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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124937, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574441

RESUMO

Nowadays, silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as one of the most productive nano-powder, has been extensively applied in various filed. The potential harm of SiNPs has previously received severe attention. A bulk of researches have proven the adverse effect of SiNPs on the health of ecological organisms and human. However, neurotoxic impacts of SiNPs, still remain in the stage of exploration. The potential neurotoxic effects of SiNPs need to be further explored. And the toxic mechanism needs comprehensive clarification. Herein, the neurotoxicity of SiNPs of various concentrations (100, 300, 1000 µg/mL) on adult zebrafish was determined by behavioral phenotyping and confirmed by molecular biology techniques such as qPCR. Behavioral phenotype revealed observable effects of SiNPs on disturbing light/dark preference, dampening exploratory behavior, inhibiting memory capability. Furthermore, the relationship between neurotoxic symptom and the transcriptional alteration of autophagy- and parkinsonism-related genes was preliminarily assessed. Importantly, further investigations should be carried out to determine the effects of SiNPs to cause neurodegeneration in the brain as well as to decipher the specific neurotoxic mechanisms. In sum, this work comprehensively evaluated the neurotoxic effect of small-sized SiNPs on overall neurobehavioral profiles and indicated the potential for SiNPs to cause Parkinson's disease, which will provide a solid reference for the research on the neurotoxicity of SiNPs.

2.
Talanta ; 207: 120283, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594573

RESUMO

A flame photometric detector with a silicon photodiode assembly instead of a photomultiplier tube for sulfur detection was developed and evaluated. The photosensitive area of photodiode, the optical design, and band-pass filters, were optimized. It was found that the optimal photosensitive area of the photodiode was 100 (mm)2, and three focus lenses combined with a broad band-pass filter of 378/52 nm and a QB21 glass yielded the best result. This design fully utilized the wide emission spectrum of S2*, the response characteristics of silicon photodiode, and effective absorption of strong emission spectrums of OH* at wavelength around 310 nm by QB21 glass. The limits of detection for nine kinds of sulfur containing compounds were between 5.8 × 10-12 to 9.5 × 10-12 g s-1. This mode provided a linear response of 3 orders of magnitude for compounds being tested and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of 105. It is demonstrated for the first time that the overall performance of the flame photometric detector integrated with a silicon photodiode assembly work at room temperature was comparable to a conventional detector coupled with a photomultiplier tube, with advantages of short equilibration time, robust to electromagnetic interference and vibration, and low cost. The new detector can find wide application in gas chromatography and on-line monitoring instruments for sulfur measurement.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110251, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753346

RESUMO

In this work, a versatile folic acid (FA) decorated reductive-responsive ε-poly-l-Lysine (ε-PL)-based microcapsules (FA-ε-PLMCs) were designed and facilely assembled by using sonochemical technique. Cellular uptake experiment of FA-ε-PLMCs loaded with Coumarin 6 (C6) as a model of hydrophobic drugs implied that hydrophobic drugs encapsulated inside FA-ε-PLMCs could be delivered selectively into Hela cells via folate-receptor (FR)-mediated endocytosis due to FA decorated on microcapsules. Furthermore, the shells of FA-ε-PLMCs cross-linked by disulfide bonds were derived from sulfhydryl groups (-SH) under ultrasonication. Under reductive environment, the hydrophobic drugs loaded in FA-ε-PLMCs would be easily released due to the cleavage of disulfide bonds. Benefiting from their suitable particle size, good loading capacity for hydrophobic drugs, remarkable targetability and reductive-triggered release, the obtained FA-ε-PLMCs could be a promising hydrophobic drugs carrier for the cancer treatment.

