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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(5): 1017-1022, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254983

RESUMO

Anti-IgLON5 disease is a recently defined autoimmune disorder of the nervous system associated with autoantibodies against IgLON5. Given its broad clinical spectrum and extremely complex pathogenesis, as well as difficulties in its early diagnosis and treatment, anti-IgLON5 disease has become the subject of considerable research attention in the field of neuroimmunology. Anti-IgLON5 disease has characteristics of both autoimmunity and neurodegeneration due to the unique activity of the anti-IgLON5 antibody. Neuropathologic examination revealed the presence of a tauopathy preferentially affecting the hypothalamus and brainstem tegmentum, potentially broadening our understanding of tauopathies. In contrast to that seen with other autoimmune encephalitis-related antibodies, basic studies have demonstrated that IgLON5 antibody-induced neuronal damage and degeneration are irreversible, indicative of a potential link between autoimmunity and neurodegeneration in anti-IgLON5 disease. Herein, we comprehensively review and discuss basic and clinical studies relating to anti-IgLON5 disease to better understand this complicated disorder.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365815

RESUMO

The mechanical performance analysis of the members is the primary basis for evaluating the hoisting quality and safety of the valve hall grid structure. Ordinarily, manual analysis of monitoring data and on-site experience inspection are employed to structural judgment, but it is challenging to evaluate the correlation of the various members and the overall safety of a valve hall. In this paper, an intelligent correlation real-time analysis method based on a BPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network) for the mechanical properties of members is proposed to intelligently control the safety of valve hall grid structure hoisting. The correlation between the mechanical properties of multi-points in the grid structure is used to model the target measuring points. In addition, an intelligent real-time analysis system is used to manage and apply the mechanical property correlation and abnormality of members in real-time. Then, the model is applied to a super-span valve hall in South China, and the application effect is good. The mechanical property correlation model can accurately reflect the mechanical state of the valve hall grid structure hoisting process. Simultaneously, it can effectively pinpoint hidden dangers and locate risk members. It provides a new reference for the normal operation and maintenance of a super-span valve hall grid.

3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399525

RESUMO

Depression is a serious mental illness, mainly characterized as large mood swings and sleep, diet, and cognitive function disorders. NLPR3, one of the inflammasomes that can be activated by a variety of stimuli to promote the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, has been considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. In this study, the putative role of CY-09, a selective and direct inhibitor of NLRP3, was evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice. The results of the study indicated that CY-09 significantly decreased the levels of NLRP3 in the hippocampus of LPS-induced mice. In addition, CY-09 increased the sucrose preference and shortened the immobility time in LPS-induced mice, suggesting the antidepressant-like effects of inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome. Biochemical analysis showed that LPS significantly activated the NLRP3/ASC/cytokine signaling pathway and caused microglial activation, while CY-09 prevented the changes. Moreover, CY-09 increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) only in microglia but not in the whole hippocampus. Meanwhile, CY-09 did not promote neurogenesis in the hippocampus of LPS mice. In conclusion, the results of the study showed that the antidepressant-like effects of NLRP3 inhibitor CY-09 were mediated by alleviating neuroinflammation in microglia and independent of the neurotrophic function in the hippocampus.

4.
Sci Adv ; 8(46): eadd7275, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399581

RESUMO

Different evolutionary lineages have evolved distinct characteristic body plans and anatomical structures, but their origins are largely elusive. For example, seed plants evolve axillary meristems to enable lateral branching. In moss, the phyllid (leaf) midrib containing specialized cells is responsible for water conduction and support. Midribs function like vascular tissues in flowering plants but may have risen from a different evolutionary path. Here, we demonstrate that midrib formation in the model moss Physcomitrium patens is regulated by orthologs of Arabidopsis LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LAS), a key regulator of axillary meristem initiation. Midribs are missing in loss-of-function mutants, and ectopic formation of midrib-like structures is induced in overexpression lines. Furthermore, the PpLAS/AtLAS genes have conserved functions in the promotion of cell division in both lineages, which alleviates phenotypes in both Physcomitrium and Arabidopsis las mutants. Our results show that a conserved regulatory module is reused in divergent developmental programs, water-conducting and supporting tissues in moss, and axillary meristem initiation in seed plants.

