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1.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648290

RESUMO

The accumulation of adenosine in the tumor microenvironment mediates immunosuppression and promotes tumor growth and proliferation. Intervention of the adenosine pathway is an important direction of antitumor immunity research. CD39 is an important ecto-nucleotidases for adenosine generation, therefore targeting the CD39-adenosine pathway is an emerging immune checkpoint for anticancer treatment. However, currently no CD39 inhibitor has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The development of CD39 drugs is urgent for clinical application. In this study, we combined homology modeling, virtual screening, and in vitro enzymatic activity to characterize the structural features of the CD39 protein and identify a triazinoindole-based compound as a CD39 inhibitor. The identified inhibitor and one of its analogues could effectively prevent the enzymatic activity of CD39 with IC50 values of 27.42 ± 5.52 and 79.24 ± 12.21 µM, respectively. At the same time, the inhibitor significantly inhibited the adenosine monophosphate production in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and MC38) and thereafter prevented cell proliferation. Molecular docking studies, mutagenesis, and microscale thermophoresis indicated that residues such as R85 could be the main contributor in binding triazinoindole compounds. The binding mode can potentially be utilized for hit-to-lead optimization, and the identified inhibitor can be further tested for its anticancer activity in vivo or may serve as a chemical agent to study CD39-related functions.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572586

RESUMO

Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the overproduction of lactic acid and its inefficiency in cancer therapy limit its application. Here, we demonstrate the synergistic effects of the lactate/GPR81 blockade (3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-OBA) and metformin on inhibiting cancer cells growth in vitro. Simultaneously, this combination could inhibit glycolysis and OXPHOS metabolism, as well as inhibiting tumor growth and reducing serum lactate levels in tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, we observed that this combination could enhance the functions of Jurkat cells in vitro and CD8+ T cells in vivo. In addition, considering that 3-OBA could recover the inhibitory effects of metformin on PD-1 expression, we further determined the dual blockade effects of PD-1/PD-L1 and lactate/GPR81 on the antitumor activity of metformin. Our results suggested that this dual blockade strategy could remarkably enhance the anti-tumor effects of metformin, or even lead to tumor regression. In conclusion, our study has proposed a novel and robust strategy for a future application of metformin in cancer treatment.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108152, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555640

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, and the discovery of new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets is vital. Interleukin-36α (IL-36α) is a proinflammatory factor that can initiate the inflammatory response and promote the systemic T helper-1 (Th1) immune response. In this study, we investigated the immunological role of IL-36α in CRC. We found that IL-36α was downregulated in human CRC tissues. Patients with high IL-36α levels showed better survival and low IL-36α expression was significantly associated with greater tumor distal metastasis and TNM stage. We constructed two cell lines overexpressing IL-36α (CT26-IL-36α and HT29-IL-36α cells). In vitro assays revealed that IL-36α overexpression reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CT26-IL-36α, and HT29-IL-36α cells. Using CT26-vector and CT26-IL-36α tumor mouse model and lung metastasis models, we found that IL-36α overexpression elicited a significant antitumor effect and inhibited lung metastasis in vivo. These inhibitory effects were associated with an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes within the tumor tissue as well as increased cytokine production in CD8+ T lymphocytes present in the tumor, spleen, and draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, we revealed that CT26-IL-36α cells enhanced the secretion of CXCL10 and CXCL11 from chemotactic CD8+ T lymphocytes, as compared with CT26-vector cells. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-36α is a promising therapeutic agent for targeting CRC by promoting the activation, proliferation, and tumor infiltration of T lymphocytes.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 173-182, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term consequences of COVID-19 survivors one year after recovery, and to identify the risk factors associated with abnormal patterns in chest imaging manifestations or impaired lung function. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were recruited and prospectively followed up with symptoms, health-related quality of life, psychological questionnaires, 6-minute walking test, chest computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function tests, and blood tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the clinical characteristics and chest CT abnormalities or pulmonary function. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 were recruited between January 16 and February 6, 2021. Muscle fatigue and insomnia were the most common symptoms. Chest CT scans were abnormal in 71.28% of participants. The results of multivariable regression showed an increased odds in age. Ten patients had diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) impairment. Urea nitrogen concentration on admission was significantly associated with impaired DLCO. IgG levels and neutralizing activity were significantly lower compared with those in the early phase. CONCLUSIONS: One year after hospitalization for COVID-19, a cohort of survivors were mainly troubled with muscle fatigue and insomnia. Pulmonary structural abnormalities and pulmonary diffusion capacities were highly prevalent in surviving COVID-19 patients. It is necessary to intervene in the main target population for long-term recovery.

