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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 57, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by antibodies directed against an aminoacycl transfer RNA synthetase (ARS) along with a group of clinical features including the classical clinical triad: inflammatory myopathy, arthritis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). ASSD is highly heterogenous due to different organ involvement, and ILD is the main cause of mortality and function loss, which presents as different patterns when diagnosed. We designed this retrospective cohort to describe the clinical features and disease behaviour of ASSD associated ILD. METHODS: Data of 108 cases of ASSD associated ILD were retrospectively collected in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from December 2017 to March 2019. Data were obtained from the Electronic Medical Record system. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to distinct aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) antibodies. RESULTS: Overall, 108 consecutive patients were recruited. 33 were JO-1 positive, 30 were PL-7 positive, 23 were EJ positive, 13 were PL-12 positive and 9 were OJ positive. The JO-1 (+) group had a significant higher rate of mechanic's hand (57.6%) than other 4 groups. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) was diagnosed in 25 (23.1%) patients and no difference was observed among the 5 groups. The PL-7 (+) group had a higher frequency of UIP pattern (13.3%) than the other 4 groups but the difference was not significant, and the EJ (+) group had the most frequent OP pattern (78.2%), which was significantly higher than the PL-7 (+) (P < 0.001) and PL-12 (+) groups (P = 0.025). The median follow-up time was 10.7 months, during which no patients died. All received prednisone treatment, with or without immunosuppressants. At the 6-month follow-up, 96.3% of all patients (104/108) had a positive response to therapy, the JO-1 (+) and EJ (+) groups had a significantly higher improvement of forced vital capacity than the other 3 groups (P < 0.05), and the PL-7 group had the lowest FVC improvement (P < 0.05). The JO-1 (+) group and EJ (+) group had significantly higher anti-Ro-52 positive occurrence than the other 3 groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Anti PL-7 antibody had the same frequency as anti-JO-1 in ASSD-ILD, in which the ILD pattern was different with distinct anti-ARS antibodies. Most ASSD-ILD had a positive response to steroid therapies, with or without immunosuppressants. The PL-7 (+) group had the highest occurrence of UIP pattern, and a significantly lower response to therapy.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Dermatomiosite/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina-tRNA Ligase/imunologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Glicina-tRNA Ligase/imunologia , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Isoleucina-tRNA Ligase/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Miosite/imunologia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 19-25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357681

RESUMO

Both reticuloendotheliosis and Marek's disease are neoplastic diseases of chickens caused by reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV), respectively. The infection of REV or MDV may lead to clinical tumors and also result in immunosuppression and easily allow secondary infection by other pathogens. Here, we investigated a breeder flock of three-yellow chickens in southern China that had been vaccinated with CVI988/Rispens at hatching and had experienced depression, weakness, reduction in weight gain, and an increased death rate after 120 d of age. The morbidity and mortality were 20% and 10%, respectively, at 140 d of age when this infection was diagnosed. The necropsy of the birds revealed significant tumor-like lesions in the heart, liver, spleen, and ceca. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and tumor-like tissues were sampled for PCR detection and for histopathological observation, for virus isolation and the subsequent immunofluorescent assay on the cell cultures and for gene sequencing of the isolated viruses. A REV isolate GX18NNR1 and a MDV isolate GX18NNM5 were both recovered from the sampled bird. Further phylogenetic analysis based on the env gene of REV and the meq gene of MDV demonstrated that GX18NNR1 was closely related to the reference REV strain MD-2, which was isolated from a contaminated commercial turkey herpesvirus vaccine. In addition, the GX18NNM5 was found to belong to the Chinese very virulent MDV strains' cluster. The coinfection of REV and MDV may contribute to tumor outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality in three-yellow chicken flocks.

