatives of the three germ layers in chimeras and produce primordial germ cell-like cells in vitro. Under similar conditions, human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be converted, or somatic cells directly reprogrammed, to EPSCs that display the molecular and functional attributes reminiscent of porcine EPSCs. Importantly, trophoblast stem-cell-like cells can be generated from both human and porcine EPSCs. Our pathway-inhibition paradigm thus opens an avenue for generating mammalian pluripotent stem cells, and EPSCs present a unique cellular platform for translational research in biotechnology and regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Animais , Blastômeros/citologia , Blastômeros/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Camadas Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Medicina Regenerativa , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Suínos , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
4.
Stem Cells ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353613

RESUMO

Xist is the master regulator of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). In order to further understand the Xist locus in reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), we tested transcription-factor-like effectors (TALE)-based designer transcriptional factors (dTFs), which were specific to numerous regions at the Xist locus. We report that the selected dTF repressor 6 (R6) binding the intron 1 of Xist, which caused higher H3K9me3 followed by X chromosome opening and repression of X-linked genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), rather than affecting Xist expression, substantially improved the iPSC generation and the SCNT preimplantation embryo development. Conversely, the dTF activator targeting the same genomic region of R6 decreased iPSC formation, and blocked SCNT-embryo development. These results thus uncover the critical requirement for the Xist locus in epigenetic resetting, which is not directly related to Xist transcription. This may provide a unique route to improving the reprogramming. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

5.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 44(6): 848-855, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154621

RESUMO

Resource-constrained models of language processing predict that perceptual simulation during language understanding would be compromised by sensory limitations (such as reading text in unfamiliar/difficult font), whereas strong versions of embodied theories of language would predict that simulating perceptual symbols in language would not be impaired even under sensory-constrained situations. In 2 experiments, sensory decoding difficulty was manipulated by using easy and hard fonts to study perceptual simulation during sentence reading (Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002). Results indicated that simulating perceptual symbols in language was not compromised by surface-form decoding challenges such as difficult font, suggesting relative resilience of embodied language processing in the face of certain sensory constraints. Further implications for learning from text and individual differences in language processing will be discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

6.
Nature ; 550(7676): 393-397, 2017 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019987

RESUMO

Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species.


Assuntos
Blastômeros/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastômeros/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Quimera , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Endoderma/citologia , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Placenta/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Gravidez , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Trofoblastos/citologia
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(33): 25923-25932, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940142

RESUMO

A survey was conducted in a freshwater reservoir located in Guizhou province, south China, to investigate the influence of fish aquaculture activities on mercury (Hg) distribution, speciation change, and bioaccumulation. Water, sediment, and aquaculture fish samples were collected from aquaculture sites (AS) and the corresponding reference sites (RS). The results showed that total mercury (THg) concentration in overlying water in Wujiangdu reservoir reached 6.87 ± 14.9 ng L-1. THg concentration in a different layer follows the sequence: surface layer > bottom layer > three intermediate layers with significant difference. In addition, the total methylmercury (TMeHg) concentration in overlying water was 0.113 ± 0.211 ng L-1. The highest TMeHg was observed in the bottom layer. Both dissolved Hg (DHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) accounted for more than 50% of THg and TMeHg in the top four layers of overlying water, respectively. In contrast, particulate Hg (PHg) and particulate methylmercury were the major portion of THg and TMeHg in bottom layer and reached to 67 and 58.7% of THg and TMeHg, respectively. Aquaculture activities were estimated to contribute an annual loading of approximately 69.8 ng g-1of THg yearly in the top 1 cm of sediment underneath the rafts due to unconsumed fish feed. The extra loading of THg in sediment may have potential to stimulate the release of Hg to the overlying water. Both DMeHg and DHg in sediment pore water and organic matter (OM) contents in the top 4 cm of AS were noticeably higher than RS, which indicated that the accumulation of OM due to aquaculture activities promoted MeHg production in the top surface of sediment pore water. No significant difference was noted between THg in RS (296 ± 104 ng g-1) and AS (274 ± 132 ng g-1) in the solid phase. In addition, the sediments were net sources of both MeHg and inorganic Hg. For Hg in fish tissues, THg and inorganic Hg (IHg) in the liver were significantly higher (THg: p < 0.001, F = 9.98; IHg: p < 0.001, F = 13.1) than those in the other organs. In contrast, MeHg concentration in the muscle was significantly higher than (p < 0.01, F = 4.83) that in the other organs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pesqueiros , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Anal Chem ; 89(18): 10104-10110, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817769