5.
Langmuir ; 38(46): 14097-14108, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342971

RESUMO

Ice recrystallization inhibitors inspired from antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are receiving increasing interest for cryobiology and other extreme environment applications. Here, we present a modular strategy to develop polysaccharide-derived biomimetics, and detailed studies were performed in the case of dextran. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) which has been termed as one of the most potent biomimetics of AFPs was grafted onto dextran via thiol-ene click chemistry (Dex-g-PVA). This demonstrated that Dex-g-PVA is effective in IRI and its activity increases with the degree of polymerization (DP) (sizes of ice crystals were 18.846 ± 1.759 and 9.700 ± 1.920 µm with DPs of 30 and 80, respectively) and fraction of PVA. By means of the dynamic ice shaping (DIS) assay, Dex-g-PVA is found to engage on the ice crystal surfaces, thus the ice affinity accounts for their IRI activity. In addition, Dex- g-PVA displayed enhanced IRI activity compared to that of equivalent PVA alone. We speculate that the hydrophilic nature of dextran would derive PVA in a stretch conformation that favors ice binding. The modular design can not only offer polysaccharides IRI activity but also favor the ice-binding behavior of PVA.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Gelo , Polímeros/química , Cristalização , Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Polissacarídeos
6.
Plant J ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321185

RESUMO

Nutrient homeostasis is essential for plant growth and reproduction. Plants, therefore, have evolved tightly regulated mechanisms for the uptake, translocation, distribution, and storage of mineral nutrients. Considering that inorganic nutrient transport relies on membrane-based transporters and channels, vesicle trafficking, one of the fundamental cell biological processes, has become a hotspot of plant nutrition studies. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the study of how vesicle trafficking regulates nutrient homeostasis to contribute to the adaptation of plants to heterogeneous environments. We also discuss new perspectives on future studies, which may inspire researchers to investigate new approaches to improve the human diet and health by changing the nutrient quality of crops.

7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 287, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical and mental health problems are becoming more serious among college students due to lifestyle changes and increased academic stress. Qigong exercise has been regarded as a potentially effective intervention to improve the physical and mental health of college students. METHODS: Eleven databases were searched from their respective inception dates to April 2022. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Physical and psychological conditions, including limb muscle strength, flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, vital capacity, blood pressure and heart rate, as well as depression, anxiety and mood, were evaluated. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration tool. RESULTS: Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Significant improvements in cardiorespiratory endurance (MD = 3.83, 95% CI: 0.99 to 6.67, P = 0.008) and flexibility (MD = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.21 to 4.81, P = 0.001) were observed. We also observed that Qigong exercise significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms (SMD=-0.89, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.61, P < 0.00001; SMD=-0.78, 95% CI: -1.31 to -0.25, P = 0.004). Nevertheless, no significant effects on muscle strength, vital capacity, blood pressure, heart rate or mood were found. CONCLUSION: Qigong exercise was advantageous for college students in terms of improving flexibility and cardiorespiratory endurance and alleviating depression and anxiety to some extent. However, due to the limited number of eligible trials and the low methodological quality, more well-designed RCTs are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Qigong , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Exercício Físico , Estudantes/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia
8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383363