3.
Exp Dermatol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354832

RESUMO

LncRNA COL1A2-AS1 has been demonstrated to inhibit fibroblast proliferation of hypertrophic scars. However, the function of COL1A2-AS1 in normal skin fibroblasts remains poorly studied. Here, we report that overexpression of COL1A2-AS1 promoted normal skin fibroblast apoptosis. On the basis of mRNA-seq data and gene set enrichment analysis plus Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis, 16 upregulated and 125 downregulated mRNAs were found; TGF-ß, Wnt, and MAPK pathways were potentially involved. Western blot assay confirmed that overexpression of COL1A2-AS1 repressed p-Smad3 expression and promoted ß-catenin expression. Furthermore, COL1A2-AS1 overexpression combined with either TGF-ß1 or siRNA against ß-catenin reversed the upregulation of apoptosis in the COL1A2-AS1 overexpression group. In conclusion, our study revealed the roles of COL1A2-AS1 in normal skin fibroblast apoptosis, with COL1A2-AS1 functioning by repressing p-Smad3 expression and promoting ß-catenin expression.

4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 2849-2856, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345485

RESUMO

Soil nitrogen cycling in forests may be accelerated or inhibited by global warming, with consequences on forest productivity. Such an impact will be more complicated with extending period of warming. We examined the effects of warming on soil inorganic nitrogen content in the young and mature Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations. Warming was simulated by means of soil cable warming, simulating a future climate change scenario of 4 ℃ warming. The results showed that after three years warming, both total soil inorganic nitrogen and ammonium contents in the young and mature plantations were significantly reduced. The sharp decline occurred in the young plantation, with soil ammonium content in 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm soil layers decreased by 32.1%, 37.1%, 20.8% and 19.9%, respectively. Dissolved organic nitrogen was reduced and N2O emission was accelerated in the both plantations. The main reasons for the reduction of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration were lower input of organic nitrogen substrate and higher gaseous nitrogen loss. The decrease in soil organic nitrogen substrate and increase in gaseous nitrogen emissions in the young plantation were larger than those in the mature plantation, indicating that soils in the young plantation were more sensitive to increasing temperature. The 3-year warming decreased soil inorganic nitrogen contents in the two C. lanceolata plantations, which might negatively affect productivity of the C. lanceolata plantations in subtropic China.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia , Carbono/análise , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Solo
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354907

RESUMO

Marek's disease (MD) continues to threaten the sustainability of the world poultry industry. In this study, the sequences of the meq gene of 220 MDV strains isolated during the years 1964-2020 were analyzed, including 50 from our group plus 170 isolates from the GenBank. Analyses, using phylogenetic trees, amino acid (aa)-mutation screening, evolutionary studies and transmission dynamics were all performed. All strains were divided into two clusters (Cluster 1 and 2), and Cluster 1 includes the mild strains, the vaccine strains and the foreign virulent strains, while Cluster 2 was dominated by the Chinese field strains. Our study identified that the Chinese field strains in Cluster 2 during the years 1995-2020 likely originated in the 1980s from abroad, and the estimated genetic diversity of these strains experienced two growth phases in the years 2005-2007.5 and 2015-2017. Viral phylogeography identified 3 major geographic provincial regions for the Chinese field strains of Cluster 2: the Northeastern Region (Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang), the East-central Region (Henan, Shandong and Jiangsu) and the Southern Region (Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan). The spread of Northeastern strains to East-central chicken flocks and the further spread from Guangxi to Guangdong are strongly indicated. The emergence of the mutations A88T and Q93R together in the Southern strains during the years 2017-2020 with molecular characteristics of vv+MDV were also found later than those in the Northern strains. Overall, the Chinese field strains in Cluster 2 in southern China in recent years have been rapidly evolving. Guangxi province has become an epicenter for these viruses and the chicken flocks in the Southern region have been facing the adverse effects of the emerging vv+MDV.

6.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188719

RESUMO

Phosphatidic acid (PA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) play roles in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of H2 O2 or PA individually and interactively a with a H2 O2 scavenging molecule, N,N'-dimethylthoiurea (DMTU), on plant tolerance to heat stress in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Plants were treated with PA (25 µM), H2 O2 (5 mM) and PA (25 µM) + DMTU (5 mM) by foliar application and then exposed to heat stress (38/33 °C) and optimal temperature (23/18 °C, day/night) for 28 d. Foliar application of PA and H2 O2 alone resulted in increases in leaf fresh weight, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and cellular membrane stability in plants exposed to heat stress, whereas addition of DMTU suppressed the positive effects of PA. The expression levels of genes encoding PA synthesizing enzymes, FaPLDδ, were significantly up-regulated by H2 O2 . PA- or H2 O2 -enhanced heat tolerance was associated with the activation of stress signaling components (FaCDPK3, FaMPK6, FaMPK3), transcription factor (FaMBF1 and FaHsfA2c), and heat shock proteins (FaHSP18, FaHSP70 and FaHSP90). PA and H2 O2 may work coordinately for further improvement in heat tolerance, involving up-regulation of transcriptional factors in stress signaling cascades and heat protection systems.