RESUMO

An inexpensive and disposable paper-based lateral flow strip (PLFS) has been developed as an immunoassay, in which surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is utilized for sensing signal transduction. The Au nanostar@Raman Reporter@silica sandwich nanoparticles are developed as the SERS probes, which is the key to the high sensitivity of the device. Compared with a colorimetric PLFS, the SERS-PLFS exhibits superior performance in terms of sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) in a blood plasma-containing sample matrix. In addition, the SERS-PLFS has been successfully used for detection of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a traumatic brain injury (TBI) protein biomarker, in diluted blood plasma samples, achieving a LOD of 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the SERS-PLFS was successfully employed to measure the NSE level in clinical blood plasma samples taken from deidentified TBI patients. This work demonstrates that the SERS-PLFS has great potential in assisting screening of TBI patients in the point-of-care setting.

9.
Tissue Cell ; 49(5): 521-527, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720304

RESUMO

Single-cell derived bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated by the introduction of piggyBac transposons with CAG promoting transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc). In the study, the bovine iPSCs colony from single cell could passage more than 50 passages after enzymatic dissociation into single cells. These bovine iPSCs cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed dome shaped clones similar to mouse embryonic stem cells. They showed pluripotency in many ways, including their expression of pluripotency markers, such as OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA4, and AP in immunofluorescence assay, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc in RT-PCR. Additionally, single-cell derived bovine iPSCs formed embryoid bodies and teratomas that all subsequently gave rise to differentiated cells from all three embryonic germ layers. The results showed that our reprogramming method could obtain high efficiency single-cell cloning bovine iPSCs, and the efficiency of single cell cloning is 40%.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas
10.
Chem Sci ; 8(4): 2952-2958, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28451361

RESUMO

Electrochemical water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen is a promising technology for sustainable energy storage. The development of earth-abundant transition metal phosphides (TMPs) to catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and TMP-derived oxy-hydroxides to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has recently drawn considerable attention. However, most monolithically integrated metal phosphide electrodes are prepared by laborious multi-step methods and their operational stability at high current densities has been rarely studied. Herein, we report a novel vapor-solid synthesis of single-crystalline cobalt phosphide nanowires (CoP NWs) on a porous Co foam and demonstrate their use in overall water splitting. The CoP NWs grown on the entire surface of the porous Co foam ligaments have a large aspect ratio, and hence are able to provide a large catalytically accessible surface over a given geometrical area. Comprehensive investigation shows that under the OER conditions CoP NWs are progressively and conformally converted to CoOOH through electrochemical in situ oxidation/dephosphorization; the latter serving as an active species to catalyze the OER. The in situ oxidized electrode shows exceptional electrocatalytic performance for the OER in 1.0 M KOH, delivering 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential (η) of merely 300 mV and a small Tafel slope of 78 mV dec-1 as well as excellent stability at various current densities. Meanwhile, the CoP NW electrode exhibits superior catalytic activity for the HER in the same electrolyte, affording -100 mA cm-2 at η = 244 mV and showing outstanding stability. An alkaline electrolyzer composed of two symmetrical CoP NW electrodes can deliver 10 and 100 mA cm-2 at low cell voltages of 1.56 and 1.78 V, respectively. The CoP NW electrolyzer demonstrates exceptional long-term stability for overall water splitting, capable of working at 20 and 100 mA cm-2 for 1000 h without obvious degradation.

11.
Diabetes ; 66(2): 407-417, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108609

RESUMO

Both mammals and adult humans possess classic brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, and the amount and activity of these adipocytes are considered key factors in combating obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is the functional marker of both brown and beige adipocytes. To facilitate a reliable, easy, and sensitive measurement of Ucp1 expression both in vivo and in vitro, we generated a Ucp1-2A-luciferase knock-in mouse by deleting the stop codon for the mouse Ucp1 gene and replacing it with a 2A peptide. This peptide was followed by the luciferase coding sequence to recapitulate the expression of the Ucp1 gene at the transcriptional and translational levels. With this mouse, we discovered a cold-sensitive brown/beige adipose depot underneath the skin of the ears, which we named uBAT. Because of the sensitivity and high dynamic range of luciferase activity, the Ucp1-2A-luciferase mouse is useful for both in vitro quantitative determination and in vivo visualization of nonshivering thermogenesis. With the use of this model, we identified and characterized axitinib, an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as an effective browning agent.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adipócitos Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Axitinibe , Western Blotting , Orelha , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Indazóis/farmacologia , Luciferases/genética , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Consumo de Oxigênio , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
12.
Gerontologist ; 57(2): 261-268, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209450