RESUMO

Importance: Dermatology is one of the least diverse specialties, while patients from minority racial and ethnic groups and other underserved populations continue to face numerous dermatology-specific health and health care access disparities in the US. Objectives: To examine the demographic characteristics and intended career goals of graduating US allopathic medical students pursuing careers in dermatology compared with those pursuing other specialties and whether these differ by sex, race and ethnicity, and/or sexual orientation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a repeated cross-sectional study included 58 077 graduating allopathic medical students using data from the 2016 to 2019 Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of female students, students from racial and ethnic groups underrepresented in medicine (URM), and sexual minority (SM) students pursuing dermatology vs pursuing other specialties. The proportions and multivariable-adjusted odds of intended career goals between students pursuing dermatology and those pursuing other specialties and by sex, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation among students pursuing dermatology. Results: A total of 58 077 graduating students were included, with 28 489 (49.0%) female students, 8447 (14.5%) URM students, and 3641 (6.3%) SM students. Female students pursuing dermatology were less likely than female students pursuing other specialties to identify as URM (96 of 829 [11.6%] vs 4760 of 27 660 [17.2%]; P < .001) or SM (16 [1.9%] vs 1564 [5.7%]; P < .001). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, students pursuing dermatology compared with other specialties had decreased odds of intending to care for underserved populations (247 of 1350 [18.3%] vs 19 142 of 56 343 [34.0%]; adjusted odd ratio [aOR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.35-0.47; P < .001), practice in underserved areas (172 [12.7%] vs 14 570 [25.9%]; aOR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.34-0.47; P < .001), and practice public health (230 [17.0%] vs 17 028 [30.2%]; aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.38-0.51; P < .001) but increased odds of pursuing research (874 [64.7%] vs 29 121 [51.7%]; aOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.57-1.97; P < .001) in their careers. Among students pursuing dermatology, female, URM, and SM identities were independently associated with increased odds of caring for underserved populations (eg, URM: aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.83-5.80) and practicing public health (eg, SM: aOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.51-4.31). URM students compared with non-URM students pursuing dermatology had increased odds of intending to practice in underserved areas (aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.66-5.80), and SM students compared with heterosexual students pursuing dermatology had increased odds of intending to become medical school faculty (aOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01-2.57), to pursue administrative roles (aOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01-2.59), and to conduct research (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.98). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that diversity gaps continue to exist in the dermatology workforce pipeline. Efforts are needed to increase racial and ethnic and sexual orientation diversity and interest in careers focused on underserved care and public health among students pursuing dermatology.

9.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(45): 9187-9206, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322688

RESUMO

Sequence-specific recognition of transcription factor (TF) binding motifs in the target site of DNA over the vast amount of non-target DNA is of primary importance for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression by the TFs. Binding of TFs to the target site of DNA relies not only on the direct contact formation but also on the structural and conformational features of DNA. Recognition of DNA structural features or shape readout by proteins is an important factor in the context of TF-DNA interaction. Based on the atomistic molecular simulation, here we report the sequence-dependent unique structural features, solvation, and ion-binding properties of biologically relevant AT- and GC-rich human TF binding motifs in DNA. Counterion and water distribution around the motif is found to be sensitive to the motif sequence, which is accompanied with the DNA shape features. The motif sequence affects the electrostatic potential along the grooves, and cytosine methylation alters the DNA shape features. Characteristic solvation properties of TF binding motif DNA fragments infer that an ionic environment and hydration influences are essential to describe TF-DNA interactions.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fatores de Transcrição , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Ligação Proteica , DNA/química
10.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 942669, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330159

RESUMO

Precocious puberty is closely related to testicular development and spermatogenesis, and there is increasing evidence that miRNAs are involved in regulation of testicular development and spermatogenesis. However, little is known about the regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) during precocious maturation in Hezuo (HZ) boars. In this study, serum Testosterone (T), Estradiol (E2), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were detected in HZ and Landrace (LC) boars in the postnatal period at 30, 90, 120, 180, and 240 days, and the testes of HZ and LC boars at 30 and 120 days were used for histological observation. In addition, we performed small RNA-Seq to identify miRNA at sexual immaturity (30-days-old) and maturity (120-days-old) of HZ boar testis (using LC boar as control) to reveal the key miRNA in regulation of precocious puberty. Hormone assay results showed that high levels of T, E2, FSH, and LH may be related to precocious sexual maturity of HZ boars, and that FSH may play an important function before sexual maturity. Histological observation showed that HZ boars developed earlier than LC boars and had reached sexual maturity at 120 days. Small RNA-Seq yielded a total of 359 exist miRNAs, 767 known miRNAs and 322 novel miRNAs in 12 samples; 549, 468, 133, and 247 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified between Ha vs. Hb, La vs. Lb, Ha vs. La, and Hb vs. Lb (log2 fold change >1 and p < 0.05). Enrichment analysis showed that target genes of these DE miRNAs were enriched in many gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways (such as PI3K-Akt, Hippo and Rap1 signaling pathways) were related to testicular development and spermatogenesis. Further screening, some miRNAs (such as ssc-miR-29b, ssc-miR-199b, ssc-miR-383, ssc-miR-149, ssc-miR-615, and ssc-miR-370) were possibly associated with precocious puberty. These results provide new light on miRNA regulatory mechanisms involved in precocious puberty.