7.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 1060028020976669, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacological characteristics, clinical evidence, and place in therapy of satralizumab for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed (January 2000 to October 15, 2020). Key search terms included satralizumab and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Other sources were derived from product labeling and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language articles identified from the data sources were reviewed and evaluated. Phase I, II, and III clinical trials were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: NMOSD is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory lesions in the optic nerves and spinal cord. Interleukin-6 is involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Satralizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 receptor. Phase III trials showed that protocol-defined relapse was 30% for satralizumab and 50% for placebo (P = 0.018) when patients with NMOSD were treated with satralizumab monotherapy; protocol-defined relapse was 20% for satralizumab and 43% for placebo (P = 0.02) when satralizumab was added to immunosuppressant treatment. Satralizumab is generally well tolerated, with common adverse effects including injection-related reaction. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: Satralizumab has the potential to become a valuable treatment option for patients with NMOSD. CONCLUSION: Satralizumab appears to be safe and effective as monotherapy or in combination with an immunosuppressant for patients with NMOSD and has the potential to become a valuable treatment option for these patients.

8.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931553

RESUMO

Choline, as a precursor of glycine betaine (GB) and phospholipids, is known to play roles in plant tolerance to salt stress, but the downstream metabolic pathways regulated by choline conferring salt tolerance are still unclear for non-GB accumulating species. The objectives were to examine how choline affect salt tolerance in a non-GB accumulating grass species and to determine major metabolic pathways of choline regulating salt tolerance involving GB or lipid metabolism. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were subjected to salt stress (100 mM NaCl) with or without foliar application of choline chloride (1 mM) in a growth chamber. Choline or GB alone and the combined application increased leaf photochemical efficiency, relative water content, and osmotic adjustment, and reduced leaf electrolyte leakage. Choline application had no effects on endogenous GB content and GB-synthesis genes did not show responses to choline under non-stress and salt stress conditions. GB was not detected in Kentucky bluegrass leaves. Lipidomic analysis revealed an increase in content of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and a decrease of phosphatidic acid content by choline application in plants exposed to salt stress. Choline-mediated lipid reprogramming could function as a dominant salt tolerance mechanism in non-GB accumulating grass species.

9.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962247

RESUMO

Marek's disease (MD) is an infectious malignant T-cell lymphoma proliferative disease caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV). In recent years, the emergence of very virulent (vv) and/or very virulent plus (vv +) strains of MDV in the field has been suggested as one of the causes of vaccination failure. The pathogenicity of the MDV strain GX18NNM4, isolated from a clinical outbreak in a broiler breeder flock that was vaccinated with CVI988/Rispens, was investigated. In the vaccination-challenge test, GX18NNM4 was able to break through the protections provided by the vaccines CVI988 and 814. It also significantly reduced body weight gain and caused marked gross lesions and a large area of infiltration of neoplastic lymphocyte cells in the heart, liver, pancreas, etc. of the infected birds. In addition, the expressions of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), in the spleens and cecal tonsils (CTs) of the unvaccinated challenged birds were significantly increased compared to those in the vaccinated challenged birds, indicating that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is related to immune evasion mechanisms. The results showed that the GX18NNM4 strain could cause severe immunosuppression and significantly decrease the protections provided by the current commercial vaccines, thus showing GX18NNM4 to be a vv + MDV strain.

