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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033545

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Over the years, traditional medicines for stroke treatment have undergone tremendous progress, but few bibliometric studies have been performed. This study explored the trends and issues relating to the application of traditional medicine in stroke research. METHODS: A bibliometric search was performed in the Web of Science Core Collection database to identify studies that investigated the application of traditional medicine in stroke management. CiteSpace VI and Excel 2016 were used to analyze information from the retrieved studies. Activity index and attractive index were used to explore the worldwide development modes. RESULTS: A total of 1083 English articles published between 2004 and 2018 were identified. Over the last 15 years, the developments in research occurred in three geographic clusters. The development modes were investigated and classified into 4 categories. In mainland China, the number and impact of research showed an increasing trend over the study period. The United States played a leading role in this topic. Three clusters of institutes and the majority of authors mainly came from South Korea, Taiwan and mainland China. Reperfusion injury and angiogenesis were identified as the potential topics likely to dominate future research in this field. CONCLUSION: The progress of studies on traditional medicine for stroke could be explained by the global attention to traditional medicine, the geospatial proximity for research collabration, and the increasing resources invested. Based on a large amount of existing research, researchers engaged in this topic should objectively consider the influential studies to identify and solve the common issues worldwide.

2.
Int J Pharm ; : 119123, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035258

##### RESUMO

The development of small molecule anticancer drugs, with low water solubility and high toxicity, into polymeric prodrugs has developed into a promising strategy in clinical application. In this study, we synthesized a novel G3-C12-mediated esterase-sensitive tumor-targeting polymeric prodrug of camptothecin (CPT), P(OEGMA-co-CPT-co-G3-C12), and explored its anticancer activity against androgen-independent prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Compared to free CPT, the multifunctional polymeric prodrug demonstrated improved water solubility and stability, higher intracellular uptake, and enhanced cytotoxicity in DU145 cells in vitro. Furthermore, it displayed an improved accumulation in the tumor and an enhanced anticancer activity in vivo. Hence, P(OEGMA-co-CPT-co-G3-C12) could be a promising drug in the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

3.
Pharmacol Rep ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048254

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) regulates the differentiation of Th1, Th2, Th17 cells and Treg cells, which play a critical role in airway inflammation of asthma. Here we investigated the role of ACC in the pathogenesis of asthma. METHODS: Chicken Ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice were divided into three groups, PBS group, DMSO (solvent of TOFA) group and ACC inhibitor 5-tetradecyloxy-2-furoic acid (TOFA) + DMSO group. Airway inflammation was assessed with histology, percentages of CD4+T cell subsets in lung and spleen was assessed with flow cytometry, and airway responsiveness was assessed with FinePointe RC system. The expression of characteristic transcription factors of CD4+T cell subsets was evaluated with real-time PCR. Cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum was determined with ELISA. RESULTS: In asthma mice, the expression of ACC increased, while the expression of phosphorylated ACC (pACC) decreased. TOFA had no significant effect on pACC expression. TOFA reduced serum IgE, airway inflammatory cells infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia, but dramatically increased airway responsiveness. TOFA significantly reduced the percentages of Th1, Th2, Th17 cells in lung and spleen, the expression of GATA3 and RORÎ³t in lung, and IFN-Î³, IL-4, IL-17A levels in BALF and serum. TOFA had no significant effect on the percentage of Treg cells, IL-10 level and the expression of T-bet and Foxp3. CONCLUSION: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA might have a distinct effect on asthmatic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 5, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063228

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internal migration places individuals at high risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB). However, there is a scarcity of national-level spatial analyses regarding the association between TB and internal migration in China. In our research, we aimed to explore the spatial variation in cases of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS + PTB) in China; and the associations between SS + PTB, internal migration, socioeconomic factors, and demographic factors in the country between 2005 and 2015. METHODS: Reported cases of SS + PTB were obtained from the national PTB surveillance system database; cases were obtained at the provincial level. Internal migration data were extracted from the national population sampling survey and the census. Spatial autocorrelations were explored using the global Moran's statistic and local indicators of spatial association. The spatial temporal analysis was performed using Kulldorff's scan statistic. Fixed effects regression was used to explore the association between SS + PTB and internal migration. RESULTS: A total of 4 708 563 SS + PTB cases were reported in China between 2005 and 2015, of which 3 376 011 (71.7%) were male and 1 332 552 (28.3%) were female. There was a trend towards decreasing rates of SS + PTB notifications between 2005 and 2015. The result of global spatial autocorrelation indicated that there were significant spatial correlations between SS + PTB rate and internal migration each year (2005-2015). Spatial clustering of SS + PTB cases was mainly located in central and southern China and overlapped with the clusters of emigration. The proportions of emigrants and immigrants were significantly associated with SS + PTB. Per capita GDP and education level were negatively associated with SS + PTB. The internal migration flow maps indicated that migrants preferred neighboring provinces, with most migrating for work or business. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a significant spatial autocorrelation between SS + PTB and internal migration. Both emigration and immigration were statistically associated with SS + PTB, and the association with emigration was stronger than that for immigration. Further, we found that SS + PTB clusters overlapped with emigration clusters, and the internal migration flow maps suggested that migrants from SS + PTB clusters may influence the TB epidemic characteristics of neighboring provinces. These findings can help stakeholders to implement effective PTB control strategies for areas at high risk of PTB and those with high rates of internal migrants.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968405