RESUMO

Purpose of the Study: Health literacy is associated with health outcomes presumably because it influences the understanding of information needed for self-care. However, little is known about the language comprehension mechanisms that underpin health literacy. Design and Methods: We explored the relationship between a commonly used measure of health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [STOFHLA]) and comprehension of health information among 145 older adults. Results: Results showed that performance on the STOFHLA was associated with recall of health information. Consistent with the Process-Knowledge Model of Health Literacy, mediation analysis showed that both processing capacity and knowledge mediated the association between health literacy and recall of health information. In addition, knowledge moderated the effects of processing capacity limits, such that processing capacity was less likely to be associated with recall for older adults with higher levels of knowledge. Implications: These findings suggest that knowledge contributes to health literacy and can compensate for deficits in processing capacity to support comprehension of health information among older adults. The implications of these findings for improving patient education materials for older adults with inadequate health literacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Hipertensão/terapia , Rememoração Mental , Autocuidado , Idoso , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36382, 2016 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805061

RESUMO

Harmine is a natural compound possessing insulin-sensitizing effect in db/db diabetic mice. However its effect on adipose tissue browning is unknown. Here we reveal that harmine antagonizes high fat diet-induced adiposity. Harmine-treated mice gained less weight on a high fat diet and displayed increased energy expenditure and adipose tissue thermogenesis. In vitro, harmine potently induced the expression of thermogenic genes in both brown and white adipocytes, which was largely abolished by inhibition of RAC1/MEK/ERK pathway. Post-transcriptional modification analysis revealed that chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4 (CHD4) is a potential downstream target of harmine-mediated ERK activation. CHD4 directly binds the proximal promoter region of Ucp1, which is displaced upon treatment of harmine, thereby serving as a negative modulator of Ucp1. Thus, here we reveal a new application of harmine in combating obesity via this off-target effect in adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Harmina/administração & dosagem , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Termogênese , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/citologia , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , DNA Helicases/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Harmina/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 218: 1037-1044, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613319

RESUMO

The effects of mariculture on mercury (Hg) contamination and speciation in water, sediment and cultured fish in a typical mariculture zone located in Xiangshan bay, Zhejiang province, east China, were studied. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from mariculture sites (MS) and from corresponding reference sites (RS) 2500 m away from the MS. The THg concentration in overlying water in Xiangshan bay reached as high as 16.6 ± 19.5 ng L-1, indicating that anthropogenic sources in this bay may contribution on Hg contamination in overlying water. Mariculture activities resulted in an increase in THg concentration in water from surface and bottom layers, which may be attributed to the discharge of domestic sewage and the accumulation of unconsumed fish feed and fish excreta in the benthic environment. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the bottom layer of overlying water and top surface layer of porewater underneath MS were higher than at RS, implying that mariculture activities promote Hg methylation in the interface between sediments and water. In addition, the concentrations of MeHg in sediment and porewater were significantly higher in summer than winter. It was observed that THg and MeHg contents in the muscle of blackhead seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) (fed by the trash fish) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) or perch (Perca fluviatilis) (fed by pellet fish feed). The THg and MeHg concentrations in the fish meat were closely related to the feeding mode, which indicate that fish feed rather than environmental media is the major pathway for Hg accumulation in fish muscle.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , China , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
Front Psychol ; 7: 505, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092100

RESUMO

Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect). Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet) as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: the Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet). Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word "green"), suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task.

16.
Talanta ; 146: 648-54, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26695313

RESUMO

An enzyme-based dual-labeled nanoprobe is designed to fabricate a sensitive enzyme-amplified lateral flow biosensor for visual detection of mircoRNA-224 (miRNA-224). The recognition DNA probe (detection probe) and signal amplification enzyme (Horseradish peroxidase, HRP) are immobilized on gold nanoparticle (GNPs) surface, simultaneously. The capture DNA probes are immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. When miRNA-224 is present, the enzyme-based dual-labeled nanoprobes will be captured by forming the "sandwich structure" on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor, enabling the visual detection for miRNA-224. Sensitivity is amplified by applying the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine enzymatic substrate (TMB/H2O2 enzymatic substrate) onto the test zone. The enzymatic reactions between the HRP and the TMB/H2O2 enzymatic substrate will produce blue products, which deposit on the nanoprobe surface to enhance the visual effect and the corresponding response intensities of the test zone. This enzyme-amplified lateral flow biosensor shows a low limit of detection (LOD) (7.5 pM) toward miRNA-224 in the buffer solution, which is improved by 10-fold than that of the single-labeled lateral flow biosensor. This biosensor has been successfully used for the detection of the target miRNA-224 detection in A549 cell lysate.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/análise , Benzidinas/química , Benzidinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sondas de DNA/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
17.
Mem Cognit ; 44(1): 162-70, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26268066