10.
Poult Sci ; 99(7): 3469-3480, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616241

RESUMO

During the process of transmission and spread of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in chickens worldwide, the viral genome is constantly changing. A comprehensive and systematic study of the evolutionary process of ALV-J in China is needed. In this study, we amplified the full-length viral cDNA sequences of 16 ALV-J isolates of Yellow-chicken origin and analyzed and compared these sequences with another 69 ALV-J strains isolated during the years 1988-2018. These isolates were then sorted into 2 clusters: cluster I included isolates that mainly originated from the layers and White-feather broilers from northern China; cluster II included isolates mainly from the Yellow-chicken, most of them being from southern China. According to the sequence homologies of the whole genome and gag, pol, gp85, and gp37 genes, the ALV-J strains are more likely to randomly change in different directions from the original strain HPRS-103 as time passes. The results of entropy analysis of the sequences of gag, pol, and env revealed that the env gene had the largest variation, and the gag gene nonconserved sites are mainly concentrated in p19, p10, and p12. In addition, 84.71% (72/85) of the isolates had the 205-nucleotide (nt) deletion in the 3'UTR region, and 30.59% (26/85) of the isolates had the 125-nt to 127-nt deletion in the E element. Our study provides evidence for the coexistence of 2 extremely different clusters of ALV-J prevailing in China and in some other countries during the period of 1988-2018 and implies that the clusters are highly dependent on the host genetic background and the geographic location.

11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper is aimed at investigating the clinical characteristics of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). METHODS: The demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment, and prognosis from 15 cases of pSS-LIP patients were retrospectively analyzed. The data were compared with t test, χ2 test, and Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: (1) Fifteen cases of patients with pSS-LIP are all females (100%). Compared with pSS with interstitial lung disease(pSS-ILD) patients, the incidence of dry cough, dental caries is higher in pSS-LIP patients. The incidence of shortness of breath, weight loss, and crackles is lower in pSS-LIP patients than that of pSS-ILD patients. (2) Compared with pSS-ILD patients, pSS-LIP patients had higher percentage of patients with ANA, anti-SSA52KD antibody, anti-SSA60KD antibody, and anti-SSB antibody, and the higher concentration of serum globulin. (3) Compared with pSS-ILD patients, the frequency of obstructive ventilation dysfunction is significantly higher and the frequency of diffusion dysfunction is significantly lower in pSS-LIP patients. (4) The most frequent HRCT findings in patients with pSS-LIP is cysts (100%), followed by ground-glass opacities (73.3%), nodular shadow (73.3%) among the pSS-LIP patients. Compared with PSS-ILD patients, the incidence of pulmonary nodule shadow is significantly higher in PSS-LIP patients, while that of grid shadow was significantly lower. (5) Compared with the baseline, the sum of the number, maximum diameter, and diameter of cysts in three levels of pSS-LIP patients showed an increasing trend after treatment. (6) Correlation analysis: The changes of ground-glass opacities were positively correlated with using GC or not, and those were negatively correlated with the dose of GC treatment. Besides, there is a positive correlation between the annual change rate of the maximum diameter of cysts (△Ømax1/t) and the use of CTX; there is a positive correlation between the annual change rate of the total diameter of cysts (△Øsum1/t) and the use of CTX. CONCLUSION: To the patients of pSS-LIP, female were more common than male, and the onset of LIP was usually more insidious. Hyperglobulinemia and anti-SSA antibody were more prominent in patients with pSS-LIP. Pulmonary function showed the higher rate of obstructive ventilation dysfunction and the lower rate of diffusion dysfunction. The appearance of ground-glass opacities in pSS-LIP patients suggests that the infiltration of inflammatory cells increases, which may cause airway compression, the expansion of terminal bronchioles, and the formation of cysts. The more ground-glass opacities appear earlier, and the more appearance of new cysts later. Therapy with glucocorticoid may be effective on the ground-glass opacity during acute stage, and therapy with cyclophosphamide may be effective on the cysts during chronic stage. The heavier ground-glass opacity is at baseline, the more likely it will recur during maintenance treatment. So follow-up closely is needed. Key Points • It is the first clinical study with more cases of patients with pSS-LIP. • Female and hyperglobulinemia and anti-SSA antibody were more prominent in patients with pSS-LIP. • Pulmonary function showed the higher rate of obstructive ventilation dysfunction and the lower rate of diffusion dysfunction. • Therapy with glucocorticoid may be effective on the ground-glass opacity during acute stage, and therapy with cyclophosphamide may be effective on the cysts during chronic stage.