##### RESUMO

Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been extensively gained popularity in pancreatic cancer gene therapy. LyP-1, a peptide, has been proved to specifically bind pancreatic cancer cells. The potential therapeutic effect of LyP-1-conjugated functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in treating pancreatic cancer is still unknown. In this study, LyP-1-conjugated functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized, characterized and showed satisfactory size distribution and zeta potential. Compared with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, cellular uptake of LyP-1-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes was shown to be increased. Compound of LyP-1-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and MBD1siRNA showed superior gene transfection efficiency. Moreover, LyP-1-fMWNTs/MBD1siRNA complex could significantly decrease the viability and proliferation and promoted apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Further xenograft assays revealed that the tumour burden in the nude mice injected with LyP-1-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/MBD1siRNA was significantly relieved. The study demonstrated that LyP-1-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/MBD1siRNA could be a promising candidate for tumour active targeting therapy in pancreatic cancer.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982998

##### RESUMO

Innovative paramagnetic one-dimensional (1-D) core-shell Fe-Ag@AgCl visible light-driven photocatalysts are synthesized through a template-assisted electrodeposition method trailed by FeCl3 in-situ oxidation. The metallic nature of Fe-Ag@AgCl is confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystal nature through X-ray diffraction (XRD). The controllable diameter of Fe-Ag is obtained through the selection of hollow size of the polycarbonate (PC) template. Electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirms through the introduction of Fe to the Ag core that has prolonged the recombination of electron and hole. Escherichia coli (E. coli) are employed as the target bacteria to evaluate the photocatalytic disinfection performances. A total of 1.30 mg of Fe-Ag@AgCl is proved to be able to completely inactivate 107 CFU (colony forming units)/mL after 120 min of visible light irradiation. The transition electron microscopy (TEM) confirms the stability of the material after the photo reaction. As Fe-Ag@AgCl possesses magnetic properties, the material is recovered through the application of an external magnetic field. SEM images and results of 3D emission extraction matrix (EEM) depict that the bacteria cell death is caused by membrane permeability changes caused by the reduction of membrane associated proteins.

7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 8, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910873
8.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 108: 110403, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923941

##### RESUMO

Drug resistance is a major hindrance in the anticancer treatment, which encourages the development of effective therapeutic strategies. For the first time, MDM2-mediated p53 degradation was identified as a critical factor for developing acquired resistance of doxorubicin (DOX) in HepG2 tumor spheroids, which could be effectively reversed by MDM2 inhibitor MI-773, thereby improving anticancer effects. Therefore, a pH-sensitive liposomal formulation of DOX and MI-773 (LipD/M@CMCS) were developed for recovering p53-mediated DOX resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma. LipD/M@CMCS were composed of cationic liposomes covered with carboxymethyl chitosan (pIâ¯=â¯6.8), and were stable in the physiological condition (pHâ¯7.4), but rapidly converted to cationic liposomes in tumor acidic microenvironment (pHâ¯6.5), endowing them with tumor specificity and enhanced cellular uptake. We showed that LipD/M@CMCS could not only effectively induce cell apoptosis in HepG2 tumor spheroids, but significantly inhibit tumor growth with minimal adverse effects. In summary, selective regulation of MDM2 in cancer cells is a promising strategy to overcome DOX resistance, and may provide a perspective on the management of malignant tumors.