4.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 609-620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353638

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) take part in a variety of biological processes by regulating target genes. Transforming growth factor ß receptor 1 (TGFBR1) and TGFBR2 are crucial members of the TGF-ß family and are serine/threonine kinase receptors. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of ssc-miR-204 in porcine preadipocyte differentiation and apoptosis with regard to the TGFß/Smad pathway. We identified miRNAs predicted to target TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 using a database and selected ssc-miR-204 as a candidate miRNA. ssc-miR-204 overexpression dramatically reduced the levels of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2. However, after transfection with ssc-miR-204 inhibitor, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 levels were dramatically increased. ssc-miR-204 overexpression dramatically promoted porcine preadipocyte differentiation and apoptosis. After transfection with ssc-miR-204 inhibitor, porcine preadipocyte differentiation and apoptosis were dramatically inhibited. After transfection with ssc-miR-204 mimics, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, p-Smad2, and p-Smad3 protein levels significantly decreased, and adipogenesis was regulated by inhibiting the TGF-ß/Smad3 signaling pathway. Taken together, these results verified that ssc-miR-204 regulates porcine preadipocyte differentiation and apoptosis by targeting TGFBR1 and TGFBR2.

5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124650, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472347

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) has become a major problem in maintaining the environment and human health due to its wide application in the production of agriculture and industry. Many studies indicate that As can affect spermatogenesis process and lower sperm quality. However, the undergoing molecular mechanism is unclear. For this, forty-eight 8-week old adult male mice were divided into four groups of twelve each, which were administrated to 0, 0.2, 2, 20 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water respectively for six months. The results showed that As treatment reduced sperm counts and increased the sperm malformation ratio of mice. Interestingly, both the amounts of round and elongated spermatids, and the ratios of spermatids elongation were decreased significantly by As exposure. Furthermore, the structure of Chromatoid Body (CB) which presents a typical nebulous shape in round spermatids after spermatogenesis arrested, and the mRNA expression levels of gene TDRD1, TDRD6 and TDRD7 related to CB were changed by arsenic. Again, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the markers DDX25 and CRM1 in haploid periods of spermatogenesis and the associated proteins HMG2, PGK2, and H4 with DDX25 regulation were declined significantly with As treatment. Taken together; it reveals that As interferes with spermatogenesis by disorganizing the elongation of spermatids. H4, HMG2 and PGK2 are regulated by DDX25 which interacts with CRM1 and may play a vital role in spermatogenesis disorder induced by As exposure, which maybe provides one of the underlying mechanisms for As-induced male reproductive toxicity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on cerebral oxygen saturation [Sct(O2)] and postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: Sixty elderly patients who received minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly equally divided into dexmedetomidine group (group D) and control group (group N). The patients in group D were pumped with 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine for 15 min before incision, followed by continuous pumping at 0.3-0.5 µg/(kg·h) till the end of the operation. The patients in group N received same dose of normal saline during the operation. Sct(O2) was monitored at pre-induction (T0), post-induction (T1), 30 min (T2) after single-lung ventilation, and after surgery (T3). Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was used to assess the cognitive function at 1 day before, 72 hour and 7 days after surgery. RESULTS: Sct(O2) level in group D was significantly higher than that in group N at T2 (P < 0.05). Sct(O2) level was statistically lower at T2 than that at T0, T1 and T3 in the same group N (P < 0.05). At 72 h and 7d after operation, the incidence of cognitive dysfunction in group D was markedly lower than that in group N (P < 0.05), the MMSE score in group D was markedly higher than those in group N, but was significantly lower than that before surgery (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine can alleviate the decrease of Sct(O2) during single-lung ventilation, improve postoperative cognitive function, and reduce the incidence of POCD in elderly patients with minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery.