12.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820928508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583748

RESUMO

Many long noncoding RNAs reportedly have tumor suppressive roles or are oncogenic in esophageal cancer. We have previously performed a chip-based expression analysis of primary esophageal cancer tissues and found that the expression of LINC00634 in these tissues was higher than that in nontumor tissues. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, cell counting kit-8, flow cytometry, caspase3/7 assay, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and restore assay were used to detect the proliferative and apoptotic effects of LINC00634 in esophageal cancer cells. The results showed that the expression of LINC00634 in these tissues was higher than that in nontumor tissues and associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage of patients. Knockdown of LINC00634 decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis levels in EC9706 and EC1 cells. LINC00634 could target Bcl2L1 through miR-342-3p. In this study, we show that LINC00634 is upregulated in esophageal cancer. We also show that the knockdown of LINC00634 decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis levels in EC9706 and EC1 cells through the miR-342-3p/Bcl2L1 axis.

13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 515-523, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476345

RESUMO

The fertilizer and shading management of Coffea arabica in dry-hot area is extensive, resulting in lower yield and fertilizer utilization efficiency. A field experiment was carried out to find the coupling mode of shading and fertilizer for fertilizer-saving and high yield of C. arabica in dry-hot region. Four shading levels (100% NR, 75% NR, 60% NR, 45% NR, NR was natural radiation) and four fertilizer levels (No fertilization and 666.67, 1000, 1333.33 kg·hm-2) were set to examine the effects of different radiations and fertilizer treatments on canopy structure, yield, ferti-lizer use efficiency, soil nutrient content and microbial biomass carbon of C. arabica. The results showed that canopy structure, yield, fertilizer use efficiency, soil nutrient content and microbial biomass carbon were significantly affected by shading and fertilizer treatments. Soil nutrient content and microbial biomass carbon decreased with the increases of shading levels. Soil nutrient content increased with the increases of fertilizer application, while microbial biomass carbon increased first and then decreased, with a peak at the rate of 1000 kg·hm-2(200.30 mg·kg-1). Shading and fertilizer had significant effects on the canopy structure including leaf area index and openness. There were significant negative correlations of leaf area index with openness, gap fraction, total fixed-point factor and total radiation under canopy. Results of response surface analysis and spatial analysis showed that the combination of shading level and fertilizer application were 80% NR and 666.67 kg·hm-2, 79% NR and 1286.81 kg·hm-2, 79% NR and 967.74 kg·hm-2, 82% NR and 1075.27 kg·hm-2, respectively, when partial fertilizer productivity, yield, fertilizer agronomic efficiency and yield increase of fertilizer reached the maximum. The ranges of shading and fertilizer were 68%-77% NR and 946.24-1178.79 kg·hm-2 when the yield, agronomic efficiency and yield increasing rate by fertilizer reached 80% of the maximum value. In this experiment, the optimum combination of shading level and fertilizer application was 75% NR and 1000 kg·hm-2.


Assuntos
Coffea , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , Biomassa , China , Nitrogênio , Solo
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108683, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402336

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the influence of the vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus (ALV) from J subgroup (ALV-J) positive parents on the vaccine efficacy of Marek's disease virus (MDV), ALV-J positive male breeders × female breeders of Three-yellow chickens and the ALV negative male breeder × the negative female breeders were used respectively for crossbreeding to produce eggs and the hatching offspring. The commercial CVI988/Rispens vaccine was used to vaccinate the crossbred offspring at 1-day-old. At 7-days-old, the birds were inoculated with the inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines (OEVs) AIV-H5 monovalent and NDV + AIV-H9 bivalent, respectively. Then the birds were challenged with a Chinese very virulent (vv) MDV field strain GXY2 at 14-day-old. The results showed that the viral load of the challenged GXY2 in the offspring from the ALV-J positive breeders was significantly higher than that from the ALV-negative breeders' (P < 0.05), and the mortality and tumor incidence of offspring from the ALV-J positive breeders were higher than those of the ALV-negative breeders. Also the offspring of the ALV-J positive breeders exhibited a significant negative effect on the development of the immune organs (P < 0.05) and lower antibody responses to the vaccinations with the commercial OEVs (P<0.05). The MD vaccine protective index in the offspring from the ALV-J positive breeders was lower than that from the ALV-negative breeders. The results of the study demonstrated that the vertical transmission of ALV from the ALV-J positive parents caused severe immunosuppression and significantly reduced the Marek's disease vaccine efficacy in Three-yellow chickens.