5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113450, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197999

RESUMO

Apart from the great potential in genome editing, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system has recently been widely used in biosensing. However, due to the complex and inefficient signal conversion strategies, most of the works focused on nucleic acid analysis rather than protein biomarkers. Herein, by employing DNA-AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) nanotechnology to activate trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR/Cas12a, a universal signal transduction strategy was established between trans-cleavage of CRISPR/Cas12a and protein analytes. As a result, a sensitive platform was developed for sensing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prostate specific-antigen (PSA) biomarkers, which was designated as Nano-CLISA (Nano-immunosorbent assay based on Cas12a/crRNA). Nano-CLISA was directly employed to test PSA in clinical samples, indicating its great potential in practical detection. This platform has been used to quantitatively analyze protein at attomolar levels, which was 1000-fold more sensitive than traditional ELISA, and the detection range is 15 times wider than that of traditional ELISA.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ouro , Imunoadsorventes
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(39): 21200-21204, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297462

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR)-light-triggered photothermal therapy (PTT) is usually associated with undesirable damage to healthy organs nearby due to the high temperatures (>50 °C) available for tumor ablation. Low-temperature PTT would therefore have tremendous value for clinical application. Here, we construct a hypoxia-responsive gold nanorods (AuNRs)-based nanocomposite of CRISPR-Cas9 for mild-photothermal therapy via tumor-targeted gene editing. AuNRs are modified with azobenzene-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (p-AZO) to achieve on-demand release of CRISPR-Cas9 using hypoxia-responsive azo bonds. In the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, the azo groups of the hypoxia-activated CRISPR-Cas9 nanosystem based on gold nanorods (APACPs) are selectively reduced by the overexpression of reductases, leading to the release of Cas9 and subsequent gene editing. Owing to the knockout of HSP90α for reducing the thermal resistance of cancer cells, highly effective tumor ablation both in vitro and in vivo was achieved with APACPs under mild PTT.

7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236583

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among malignant tumors, and most patients with non-microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer do not benefit from targeted therapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors. Identification of immunogenic neoantigens is a promising strategy for inducing specific antitumor T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we screened potential high-frequency neoepitopes from non-MSI-H colorectal cancer and tested their abilities to induce tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Three HLA-A2-restricted neoepitopes (P31, P50, and P52) were immunogenic and could induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and colorectal cancer patients. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced in HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic mice could recognize and lyse mutant neoepitope-transfected HLA-A2+ cancer cells. Adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by the peptide pool of these three neoepitopes effectively inhibited tumor growth and increased the therapeutic effects of anti-PD-1 antibody. These results revealed the potential of high-frequency mutation-specific peptide-based immunotherapy as a personalized treatment approach for patients with non-MSI-H colorectal cancer. The combination of adoptive T cell therapy based on these neoepitopes with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1, could provide a promising treatment strategy for non-MSI-H colorectal cancer.

8.
J Org Chem ; 86(13): 8630-8640, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162210

RESUMO

Diethyl phosphite-initiated coupling of isatins with o-quinone methides (o-QMs) is reported. This reaction involves a cascade transformation initiated by base-promoted addition of phosphite to isatins, followed by [1,2]-phospha-Brook rearrangement. This generates α-phosphonyloxy enolates that are subsequently intercepted by o-QMs and finally intramolecular ring closure. This protocol was used to diastereoselectively synthesize a range of trans-tetrabenzohydrofuran spirooxindoles in moderate to good yields with moderate to excellent diastereoselectivities.