7.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 29949-29961, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684250

RESUMO

Atomically thin layer transition metal dichalcogenides have been intensively investigated for their rich optical properties and potential applications on nano-electronics. In this work, we study the incoherent phonon and exciton population dynamics in monolayer WS2 by time-resolved Resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy. Upon excitation of the exciton transition, both Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering strength of the optical and the longitudinal acoustic two phonon modes exhibit large reduction. Based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium distribution, the hidden phonon population dynamics is retrieved, which shows an instant build-up and a relaxation lifetime of ∼4 ps at the exciton density ∼1012cm-2. A phonon temperature rises of ∼20 K was identified due to the exciton excitation and relaxation. The exciton relaxation dynamics extracted from the transient vibrational Raman response shows strong excitation density dependence, signaling an important bi-molecular contribution to the decay. These results provide significant knowledge on the thermal dynamics after optical excitation, enhance the understanding of the fundamental exciton dynamics in two-dimensional transition metal materials, and demonstrate that time-resolved Resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy is a powerful method for exploring quasi-particle dynamics in optical materials.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679333

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia is associated with an elevated risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the available cholesterol-lowering drugs, nutritionally balanced diets containing functional foods have attracted much interest as potential candidates to improve hypercholesterolemia. In the study, we demonstrated that dietary succinoglycan riclin effectively alleviated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Compared with the high-cholesterol-diet (HCD) group, the high-riclin group significantly decreased levels of the serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and hepatic cholesterol (34, 40, and 51%, respectively), consequently improving hepatic steatosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokine expressions. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based lipidomics and metabolomics analyses revealed that the riclin group partially reversed metabolic profile changes induced by the HCD, approaching that of the normal diet (ND) group. Riclin has no direct effects on cholesterol metabolism-related gene expression among the three HCD model groups. Basically, riclin increased the solution viscosity and interfered in the process of bile acid-cholesterol emulsification, decreasing cholesterol digestion and promoting cholesterol and bile acid excretion in the feces. These results suggested potential therapeutic utility of succinoglycan riclin as a food additive for people suffering from hypercholesterolemia and related diseases.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689880

RESUMO

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX, characterized by liver enlargement and elevated aminotransferase levels, is the most frequent type of GSD. The global incidence of GSD type IXa is only about 1/100,000 individuals. Case reports of GSD type IX are rare in China. We present the first case report of GSD type IXa in Northeast China caused by mutation of PHKA2.An 11-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of liver enlargement with consistently elevated transaminase levels over 6 months.Histopathological results following an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of GSD. Further genetic testing showed that the patient had GSD type IXa caused by the c.133C>T mutation in PHAK2.We placed the patient on a high-protein and high-starch diet and provided hepatoprotective and supportive therapy.The patient's transaminase levels decreased significantly and were nearly normal at 10-month follow-up.This is the first reported case of GSD type IXa in Northeast China. We hope that the detailed and complete report of this case will provide a reference for the diagnosis of liver enlargement of unknown etiology in future clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação Puntual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
10.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6231-6241, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698559

RESUMO

RNA modification plays an indispensable role in the regulation of organisms. RNA modification site prediction offers an insight into diverse cellular processing. Regarding different types of RNA modification site prediction, it is difficult to tell the most relevant feature combinations from a variant of RNA properties. Thereby, the performance of traditional machine learning based predictors relied on the skill of feature engineering. As a data-driven approach, deep learning can detect optimal feature patterns to represent input data. In this study, we developed a predictor for multiple types of RNA modifications method called DeepMRMP (Multiple Types RNA Modification Sites Predictor), which is based on the bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (BGRU) and transfer learning. DeepMRMP makes full use of multiple RNA site modification data and correlation among them to build predictor for different types of RNA modification sites. Through 10-fold cross-validation of the RNA sequences of H. sapiens, M. musculus and S. cerevisiae, DeepMRMP acted as a reliable computational tool for identifying N1-methyladenosine (m1A), pseudouridine (Ψ), 5-methylcytosine (m5C) modification sites.