15.
World J Stem Cells ; 12(3): 188-202, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266051

RESUMO

In steady state, the intestinal epithelium forms an important part of the gut barrier to defend against luminal bacterial attack. However, the intestinal epithelium is compromised by ionizing irradiation due to its inherent self-renewing capacity. In this process, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is a critical event that reciprocally alters the immune milieu. In other words, intestinal bacterial dysbiosis induces inflammation in response to intestinal injuries, thus influencing the repair process of irradiated lesions. In fact, it is accepted that commensal bacteria can generally enhance the host radiation sensitivity. To address the determination of radiation sensitivity, we hypothesize that Paneth cells press a critical "button" because these cells are central to intestinal health and disease by using their peptides, which are responsible for controlling stem cell development in the small intestine and luminal bacterial diversity. Herein, the most important question is whether Paneth cells alter their secretion profiles in the situation of ionizing irradiation. On this basis, the tolerance of Paneth cells to ionizing radiation and related mechanisms by which radiation affects Paneth cell survival and death will be discussed in this review. We hope that the relevant results will be helpful in developing new approaches against radiation enteropathy.

16.
COPD ; 17(2): 121-127, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116037

RESUMO

The value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether FeNO is a more valuable biomarker than blood eosinophil count for identifying clinical characteristics of COPD. Stable COPD patients (n = 390) were included and stratified by FeNO and blood eosinophil counts at recruitment. The demographic characteristics, lung functions, St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), serum inhaled allergen-specific IgE and the exacerbations in the preceding 12 months were compared. Risk factors for moderate or severe exacerbation in the preceding 12 months were examined by binary regression analysis. The cross-sectional study showed that 167 patients had high level of FeNO (≥25 ppb) and 223 in low level (<25 ppb), while 138 patients had high blood eosinophil count (≥200 cells/µL) and 252 had low (<200 cells/µL). Compared with the high FeNO group, there were higher proportion of patients with GOLD III-IV, higher SGRQ scores, more exacerbations in the preceding 12 months, and with lower positive proportion of sIgE in the low FeNO group (p < 0.05 for all). However, these phenomena above were not associated with blood eosinophil count. Finally, high FeNO level was associated with a lower moderate or severe exacerbation in preceding 12 months (RR: 0.541 [95%CI 0.319-0.917], p = 0.023). In stable COPD patients, FeNO, but not blood eosinophil count was associated with the COPD severity and allergic airway inflammation. However, the role of FeNO in guiding personalized treatment of COPD patients need to be further investigated.

17.
Plant Cell Environ ; 43(1): 159-173, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600831

RESUMO

Choline may affect salt tolerance by regulating lipid and glycine betaine (GB) metabolism. This study was conducted to determine whether alteration of lipid profiles and GB metabolism may contribute to choline regulation and genotypic variations in salt tolerance in a halophytic grass, seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum). Plants of Adalayd and Sea Isle 2000 were subjected to salt stress (200-mM NaCl) with or without foliar application of choline chloride (1 mM). Genotypic variations in salt tolerance and promotive effects of choline application on salt tolerance were associated with both the up-regulation of lipid metabolism and GB synthesis. The genotypic variations in salt tolerance associated with lipid metabolism were reflected by the differential accumulation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine between Adalayd and Sea Isle 2000. Choline-induced salt tolerance was associated with of the increase in digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG) content including DGDG (36:4 and 36:6) in both cultivars of seashore paspalum and enhanced synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (34:2, 36:5, and 36:2) and phosphatidic acid (34:2, 34:1, and 36:5), as well as increases in the ratio of digalactosyl diacylglycerol: monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG:MGDG) in salt-tolerant Sea Isle 2000. Choline regulation of salt tolerance may be due to the alteration in lipid metabolism in this halophytic grass species.