Assuntos
Indolquinonas , Isatina , Fosfitos , Ácidos Carboxílicos
9.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(35): 7076-7099, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124735

RESUMO

Light has been present throughout the history of mankind and even the universe. It is of great significance to human life, contributing to energy, agriculture, communication, and much more. In the biomedical field, light has been developed as a switch to control medical processes with minimal invasion and high spatiotemporal selectivity. During the past three years, near-infrared (NIR) light as long-wavelength light has been applied to more than 3000 achievements in biological applications due to its deep penetration depth and low phototoxicity. Remotely controlled cancer therapy usually involves the conversion of biologically inert NIR light. Thus, various materials, especially nanomaterials that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultraviolet (UV)/visual light, or thermal energy and so on under NIR illumination achieve great potential for the research of nanomedicine. Here, we offered an overview of recent advances in NIR light-activated nanomedicine for cancer therapeutic applications. NIR-light-conversion nanotechnologies for both directly triggering nanodrugs and smart drug delivery toward tumor therapy were discussed emphatically. The challenges and future trends of the use of NIR light in biomedical applications were also provided as a conclusion. We expect that this review will spark inspiration for biologists, materials scientists, pharmacologists, and chemists to fight against diseases and boost the future clinical-translational applications of NIR technology-based precision nanomedicine.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132091

RESUMO

Daytime radiative cooling materials reflect solar light and dissipate heat directly to outer space without any energy consumption, and thus, have attracted much attention due to the potential applications in many fields. Recently, elaborately designed photonic crystal and metamaterials have been reported for daytime subambient radiative cooling. However, such materials and structures have the drawbacks of complex shapes, inflexibility, high cost, and limitation in scaling up. It is also extremely difficult to apply such materials to buildings, vehicles, and other objects having complex surfaces. Here, a scalable and flexible hybrid film for daytime subambient radiative cooling was fabricated by a facile electrospinning method. The hybrid film consists of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/alumina (PVDF/Al2O3) fibers with diameters of 0.5-2.5 µm. Owing to the efficient scattering by fibers and Al2O3 nanoparticles, the hybrid film exhibits an extremely high average solar reflectance of 0.97. A high average atmospheric window emittance of 0.95 is simultaneously achieved due to the molecular vibrations of PVDF and the phonon polariton resonance of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The composite film delivers an average net radiative cooling power of 82.7 W/m2, and a temperature drop of up to 4.0 °C under direct sunlight. The hybrid film exhibits remarkable radiative cooling performance under different weather conditions including sunny, cloudy, overcast, and rainy. It can be used not only for cooling buildings and vehicles but also for delaying the melting of glaciers. This work demonstrates a promising method for scale-up production of the radiative cooling film with high performance.

11.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068552

RESUMO

Strategies boosting both innate and adaptive immunity have great application prospects in cancer immunotherapy. Antibodies dual blocking the innate checkpoint CD47 and adaptive checkpoint PD-L1 or TIGIT could achieve durable anti-tumor effects. However, a small molecule dual blockade of CD47/SIRPα and TIGIT/PVR pathways has not been investigated. Here, an elevated expression of CD47 and PVR was observed in tumor tissues and cell lines analyzed with the GEO datasets and by flow cytometry, respectively. Compounds approved by the FDA were screened with the software MOE by docking to the potential binding pockets of SIRPα and PVR identified with the corresponding structural analysis. The candidate compounds were screened by blocking and MST binding assays. Azelnidipine was found to dual block CD47/SIRPα and TIGIT/PVR pathways by co-targeting SIRPα and PVR. In vitro, azelnidipine could enhance the macrophage phagocytosis when co-cultured with tumor cells. In vivo, azelnidipine alone or combined with irradiation could significantly inhibit the growth of MC38 tumors. Azelnidipine also significantly inhibits the growth of CT26 tumors, by enhancing the infiltration and function of CD8+ T cell in tumor and systematic immune response in the tumor-draining lymph node and spleen in a CD8+ T cell dependent manner. Our research suggests that the anti-hypertensive drug azelnidipine could be repositioned for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Ácido Azetidinocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Ácido Azetidinocarboxílico/farmacologia , Antígeno CD47/antagonistas & inibidores , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores Imunológicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Theranostics ; 11(15): 7308-7321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158852