11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676393

RESUMO

The health benefits of lipoic acid (LA) are generally attributed to mitigating the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are chemically similar to reactive sulfur species (RSS) and signal through identical mechanisms. Here we examined the effects of LA on RSS in HEK293 cells using H2S and polysulfide (PS) specific fluorophores, AzMC and SSP4. We show that LA concentration-dependently increased both H2S and PS. Physioxia (5% O2) augmented the effects of LA on H2S production but decreased PS production. Thiosulfate, a known substrate for reduced LA, and an intermediate in the catabolism of H2S enhanced the effects of LA on H2S and PS production. Inhibiting peroxiredoxins with conoidin A and gluraredoxins with tiopronin augmented the effects of LA on PS and H2S, respectively while decreasing glutathione with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM) decreased the stimulatory effect of LA on H2S production but augmented LA's effect on PS. Aminooxyacetate (AOA) and propargylglycine (PPG), inhibitors of H2S production from cysteine partially inhibited LA augmentation of H2S production and further decreased the LA effect when applied concurrently with BSO and DEM. The selective and cell-permeable H2S scavenger, SS20, inhibited the effects of LA on cellular H2S. Estimates of single-cell H2S production suggest that 0.1-0.2% of O2 consumption is used to metabolize H2S and these requirements may increase to 1-2% with 1 mM LA. Collectively, these results suggest that LA rescues H2S from irreversible oxidation and that the effects of LA on RSS directly confer antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective responses. They also suggest that TS may be an effective supplement to increase the efficacy of LA in clinical settings.

12.
Environ Pollut ; : 113438, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672359

RESUMO

It is very important to explore the potential harm and underlying mechanism of fluoride due to the extensive distribution and the significant health risks of fluoride in environment. The objective of this study to investigate whether fluoride can induce mitochondrial impairment and mitophagy in testicular cells. For this, 40 male mice were randomly divided into four groups treated with 0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mM NaF deionized water, respectively, for 90 days continuously. The results showed that mitophagy was triggered by F in testicular tissues, especially in the Leydig cells by transmission electron microscopy and mitophagy receptor PHB2 locations by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, TM3 Leydig cells line was employed and treated with 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mM NaF for 24 h. The mitochondrial function indicators and mitophagy maker PHB2, COX IV and regulator PINK1 in transcript and protein levels in Leydig cells were examined by the methods of qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence co-localization. The results showed that fluoride decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential with a concomitant increase in the number of lysosomes. Meanwhile, fluoride exposure also increased the expressions of PINK1 and PHB2 in TM3 Leydig cells. These results revealed that fluoride could induce mitochondrial impairment and excessive PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in testicular cells, especially in Leydig cells, which could contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms of F-induced male reproductive toxicity.

13.
Exp Cell Res ; : 111742, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759056

RESUMO

Protein kinase D (PKD) plays an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload. However, the mechanism involved is unclear. This study, using primary cardiomyocyte culture, PKD knockdown and overexpression, and other molecular techniques, tested our hypothesis that PKD pathway mediates cardiac hypertrophy by negatively regulating autophagy in cardiomyocyte. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated from Wistar rats and cell hypertrophy was induced by norepinephrine treatment (PE, 10-4 mol/L), and divided into the following groups: (1) Vehicle; (2) PE; (3) PE + control siRNA; (4) PE + Rapamycin (100 nM); (5) PE + PKD-siRNA (2 × 108 U/0.1 ml); (6) PE + PKD siRNA + 3 MA (10 mM). The results showed that PE treatment induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which were confirmed by cell size and biomarkers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy including increased ANP and BNP mRNA. PKD knockdown or Rapamycin significantly inhibited PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In addition, PKD siRNA increased autophagy activity determined by electron microscopy, increased biomarkers of autophagy by Western blot, accompanied by down-regulated AKT/mTOR/S6K pathway. All the effects of PKD knockout were inhibited by co-treatment with 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor. Oppositely, the autophagy in cardiomyocytes was inhibited by PKD overexpression. These results suggest that PKD participates in the development of cardiac hypertrophy by regulating autophagy via AKT/mTOR/S6K pathway.