9.
Clin Exp Med ; 20(1): 97-108, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894424

##### RESUMO

Several meta-analyses have evaluated the value of biomarkers in diagnosing breast cancer, but which biomarker has the optimal diagnostic value remains unclear. This overview aimed to compare the accuracy of different biomarkers in diagnosing breast cancer. PubMed, Embase.com, the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science were searched. The assessment of multiple systematic reviews-2 (AMSTAR-2) was used to assess the methodological quality and preferred reporting items for a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy (PRISMA-DTA) for reporting quality. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed to estimate the pooled results for each biomarker, and indirect comparisons were conducted to compare diagnostic accuracy between biomarkers. Eleven systematic reviews (SRs) involving 218 original studies were included. All SRs were of critically low methodological quality, 3 SRs had minimal reporting flaws and 8 SRs had minor flaws. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.77 and 0.87 for miRNA, 0.70 and 0.87 for circulating cell-free DNA, 0.29 and 0.96 for APC gene promoter methylation, 0.69 and 0.99 for 14-3-3σ promoter methylation, 0.63 and 0.82 for CA153, 0.58 and 0.87 for CEA, and 0.73 and 0.56 for PSA. Compared with CA153 and PSA, miRNA had a higher sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity of miRNA was higher than circulating cell-free DNA and CEA, although they had the same specificities. APC gene promoter methylation and 14-3-3σ promoter methylation were more specific than miRNA, but they had unacceptably low sensitivity. In conclusion, miRNA had better diagnostic accuracy than the other six biomarkers. But due to the low quality of included SRs, the results need to be interpreted with caution. Further study should investigate the diagnostic accuracy of different biomarkers in direct comparisons and focus on the value of combined biomarkers.

10.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947824

##### RESUMO

Herein, we design and synthesize an array of benzofuro[3,2-c]quinolines starting from 3-(2-methoxyphenyl)quinolin-4(1H)ones via a sequential chlorination/demethylation, intramolecular cyclization pathway. This sequential transformation was efficient, conducted under metal-free and mild reaction conditions, and yielded corresponding benzofuro[3,2-c]quinolines in high yields. In vitro biological evaluation indicated that such type of compounds showed excellent antileukemia activity and selectivity, and therefore may offer a promising hit compound for developing antileukemia compounds.

11.
Gene ; 728: 144279, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821871

##### RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is the most common form of primary glomerular disease. Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granules have been proposed as a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treatment of CGN, however,the comprehensive molecular mechanism underlying this therapeutic effectremains unclear to date. Our study aimed to evaluate and analyze the possible roles and molecular mechanisms of Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granule-mediated treatment of CGN induced by adriamycin in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA-sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to identify specifically expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in glomerular tissues of rats from the control group, adriamycin-induced group, and Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granules group (n = 3). Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs (messengerRNAs) were screened out among the 3 groups. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed to analyze the biological functions and pathways for mRNAs. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression network was constructed to analyse for the genes. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized. RESULTS: A total of 473 significantly up and down-regulated lncRNAs, 753 up and down-regulated mRNAs were identified. Additionally, it is worth noting that TOP2a (topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha), with the highest connectivity degree in PPI network, was enriched in variouskinds of pathways. Coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks (CNC network) were drawn based on the correlation analysis between lncRNAs and mRNAs. Ten lncRNAs, NONRATT009275.2, NONRATT025409.2, NONRATT025419.2, MSTRG.7681.1, ENSRNOT00000084373, NONRATT000512.2, NONRATT006734.2, ENSRNOT00000084386, NONRATT021738.2, ENSRNOT00000084080, were selected to analyse the relationship between LncRNAs and Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granules via the CNC network (Coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks) and GO analysis. Real-time PCR results confirmed that the six lncRNAs were specifically expressed in the Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granules rats. CONCLUSIONS: The ten lncRNAs might play important roles in the Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granules treatment of CGN. Key genes, such as Ptprc (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C), TOP2a, Fos (FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene), Myc (myelocytomatosis oncogene), etc, may be crucial biomarkers for Qi Teng Xiao Zhuo granules.

##### Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomerulonefrite/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Doença Crônica , Glomerulonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 134409, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806310