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) can process the antigens of cancer vaccine and thus stimulate the CD8+ T cells to recognize and kill the tumor cells that express these antigens. However, lack of promising carriers for presenting the antigens to DCs is one of the main barriers to the development of clinically effective cancer vaccines. Another limitation is the risk of inflammatory side effects induced by the adjuvants. It is still unclear how we can develop ideal adjuvant-free DC vaccine carriers without adjuvants. Methods: A 12-mer peptide carrier (CBP-12) with high affinity for Clec9a expressed on DCs was developed using an in silico rational optimization method. The therapeutic effects of the adjuvant-free vaccine comprising CBP-12 and exogenous or endogenous antigenic peptides were investigated in terms of antigen cross-presentation efficacy, specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, and antitumor activity. We also explored the mechanism involved in the antitumor effects of the adjuvant-free CBP-12 vaccine. Finally, we assessed the effects of the CBP-12 conjugated peptide vaccine combined with radiotherapy. Results: Here, we developed CBP-12 as a vaccine carrier that enhanced the uptake and cross-presentation of the antigens, thus inducing strong CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor effects in both anti-PD-1-responsive (B16-OVA) and -resistant (B16) models, even in adjuvant-free conditions. CBP-12 bound to and activated Clec9a, thereby stimulating Clec9a+ DC to product IL-21, but not IL-12 by activating of Syk. The antitumor effects of the CBP-12 conjugated peptide vaccines could be blocked by an IL-21 neutralizing antibody. We also observed the synergistic antitumor effects of the CBP-12 conjugated peptide vaccine combined with radiotherapy. Conclusions: CBP-12 could serve as an adjuvant-free peptide vaccine carrier for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Interleucinas/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Peptídeos , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase Syk/imunologia , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/farmacologia , Feminino , Interleucinas/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Quinase Syk/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/farmacologia
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(21): 24442-24452, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008947

RESUMO

Most cancers contain abundant tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs usually display a tumor-supportive M2-like phenotype; they promote tumor growth and influence lymphocyte infiltration, leading to immunosuppression. These properties have made TAMs an attractive cancer immunotherapy target. One promising immunotherapeutic strategy involves switching the tumor-promoting immune suppressive microenvironment by reprogramming TAMs. However, clinical trials of M2-like macrophage reprogramming have yielded unsatisfactory results due to their low efficacy and nonselective effects. In this article, we describe the development of M2-like macrophage-targeting nanoparticles (PNP@R@M-T) that efficiently and selectively deliver drugs to 58% of M2-like macrophages, over 39% of M1-like macrophages, and 32% of dendritic cells within 24 h in vivo. Compared with the control groups, administration of PNP@R@M-T dramatically reprogrammed the M2-like macrophages (51%), reduced tumor size (82%), and prolonged survival. Our findings indicate that PNP@R@M-T nanoparticles provide an effective and selective reprogramming strategy for macrophage-mediated cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Nanopartículas , Medicina de Precisão , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
14.
J Control Release ; 334: 376-388, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940058