12.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440749

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) has a high incidence rate in the elderly population and is a cause of chronic degenerative joint disease. Current therapeutic approaches to OA are effective but come with some side effects. Therefore, it is urgent to find new safe and effective OA treatments. This study aimed to clarify the function of taraxasterol (TAX) isolated from Taraxacum officinale in the papain-induced rat OA model. We observed that TAX alleviated the typical OA-caused phenomena in the joint. The expression of serum inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß was also repressed by TAX. In addition, NF-κB signaling pathway was repressed by TAX. Furthermore, two microRNAs: miR-140 and miR-146a were elevated after TAX treatment in OA rat model. Interestingly, several common targets of miR-140 and miR-146a, including HSPA4L, ST5, and ERBB4, were confirmed to be regulated by TAX. Inflammatory response related genes including S100A8, CCL3, A2M, LBP, and CCR1 were repressed by TAX in OA rat model. In summary, TAX inhibits inflammation in osteoarthritis rat model. Inflammatory mediators, NF-κB pathway and miR-140/miR-146a targets mediate the function of TAX.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430736

RESUMO

Sugarcane, a cash crop, is easily affected by low temperature, which results in a decrease in yield and sugar production. Breeding a new variety with cold tolerance is an essential strategy to reduce loss from cold stress. The identification of germplasms and genes/proteins with cold tolerance is a vital step in breeding sugarcane varieties with cold tolerance via a conventional program and molecular technology. In this study, the physiological and biochemical indices of 22 genotypes of S. spontaneum were measured, and the membership function analysis method was used to comprehensively evaluate the cold tolerance ability of these genotypes. The physiological and biochemical indices of these S. spontaneum genotypes showed a sophisticated response to low temperature. On the basis of the physiological and chemical indices, the genotypes were classified into different cold tolerance groups. Then, the high-tolerance genotype 1027 and the low-tolerance genotype 3217 were selected for DIA-based proteomic analysis by subjecting them to low temperature. From the four comparison groups, 1123, 1341, 751, and 1693 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were identified, respectively. The DAPs based on genotypes or treatments participated in distinct metabolic pathways. Through detailed analysis of the DAPs, some proteins related to protein homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, signal transduction, and the cytoskeleton may be involved in sugarcane tolerance to cold stress. Furthermore, five important proteins related to cold tolerance were discovered for the first time in this study. This work not only provides the germplasms and candidate target proteins for breeding sugarcane varieties with cold tolerance via a conventional program and molecular breeding, but also helps to accelerate the determination of the molecular mechanism underlying cold tolerance in sugarcane.

14.
Bioinformatics ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416135

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Limited by spatial resolution and visual contrast, bone scintigraphy interpretation is susceptible to subjective factors, which considerably affects the accuracy and repeatability of lesion detection and anatomical localization. In this work, we design and implement an end-to-end multi-task deep learning model to perform automatic lesion detection and anatomical localization in whole-body bone scintigraphy. A total of 617 whole-body bone scintigraphy cases including anterior and posterior views were retrospectively analyzed. The proposed semi-supervised model consists of two task flows. The first one, the lesion segmentation flow, received image patches and were trained in a supervised way. The other one, skeleton segmentation flow, was trained on as few as five labeled images in conjunction with the multi-atlas approach, in a semi-supervised way. The two flows joint in their encoder layers so each flow can capture more generalized distribution of the sample space and extract more abstract deep features. The experimental results show that the architecture achieved the highest precision in the finest bone segmentation task in both anterior and posterior images of whole-body scintigraphy. Such an end-to-end approach with very few manual annotation requirement would be suitable for algorithm deployment. Moreover, the proposed approach reliably balances unsupervised labels construction and supervised learning, providing useful insight for weakly labeled image analysis. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