##### RESUMO

13.
Glycobiology ; 30(2): 86-94, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616921

##### RESUMO

Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis) is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium that causes otitis media and sinusitis in children. Three major serotypes A, B and C are identified to account for approximately 95% of the clinical isolates. Understanding the conformational properties of different serotypes of M. catarrhalis provides insights into antigenic determinants. In this work, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were conducted for M. catarrhalis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) bilayer systems and oligosaccharides (OS) in water solution to investigate the conformational similarities and differences of three serotypes. For up to 10 neutral monosaccharides in the core part, the conformational ensembles described by the pair-wise root mean square deviation distributions are similar among the three serotypes of either the LOS or OS. At the central ß-($1\to4$)-linkage, anti-$\psi$ conformation in conjunction with the gauche-gauche (g-) conformation of the central trisubstituted glucosyl residue is observed as the dominant conformation to sustain the structural characteristics of M. catarrhalis three types, which is further supported by calculated transglycosidic ${}^3{J}_{C,H}\Big({\psi}_H\Big)$ of serotype A in comparison to experimental data. Interestingly, the conformational variability of three serotypes is more restricted for the OS in water solution than that in the LOS bilayer systems. The LOS-LOS interactions in the bilayer systems are responsible for the increased conformational diversity despite of tight packing. Solvent-accessible surface area analysis suggests that a trisaccharide attached to the ß-($1\to 6$)-linked sugar in all three serotypes of LOS could be the common epitope and have the possibility to interact with antibodies.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121352, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629593

##### RESUMO

Antimony (Sb), as an emerging pollutant, has aroused people's concerns for its wide usage in industrial production. In this study, we identify and quantify the traffic-derived Sb and investigate its mobility in roadside soils affected by traffic and industrial activities. 73 surface roadside soils and 5 transects in three areas nearby different industries (smelting, power and refining, and waste incineration) were collected and analyzed. Results showed that the Sb concentration ranged between 0.54 and 9.32â¯mg/kg, and the mean EFs value was 4.63, which indicated moderate to significant Sb enrichment. Significantly high concentrations of Sb occurred at locations with heavy traffic and frequent braking process, with an average concentration of 4.13â¯mg/kg, compared to the control sites (2.01â¯mg/kg). Moreover, Sb diffused exponentially with increasing distance from road edges. These results suggested that traffic activities were the main source of Sb in roadside soils. According to the quantitative calculation, the average contributions from traffic, industrial activities and soil parent material to Sb accumulation in roadside soils were 50.73%, 21.38% and 27.88%, respectively. Even though Sb was slightly mobile, roadside soils was a persistent source of potentially mobile Sb which may release into water and cause long-term environmental risk.

15.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(1): 167-172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604061

##### RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid in decreasing acute skin toxicity after adjuvant interstitial brachytherapy in parotid gland cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically proven parotid gland cancer who would be treated with adjuvant interstitial brachytherapy were included in this nonrandomized controlled trial. Participants were nonrandomly divided into the experimental group and control group. Participants in the experimental group received an injection of hyaluronic acid subcutaneously immediately after interstitial brachytherapy during the operation. Acute toxicity was evaluated in the first 2 months. RESULTS: Thirty consecutive participants were included from April to September 2018. Twenty participants were in the experimental group, and 10 were in the control group. The median volume of hyaluronic acid was 8 mL (range, 4 to 11 mL). In total, the incidence of acute skin toxicity was 40% (8 of 20 patients) and 100% (10 of 10 patients) in the experimental group and control group, respectively. The difference in the dose delivered to 90% of the target volume of the affected skin was significant between the pre-plan (mean, 36.93 Gy) and the actuarial quality verification (mean, 27.70 Gy) in the experimental group (P = .004). The difference in scoring of acute skin toxicity was significant between the experimental and control groups (P = .001). No clear correlation was found between the dose delivered to 90% of the target volume of the affected skin and the scoring of acute skin toxicity (P = .266). CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid was safe and efficient in decreasing acute skin toxicity after adjuvant interstitial brachytherapy in parotid gland cancer patients according to the preliminary results.

16.
Clin Rehabil ; 34(2): 160-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505954

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hip abductor strength-based exercise therapy could result in further function improvement and more pain relief in women with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTINGS: Rehabilitation department of Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University from years 2016 to 2018. SUBJECTS: In total, 82 women aged 50-70 years, with knee osteoarthritis grade II-IV on the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. INTERVENTION: The experimental group engaged in hip abductor strength-based exercises under the supervision of physical therapists (once a day for six weeks), while the control group engaged in quadriceps femoris strength-based exercises. MAIN MEASURES: Osteoarthritis severity measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, pain on a visual analogue scale and three objective functional tests were assessed at the sixth and 12th week. Repeated measures analysis of variance and multivariable analysis were applied. RESULTS: Finally, 72 participants completed the study: 35 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group. The self-reported functional difficulties score in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group both at the sixth week and at the 12th week (P < 0.001). There were significant differences between groups in the stair ascent/descent task and Figure of 8 Walk test, but not in the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test. The pain in the experimental group decreased compared with that in the control group at the sixth week (P < 0.05), but not at the 12th week (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hip abductor strength-based exercises could result in better performance and higher self-reported function in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