14.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 184: 105106, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The process of nanoparticles (NPs) entering blood circulation to actively target tumor cells involves four stages-the transport of NPs in blood vessels, transvascular transport of NPs, transport of NPs in the tumor interstitial matrix and entry of NPs into tumor cells. These four stages are a complex process involving mechanical, physical, biochemical, and biophysical factors, the tumor microenvironment (TME) and properties of NPs play important roles in this process. Because this process involves a large number of factors and is very complex, it is difficult to study with conventional methods. METHODS: Using mathematical models for simulation is suitable for addressing this complex situation and can describe the complexity well. RESULTS: This work focuses on the theoretical simulation of NPs that target tumor cells to illustrate the effects of the abnormal microenvironment of tumors and properties of NPs on the transport process. Mathematical models constructed by different methods are enumerated. Through studying these mathematical models, different methods to overcome nanoparticle (NP) transport obstacles are illustrated. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to construct a theoretical model of active targeting nanodrug delivery under the coupling of micro-flow field and specific binding force field, and to simulate and analyze the delivery process at mesoscopic scale using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, so as to reveal the law and characteristics of drug delivery and cell uptake in the micro-environment of tumors in vivo. The methods and techniques discussed can serve as the basis for systematic studies of active targeting of functional nanoparticles to tumor cells.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) DLGAP1 antisense RNA 1 (DLGAP1-AS1) on vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in rat models of acute lower limb ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: Differentially expressed lncRNAs related to I/R were screened using the gene expression omnibus database. Acute lower limb I/R models were induced in male Wistar rats, in which the regulatory mechanisms of DLGAP1-AS1 silencing were analysed after the treatment of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against DLGAP1-AS1 or an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The relationship between DLGAP1-AS1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway was analysed. The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and creatine kinase (CK) activity, were measured. The number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and apoptosis of VECs were identified. RESULTS: Microarray based analysis indicated that DLGAP1-AS1 was highly expressed in I/R, which was further confirmed by detection of expression in rat models of acute lower limb I/R. Notably, the treatment of siRNA against DLGAP1-AS1 led to the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In response to siRNA against DLGAP1-AS1, the levels of TNF-α and VCAM-1 were decreased, and MDA concentration and CK activity was downregulated. Reduced CEC numbers and suppressed VEC apoptosis were also observed. CONCLUSION: DLGAP1-AS1 silencing could further suppress the oxidative stress, exert an anti-apoptosis effect, and reduce inflammatory reaction, whereby VEC injury is alleviated by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats with acute lower limb I/R.

16.
Int J Mol Med ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746376

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer has a high rate of recurrence, with M2 macrophages having been found to be involved in its progression and metastasis. To examine the relationship between macrophages and ovarian cancer in the present study, M0 macrophages were stimulated with apoptotic SKOV3 cells and it was found that these macrophages promoted tumor proliferation and migration. Subsequently, the mRNAs and proteins expressed at high levels in these M2 macrophages were examined by RNA­Seq and quantitative proteomics, respectively, which revealed that M0 macrophages stimulated by apoptotic SKOV3 cells also expressed M2 markers, including CD206, interleukin­10, C­C motif chemokine ligand 22, aminopeptidase­N, disabled homolog 2, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 5'­nucleotidase. The abundance of phosphorylated Erk1/2 in these macrophages was increased. The results indicate that apoptotic SKOV3 cells stimulate M0 macrophages to differentiate into M2 macrophages by activating the ERK pathway. These results suggest possible treatments for patients with ovarian cancer who undergo chemotherapy; inhibiting M2 macrophage differentiation during chemotherapy may reduce the rate of tumor recurrence.