15.
Biotechnol J ; : e2200427, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of protein-protein interactions is a great challenge. In this study, we fabricated a gold surface-modified biochip with activated sophorolipids in combination with 16-amino-1-hexadecanethiol hydrochloride to detect serum proteins. MAIN METHODS AND MAJOR RESULTS: Strategies for on-chip immunoassay included that a ligand on the biochip allowed to recognise specific receptor in liquid phase, and a receptor loaded on the biochip combined with ligand in solution. The specificity of the molecular interactions on the biochip was evaluated using immunological blocking assays and chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIA). HLH serum was used to test the potential utilisation of the biochip. Reverse receptor CD25-based IL-2 and forward ligand IL-2-based CD25 assays revealed that the limit of detection of the target proteins was as low as 156 pg/mL and 78 pg/mL, respectively. Using receptor- or ligand-based platforms, we found that the positive rates of free IL-2 and sCD25 monomers in the sera of HLH patients were 14.3% and 71.4%, respectively. In addition, the biochip showed good compatibility with CLIA for the measurement of sCD25 (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Biochip, functioning as on-chip immunoprecipitation, can be used to evaluate interactions between protein-protein, ligands, and receptors, or enzymes and substrates in serum This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


A gold surface biochip was modified with activated sophorolipid in combination with 16-amino-1-hexadecanethiolhydrochloride. A direct on-chip immunoassay was established by detecting specific receptor monomers on a ligand-based biochip and vice versa. Biochip detection limit was as low as 156 pg/mL in the receptor-based ligand assay and 78 pg/mL in the ligand-based receptor assay. The specificity of the molecular interactions on the biochip was evaluated by an immunological blocking assay and a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Protein-protein interactions in the sera of patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were further demonstrated on the biochip in a forward or reverse manner.

16.
Nanoscale ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422007

RESUMO

The morphology of nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial for determining their catalytic performance. The dramatic changes in the morphology of metal NPs during reactions observed in many in situ experiments pose great challenges for the identification of the geometry for optimal catalytic activities, which arouses the controversial understanding of the reaction mechanism. In this work, taking CO oxidation as a model reaction, we coupled a multiscale structure reconstruction model with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to study the catalytic performance of the Pt NPs with changing morphology and reaction conditions. Through the quantitative analysis of contour plots for turnover frequencies, we show that the NPs with more well-coordinated sites exhibit optimal activity under CO-rich conditions at higher temperatures, while the reactivity of NPs with more low-coordination sites is optimal under O2-rich conditions at lower temperatures. Further analysis indicates that the competitive adsorption of CO and O2 plays the key role, in which the structure with optimal activity has a closer CO and O coverage. This work not only reconciles the controversy of the active geometry in the experiments, but offers an efficient method to guide the rational design of high-performance catalysts.

17.
Front Oncol ; 12: 998295, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212390

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Although insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) promotes the recurrence and metastasis of liver cancer, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of HIF-2α in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) after Insufficient RFA. Methods: We established a model of insufficient RFA in MHCC97H hepatoma cells and screened for stable sublines. We inhibited HIF-2α expression in the Insufficient RFA group using PT2385 and assessed the resulting changes in proliferation and biological function of HCCs. Cell viability and proliferation were detected by the MTT method, and scratch and Transwell chamber invasion tests detected migration and invasion abilities of HCCs. The mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF, HIF-2α, and Notch1 were detected using qPCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. Results: Compared with normal HCCs without RFA treatment, insufficient RFA enhanced the proliferation and invasion abilities of hepatocellular carcinoma subline MHCC97H (P < 0.001), as well as their migration ability (P = 0.046). The HIF-2α-specific inhibitor PT2385 downregulated the migration (P = 0.009) and invasion (P < 0.001) of MHCC97H cells but did not affect cell proliferation (P > 0.05). Insufficient ablation increased the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, HIF-2α, and Notch1 in HCCs, whereas inhibition of HIF-2α reversed these changes. Conclusions: Insufficient RFA increases the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCCs via the HIF-2α/VEGF/Notch1 signaling axis; HIF-2α is a potential target for novel treatments of HCC after insufficient RFA.