RESUMO

One debate in mathematical cognition centers on the single-representation model versus the two-representation model. Using an improved number Stroop paradigm (i.e., systematically manipulating physical size distance), in the present study we tested the predictions of the two models for number magnitude processing. The results supported the single-representation model and, more importantly, explained how a design problem (failure to manipulate physical size distance) and an analytical problem (failure to consider the interaction between congruity and task-irrelevant numerical distance) might have contributed to the evidence used to support the two-representation model. This study, therefore, can help settle the debate between the single-representation and two-representation models.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 36(8): 2870-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592015

RESUMO

To investigate the influence of marine aquaculture around coal power plant on Hg species change in aquatic ecological environment, the fish farming area in Xiangshan Harbor, Zhejiang province, was studied. The concentrations of different Hg species in sea water collected from marine aquaculture sites (MS) and references sites (RS) were measured. The result showed that the total mercury (THg) concentration in the surface water reached 83.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 97.1 pmol x L(-1). Dissolved Hg (DHg) in pore water of core sediment decreased with the increasing depth. Meanwhile, the DHg content in pore water above 10 cm was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that below 10 cm, which confirmed the influence of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding areas. THg concentration in MS (96.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 133 pmol x L(-1)) was higher than that in RS (69.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 39.4 pmol x L(-1)), which was mainly resulted from the accumulation of sewage discharge by the employees and fish feed material in sediments during breeding that were further released to the overlying water. Methylmercury concentration in pore water of MS (24.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 16.7 pmol x L(-1)) was also significantly higher than that in RS (6.60 pmol x L(-1) +/- 5.11 pmol x L(-1)), which demonstrated that marine aquaculture activities promoted the methylmercury production by increasing the accumulation of organic matter in sediment.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Carvão Mineral , Mercúrio/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Água do Mar/química
19.
Cell Stem Cell ; 17(4): 471-85, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26431182

RESUMO

Embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture conditions are important for maintaining long-term self-renewal, and they influence cellular pluripotency state. Here, we report single cell RNA-sequencing of mESCs cultured in three different conditions: serum, 2i, and the alternative ground state a2i. We find that the cellular transcriptomes of cells grown in these conditions are distinct, with 2i being the most similar to blastocyst cells and including a subpopulation resembling the two-cell embryo state. Overall levels of intercellular gene expression heterogeneity are comparable across the three conditions. However, this masks variable expression of pluripotency genes in serum cells and homogeneous expression in 2i and a2i cells. Additionally, genes related to the cell cycle are more variably expressed in the 2i and a2i conditions. Mining of our dataset for correlations in gene expression allowed us to identify additional components of the pluripotency network, including Ptma and Zfp640, illustrating its value as a resource for future discovery.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/fisiologia , RNA/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
20.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 2: 15035, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26417609

RESUMO

The current method for creation of vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors involves using a selection and purification marker, however inclusion of a gene without therapeutic value in the resulting vector is not desirable for clinical use. The Cre-LoxP system has been used to make marker-free Poxviruses, but the efficiency was very low. To obtain a marker-free VACV vector, we developed marker gene excision systems to modify the thymidine kinase (TK) region and N1L regions using Cre-Loxp and Flp-FRET systems respectively. CRISPR-Cas9 system significantly resulted in a high efficiency (~90%) in generation of marker gene-positive TK-mutant VACV vector. The marker gene (RFP) could be excised from the recombinant virus using Cre recombinase. To make a marker-free VV vector with double gene deletions targeting the TK and N1L gene, we constructed a donor repair vector targeting the N1L gene, which can carry a therapeutic gene and the marker (RFP) that could be excised from the recombinant virus using Flp recombinase. The marker-free system developed here can be used to efficiently construct VACV vectors armed with any therapeutic genes in the TK region or N1L region without marker genes. Our marker-free system platform has significant potential for development of new marker-free VACV vectors for clinical application.

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