17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 172801, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738935

RESUMO

Ginseng has been traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM) in China. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major active ingredient in processed ginseng, which elicits proven biological and pharmacological effects. Although a correlation between nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been identified, the mechanism underlying the potential function and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in DM have not been elucidated to date. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanism of Rg1 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM in mice through short or long-term observation. Concurrently, we intended to explore the relationships between inflammasome, pyroptosis and oxidative stress and the role of NLRP3 and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in the development and progression of DM. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis, we found that Rg1 attenuated abnormally elevated blood glucose, reduced inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-18 in the blood, decreased ALT and AST levels, promoted insulin secretion, and weakened the function of NLRP3 in mouse liver and pancreas. In addition, Rg1 protected against STZ-induced reactive oxygen species-mediated inflammation by upregulating Nrf2/ARE pathway, which further activated antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, Rg1 also regulated H3K9 methylation in liver and pancreas, as detected by immunohistochemistry. In summary, these data provide new understanding about the mechanism of Rg1 action, suggesting that it is a potential drug applied for preventing the occurrence and development of T1DM.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2430, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681314

RESUMO

Background: Previously, we have found that blockade of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway could enhance CD4+ T cells-mediated protective immunity in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). However, the mechanism of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway involved in negative regulation of anti-TB immunity has been still unclear. Recently, the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection demonstrated that PD-1 could induce the expression of basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor (BATF) to inhibit CD8+ T cell function. While the mechanism of immune regulation of BATF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection has not yet been elucidated. Methods: We enrolled 104 participants including ATB patients (n = 66), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) (n = 16) and healthy control (HC) (n = 22). The expressions of BATF in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from enrolled subjects were determined using flow cytometry. Intervention with PD-1/PD-Ls pathway was performed by using blocking antibodies or human PD-L1 fusion protein. Silencing BATF in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by electroporation with siRNA. Real-time quantitative PCR, CFSE dilution assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed to test T cell functions after BATF knockdown. Results: The percentages of BATF+CD4+ (P = 0.0003 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and BATF+CD8+ (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0003, respectively) cells were significantly increased in ATB patients compared with LTBI and HC. BATF-expressing PD-1+ T cells in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were much higher in ATB group than those in LTBI group (P = 0.0426 and 0.0104, respectively) and HC group (P = 0.0133 and 0.0340, respectively). There was a positive correlation between BATF expression and PD-1 expression in ATB patients (for CD4+ T cells, r = 0.6761, P = 0.0158; for CD8+ T cells, r = 0.6104, P = 0.0350). BATF knockdown could enhance IL-2 and IFN-γ secretions (P = 0.0485 and 0.0473, respectively) and CD4+ T cells proliferation (P = 0.0041) in vitro. Conclusions: In the context of tuberculosis, BATF mediates negative regulation of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway on T cell functions. BATF knockdown can improve cytokine secretion and cells proliferation in vitro.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763754

RESUMO

Tiara[5]arenes (T[5]s), a new class of five-fold symmetric oligophenolic macrocycles, which are not accessible from the addition of formaldehyde to phenol, were synthesized for the first time. These pillar[5]arene-derived structures display both unique conformational freedom, differing from that of pillararenes, with a rich blend of solid-state conformations, and excellent host-guest interactions in solution. Finally we show how this novel macrocyclic scaffold can be functionalized in a variety of ways and used as functional crystalline materials to distinguish uniquely between benzene and cyclohexane.

20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(12): 1003-1013, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory role of a novel oncolytic adenovirus (OA), GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5, on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 was constructed by integrating Golgi protein 73 (GP73) promoter and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), and transfecting into HCC Huh7 cells and normal human liver HL-7702 cells. The expression of SphK1 and adenovirus early region 1 (E1A) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot, respectively. Cell viability was detected by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry. An Huh7 xenograft model was established in mice injected intratumorally with GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5. Twenty days after injection, the tumor volume and weight, and the survival time of the mice were recorded. The histopathological changes in tumor tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Transfection of GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 significantly upregulated E1A and downregulated SphK1 in Huh7 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 transfection significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptotic rate of Huh7 cells, but had no effect on HL7702 cells. Intratumoral injection of GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 into the Huh7 xenograft mouse model significantly decreased tumor volume and weight, and prolonged survival time. It also significantly decreased the tumor infiltration area and blood vessel density, and increased the percentages of cells with nucleus deformation and cells with condensed chromatin in tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS: GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 serves as a novel OA and can inhibit HCC progression with high specificity and efficacy.

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