RESUMO

Blockade of the immune checkpoint PD-1/PD-L1 with monoclonal antibodies demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacies in many cancers. But the orally available low molecular weight inhibitors remain infancy. Compared to small molecules, peptide exhibits better selectivity and fewer side effects, but poor half-life and a big challenge to be orally administrated. Here, we developed a proteolysis-resistant D peptide OPBP-1 (Oral PD-L1 Binding Peptide 1) which could selectively bind PD-L1, significantly block PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and enhance IFN-γ (interferon γ) secretion from CD8+ T cells in human PBMCs (Peripheral blood mononuclear cells). OPBP-1 could significantly inhibit tumor growth in murine colorectal CT26 and melanoma B16-OVA models at a relatively low dose of 0.5 mg/kg, with enhancing the infiltration and function of CD8+ T cells. More interestingly, oral delivery of OPBP-1 loaded TMC (N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan) hydrogel (OPBP-1@TMC) showed promising OPBP-1 oral bioavailability (52.8%) and prolonged half-life (14.55 h) in rats, and also significantly inhibited tumor growth in CT26 model. In conclusion, we discovered and optimized a PD-1/PD-L1 blocking peptide OPBP-1, and subsequently loaded into a TMC based hydrogel oral delivery system, in order to maximally elevate the oral bioavailability of the peptide drug and effectively inhibit tumor growth. These results opened up a new prospect for oral drug development in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Neoplasias , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Hidrogéis , Imunoterapia , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Ratos
15.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 98(1): 192-205, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993620

RESUMO

In the tumor microenvironment, inflammation and necrosis cause the accumulations of ATP extracellularly, and high concentrations of ATP can activate P2X7 receptors (P2X7R), which leads to the influx of Na+ , K+ , or Ca2+ into cells and trigger the downstream signaling pathways. P2X7R is a relatively unique ligand-gated ion channel, which is over-expressed in most tumor cells. The activated P2X7R facilitates the tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Inhibition of the P2X7R activation can be applied as a potential anti-tumor therapy strategy. There are currently no anti-tumor agents against P2X7R, though several P2X7R antagonists for indications such as anti-inflammatory and anti-depression were reported. In this study, we combined homology modeling (HM), virtual screening, and EB intake assay to characterize the structural features of P2X7R and identify several novel antagonists, which were chemically different from any other known P2X7R antagonists. The identified antagonists could effectively prevent the pore opening of P2X7R with IC50 values ranging from 29.14 to 35.34 µM. HM model showed the area between ATP-binding pocket, and allosteric sides were hydrophobic and suitable for small molecule interaction. Molecular docking indicated a universal binding mode, of which residues R294 and K311 were used as hydrogen bond donors to participate in antagonist interactions. The binding mode can potentially be utilized for inhibitor optimization for increased affinity, and the identified antagonists can be further tested for anti-cancer activity or may serve as chemical agents to study P2X7R related functions.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004110

RESUMO

Zinc-iodine (Zn/I2) batteries are recognized as a kind of leading candidate for large-scale energy storage systems, owing to the high-capacity dissolution-deposition reactions on both electrodes. Nevertheless, the lifespan of Zn/I2 batteries is severely limited by the uncontrolled shuttling of triiodide ions (I3-) and unfavorable side reactions on Zn anodes. Herein, an alginate-based polyanionic hydrogel electrolyte is designed and synthesized by ion exchange and Zn2+-induced cross-linking. The immobile, negatively charged polyanionic chains on the hydrogel skeleton effectively block I3- from shuttling, while simultaneously transporting cations that are indispensable for battery chemistry. Moreover, this hydrogel can also enhance the cycling durability of Zn anodes by alleviating Zn's dendritic growth and corrosion reactions, due to the homogenized Zn2+ flux and reduced interfacial contact between free water and metallic Zn. Consequently, this alginate-based hydrogel electrolyte enables stable Zn plating/stripping for over 600 h at 2 mA cm-2 and 2 mAh cm-2 (corresponding to 10% depth of discharge). Serving as an electrolyte for Zn/I2 full batteries, this hydrogel helps the battery to achieve a high capacity of 183.4 mAh g-1 (capacity retention = 97.6%) after even 200 cycles at 0.2 A g-1, 77.4% higher than that of the traditional ZnSO4 aqueous counterpart (residual capacity = 41.5 mAh g-1). This work indicates the promising potential of electrolyte design on the performance improvement of aqueous Zn/I2 batteries.