Assuntos
Betaína/metabolismo , Colina/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Paspalum/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Paspalum/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(2): 513-523, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552548

RESUMO

The classic NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB molecular pathways are activated in many inflammatory-related diseases, such as pleurisy. Because oridonin (Ori) has been indicated as a covalent NLRP3 inhibitor with strong anti-inflammasome activity, we herein aimed to assess the effects of Ori in a mouse model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced pleurisy. The results showed that CAR caused hemorrhaging and exudation of lung tissues and the release of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß), effects that were significantly reduced by treatment with Ori. In addition, increased neutrophil infiltration, protein concentrations and volumes were found in the exudates of the CAR group, and these phenomena were suppressed by Ori treatment. Regarding cellular pathways, Ori could alleviate the CAR-activated NF-κB and TXNIP/NLRP3 pathways. Additionally, oxidative stress was shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of pleurisy, but possible mechanisms remain to be explored. Herein, Ori reversed the CAR-induced depletion of GSH and SOD and the CAR-induced increases in ROS, MPO and MDA levels. Furthermore, Ori inhibited NOX-4 levels, initiated the dissociation of KEAP-1 from Nrf2, activated the downstream genes HO-1 and exerted antioxidative effects on CAR-induced pleurisy. In conclusion, Ori conferred protection against CAR-induced pleurisy via Nrf2-dependent antioxidative and NLRP3-dependent anti-inflammatory properties.

19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2863-2872, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839706

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the influence of emphysema and air trapping heterogeneity on pulmonary function changes in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-nine patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent low-dose inspiratory and expiratory CT scanning and pulmonary-function tests. CT quantitative data for the emphysema index (EI) on full-inspiration and air trapping (AT) on full-expiration were measured for the whole lung, the right and left lungs, and the cranial-caudal lung zones. The heterogeneity index (HI) values for emphysema and air trapping were determined as the ratio of the difference to the sum of the respective indexes. The cranial-caudal HI and left-right lung HI were compared between mild-to-moderate (GOLD stage I and II) and severe (GOLD stage III and IV) disease groups. The associations between HI and pulmonary-function measurements adjusted for age, sex, height, smoking history, EI and AT of the total lung were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The absolute values for cranial-caudal HI (AT_CC_HI) and left-right lung HI (AT_LR_HI) on full-expiration were significantly larger in the mild-to-moderate group, while no significant intergroup differences were observed on full-inspiration. COPD patients with lower-zone and/or left-lung predominance showed significantly lower pulmonary function than those with upper-zone and/or right-lung predominance on full-expiration, whereas no significant differences were observed on full-inspiration. The absolute values of AT_CC_HI and AT_LR_HI significantly correlated with pulmonary-function measurements. Higher AT_CC_HI and lower AT_LR_HI absolute values indicated better pulmonary function, after adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking history, EI and AT of the total lung. Conclusion: Subjects with more heterogeneous distribution and/or upper-zone predominant and/or right-lung predominant patterns on full-expiration tend to have better pulmonary function. Thus, in comparison with emphysema heterogeneity, AT heterogeneity better reflects the pulmonary function changes in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Pulmonar Total , Capacidade Vital
20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(20): 2402-2407, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a common manifestation of Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene. This study was established to investigate the mutation of the FLCN gene and the phenotype in a family with PSP. METHODS: We investigated the clinical and genetic characteristics of a large Chinese family with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Genetic testing was performed by Sanger sequencing of the coding exons (4-14 exons) of the FLCN gene. RESULTS: Among ten affected members in a multi-generational PSP kindred, with a total of 18 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, the median age for the initial onset of pneumothorax was 42.5 years (interquartile range: 28.8-57.2 years). Chest computed tomography scan of the proband showed pulmonary cysts and pneumothorax. A novel nonsense mutation (c.1273C>T) in exon 11 of FLCN gene that leads to a pre-mature stop codon (p.Gln425*) was identified in the family. The genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of BHD syndrome in this family in the absence of skin lesions or renal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: A novel nonsense mutation of FLCN gene was found in a large family with PSP in China. Our results expand the mutational spectrum of FLCN gene in patients with BHD syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Pneumotórax/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva
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