18.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(4)2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36267898

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory oscillometry is a promising complement to the traditional pulmonary function tests for its simplicity. The usefulness of oscillometry in adult clinical practice has not been clarified. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics and diagnostic performance of oscillometry in respiratory diseases, and explore the cut-offs of oscillometric parameters for severity grading. Methods: In this multicentre registry of impulse oscillometry (IOS), IOS and spirometric data of healthy individuals and patients with respiratory diseases were collected and analysed. Linear mixed model analysis was performed to explore the effects of disease and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) on oscillometric parameters. Results: The study included 567 healthy subjects, 781 asthmatic patients, 688 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 109 patients with bronchiectasis, 40 patients with upper airway obstruction (UAO) and 274 patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the analysis. Compared at the same FEV1 level, asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, UAO and ILD displayed different oscillometric characteristics. The z-score of resistance at 5 Hz (R 5) was the best variable to identify respiratory diseases with a sensitivity of 62.4-66.7% and a specificity of 81.5-90.3%. With reference to the severity grading cut-offs of FEV1, R 5 z-scores of 2.5 and 4 were defined as the cut-off values of moderately and severely increased R 5. Conclusion: Respiratory oscillometry is more appropriate to be a tool of evaluating, rather than of diagnosing, respiratory diseases. A severity grading system of oscillometric parameters was developed to help the interpretation of oscillometry in clinical practice.

19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 986491, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246877

RESUMO

Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) play key roles in animal growth, metabolism and reproduction in vertebrates. In crustaceans, one type of ILPs, insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) had been reported to be related to the sex differentiations. However, the function of other types of ILPs is rarely reported. Here, we identified another type of ILPs in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (EcILP), which is an ortholog of Drosophila melanogaster ILP7. Sequence characterization and expression analyses showed that EcILP is similar to vertebrate insulin/IGFs and insect ILPs in its heterodimeric structure and expression profile. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, we generated EcILP knockout (KO) prawns. EcILP-KO individuals have a significant higher growth-inhibitory trait and mortality than those in the normal group. In addition, knockdown of EcILP by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in slower growth rate and higher mortality. These results indicated that EcILP was an important growth regulator in E. carinicauda.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Palaemonidae , Penaeidae , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Drosophila melanogaster , Hormônios , Mutação , Palaemonidae/genética , Peptídeos/genética
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(10): 4630-4638, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224148

RESUMO

Phosphatases play important roles in converting organic phosphorus into inorganic phosphorus in soil. However, studies from this perspective on the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir are limited. In this study, phosphatase activity and the forms of phosphorus were analyzed. Soil samples were collected in the river basin of the Penxi River in the WLFZ during a drying period. The correlation between phosphatase activity and phosphorus forms and the impacts of phosphatase activity on the phosphorus forms were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi, and NaOH-Pi in the soils of the WLFZ were higher than those in the soils by the river. In addition, a higher altitude resulted in higher contents of bio-enzymatically hydrolysable phosphorus and NaOH-Po. Furthermore, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the contents of organic matter and amorphous Fe and Mn were the main factors affecting soil organic phosphorus forms. The average activities of acid phosphomonoesterase (ACP), alkaline phosphomonoesterase (ALP), phosphodiesterase (PDE) (all in p-NP), and phytase (PAE) (in P) in the soils of the WLFZ were 1.40, 2.60, 0.44, and 11.43 µmol·(g·h)-1, respectively. Moreover, the activities of different phosphatases increased with altitude. Soil plant biomass and microbial biomass were important reasons for the difference in spatial distribution of phosphatase activity in the soil of the WLFZ. Phosphatase activities were significantly positively correlated with the contents of organic phosphorus forms but negatively correlated with the content of bioavailable phosphorus. A higher soil phosphatase activity and a lower content of bioavailable phosphorus were usually detected in soil samples taken at a higher altitude. In the early stage of flooding, phosphatase converted organic phosphorus into inorganic phosphorus at a relatively high rate, and the risk of phosphorus release to the overlying water body was also high. This study contributed to a comprehensive understanding of the geochemical cycle of soil phosphorus in the soil of the WLFZ.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fósforo , Altitude , China , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Hidróxido de Sódio/análise , Solo/química , Água/análise
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