17.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(2): 455-464.e8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344385

##### RESUMO

Re-epithelialization is a complex process during skin wound healing, and cell migration is an integral part of this phenomenon. Here we identified a role for LRG1 as a key regulator of epidermal keratinocyte migration where LRG1 acts via enhancement of HIF-1α stability. We showed that LRG1 is upregulated at murine skin wound edges and that addition of recombinant human LRG1 accelerates keratinocyte migration and skin wound healing. Furthermore, we identified transcription factor ELK3 as a downstream effector of LRG1. We confirmed that elevated ELK3 levels manipulated by LRG1 can promote cell migration through upregulation of HIF-1α stability. Because hyperglycemia complicatedly affects HIF-1α stability and activation, our findings provide insights into the molecular controls of wound-associated cell migration and identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic diabetic wounds. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LRG1 promotes wound repair through keratinocyte migration and is important for normalization of an abnormal process of diabetic wound healing where HIF-1α stability is insufficient.

18.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790315

##### RESUMO

It has been revealed that gestational weight gain (GWG) influences the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring, but the findings are inconsistent. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between GWG and risk of ASD in offspring. Four electronic databases were searched up to August 28 2018 to identify observational studies reporting the association between GWG and risk of ASD in the offspring. Nine studies which met the inclusion criteria were included in the systematic review. Finally, five studies with a total of 3793 children with ASD were included in the meta-analysis. The-results indicated that excessive GWG might increase the risk of ASD in offspring (p = .0008, OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.38). More high quality cohort studies are needed to confirm this result. This research has the potential to inspire new research on ASD and promote efforts to design appropriate interventions against excessive GWG.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? It has been revealed that gestational weight gain (GWG) influences the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring, but the findings are inconsistent.What the results of this study add? This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between GWG and ASDs in offspring. This study suggested that excessive GWG was associated with higher risk of ASD in offspring.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? More high quality cohort studies are needed to confirm this result. This research has the potential to inspire new research on ASD and promote efforts to design appropriate interventions against excessive GWG.

19.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797259

##### RESUMO

Where and what we attend to is not only determined by our current goals but also by what we have encountered in the past. Recent studies have shown that people learn to extract statistical regularities in the environment resulting in attentional suppression of high-probability distractor locations, effectively reducing capture by a distractor. Here, we asked whether this statistical learning is dependent on working memory resources. The additional singleton task in which one location was more likely to contain a distractor was combined with a concurrent visual working memory task (Experiment 1) and a spatial working memory task (Experiment 2). The result showed that learning to suppress this high-probability location was not at all affected by working memory load. We conclude that learning to suppress a location is an implicit and automatic process that does not rely on visual or spatial working memory capacity, nor on executive control resources. We speculate that extracting regularities from the environment likely relies on long-term memory processes.

20.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 249, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796106

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation can induce cognitive dysfunction in patients who undergo surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated that both acute peripheral inflammation and anaesthetic insults, especially isoflurane (ISO), are risk factors for memory impairment. Few studies are currently investigating the role of ISO under acute peri-inflammatory conditions, and it is difficult to predict whether ISO can aggravate inflammation-induced cognitive deficits. HDACs, which are essential for learning, participate in the deacetylation of lysine residues and the regulation of gene transcription. However, the cell-specific mechanism of HDACs in inflammation-induced cognitive impairment remains unknown. METHODS: Three-month-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with single versus combined exposure to LPS injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to simulate acute abdominal inflammation and isoflurane to investigate the role of anaesthesia and acute peripheral inflammation in cognitive impairment. Behavioural tests, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and ChIP assays were performed to detect memory, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, HDAC2, BDNF, c-Fos, acetyl-H3, microglial activity, Bdnf mRNA, c-fos mRNA, and Bdnf and c-fos transcription in the hippocampus. RESULTS: LPS, but not isoflurane, induced neuroinflammation-induced memory impairment and reduced histone acetylation by upregulating histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in dorsal hippocampal CaMKII+ neurons. The hyperexpression of HDAC2 in neurons was mediated by the activation of microglia. The decreased level of histone acetylation suppressed the transcription of Bdnf and c-fos and the expressions of BDNF and c-Fos, which subsequently impaired memory. The adeno-associated virus ShHdac2, which suppresses Hdac2 after injection into the dorsal hippocampus, reversed microglial activation, hippocampal glutamatergic BDNF and c-Fos expressions, and memory deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Reversing HDAC2 in hippocampal CaMKII+ neurons exert a neuroprotective effect against neuroinflammation-induced memory deficits.