17.
Invest New Drugs ; 39(5): 1242-1255, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900490

RESUMO

In order to fuel the uncontrolled cell proliferation and division, tumor cells reprogram the energy metabolism to Warburg effect, where glucose is preferably converted by glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. However, the high energetic demand of tumor cells require upregulating the expression of glucose transporters, notably GLUT1, which substantially increases glucose uptake into cytoplasm. GLUT1 is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells and is likely to be a potential drug target in the treatment of pan-cancers. Although many small molecules were reported to inhibit the glucose uptake function by various measurements, several shortcomings such as weak binding affinity, low specificity of the known inhibitors demand the identification of alternative inhibitors with novel scaffolds. In this study, we performed a virtual screening campaign by docking each compound from Chemdiv database to the glucose binding pocket based on the crystal structure of GLUT1 (PDB ID 4PYP) and four small molecules with novel scaffolds were identified to inhibit the glucose uptake of cancer cells at the sub-micromole level. The identified compounds may serve as starting points for the development of anti-cancer drugs via the manipulation of the energy metabolism.

18.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 420: 115523, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838154

RESUMO

Metformin, as the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been shown to possess a capability to activate or inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different ways. However, the detailed mechanisms of the opposite effect are poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that metformin induces accumulation of ROS by inhibiting the expression of a core antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1/Nrf1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. In the present study, we originally found that the increased ROS induced by metformin was blunted in NFE2L1 knockdown cell line. Furtherly by examining the effects of metformin on endogenous and exogenous NFE2L1, we also found metformin could not only inhibit the transcription of NFE2L1 gene, but also promote the degradation of NFE2L1 protein at the post-transcriptional level, whereas this effect can be reversed by high glucose. The inhibitory effect of metformin on NFE2L1 was investigated to occur through the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NFE2L1 protein, and its downregulation by metformin was in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-independent manner. But the activation of AMPK signaling pathway by metformin in NFE2L1 knockdown HepG2 cells is reversed, indicating that NFE2L1 may be an important regulator of AMPK signal. Altogether, this work provides a better understanding of the relationship between metformin and oxidative stress, and hence contributes to translational study of metformin through its hypoglycemic and tumor suppressive effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Fator 1 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fator 1 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
19.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(3): 1275-1286, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656342

RESUMO

As an emerging immune checkpoint, CD73 has received more attention in the past decade. Inhibition of CD73 enzymatic activity can enhance antitumor immunity. Several CD73 inhibitors have been identified by in vitro assays in recent years, but they remain premature for clinical application, indicating that more novel CD73 inhibitors should be studied. Herein, we aimed to identify novel CD73 inhibitors that hopefully are suitable drug candidates by using computer-aided drug discovery and enzymatic-based assays. Five-hundred molecules with high binding affinity were retrieved from the Chemdiv-Plus database by using a structure-based virtual screening approach. Then, we analyzed the drug properties of these molecules and obtained 68 small molecules based on the oral noncentral nervous system (CNS) drug profile. The inhibition rates of these molecules against CD73 enzymatic activities were determined at a concentration of 100 µM, and 20 molecules had an inhibition rate greater than 20%, eight of which were dose-dependent, with IC50 values of 6.72-172.1 µM. Among the screening hits, phelligridin-based compounds had the best experimental inhibition values. Modeling studies indicate that the phelligridin group is sandwiched by the rings of F417 and F500 residues. The identified inhibitors have a molecular weight of approximately 500 Dal and are predicted to form primarily hydrogen bonds with CD73 in addition to hydrophobic stacking interactions. In conclusion, novel inhibitors with satisfactory drug properties may serve as lead compounds for the development of CD73-targeting drugs, and the binding modes may provide insight for phelligridin-based drug design.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
20.
Org Lett ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709719

RESUMO

We have developed a protocol for palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative [4 + 3] cycloaddition reactions between 4-vinyl benzoxazinanones and azomethine imines to generate moderate to good yields of structurally diverse 1,2,4-benzotriazepines bearing two stereogenic centers with good to excellent stereoselectivities. This protocol not only addresses the challenge of asymmetrically constructing compounds with a 1,2,4-benzotriazepine skeleton but also demonstrates the utility of decarboxylative cycloadditions for the synthesis of enantioenriched polycyclic compounds.

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