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1.
mBio ; 12(4): e0223121, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425699

RESUMO

Diaphorobacter sp. strain JS3051 utilizes 2,3-dichloronitrobenzene (23DCNB), a toxic anthropogenic compound, as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source for growth, but the metabolic pathway and its origins are unknown. Here, we establish that a gene cluster (dcb), encoding a Nag-like dioxygenase, is responsible for the initial oxidation of the 23DCNB molecule. The 2,3-dichloronitrobenzene dioxygenase system (DcbAaAbAcAd) catalyzes conversion of 23DCNB to 3,4-dichlorocatechol (34DCC). Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that residue 204 of DcbAc is crucial for the substrate specificity of 23DCNB dioxygenase. The presence of glutamic acid at position 204 of 23DCNB dioxygenase is unique among Nag-like dioxygenases. Genetic, biochemical, and structural evidence indicate that the 23DCNB dioxygenase is more closely related to 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 than to the 34DCNB dioxygenase from Diaphorobacter sp. strain JS3050, which was isolated from the same site as strain JS3051. A gene cluster (dcc) encoding the enzymes for 34DCC catabolism, homologous to a clc operon in Pseudomonas knackmussii strain B13, is also on the chromosome at a distance of 2.5 Mb from the dcb genes. Heterologously expressed DccA catalyzed ring cleavage of 34DCC with high affinity and catalytic efficiency. This work not only establishes the molecular mechanism for 23DCNB mineralization, but also enhances the understanding of the recent evolution of the catabolic pathways for nitroarenes. IMPORTANCE Because anthropogenic nitroaromatic compounds have entered the biosphere relatively recently, exploration of the recently evolved catabolic pathways can provide clues for adaptive evolutionary mechanisms in bacteria. The concept that nitroarene dioxygenases shared a common ancestor with naphthalene dioxygenase is well established. But their phylogeny and how they evolved in response to novel nitroaromatic compounds are largely unknown. Elucidation of the molecular basis for 23DCNB degradation revealed that the catabolic pathways of two DCNB isomers in different isolates from the same site were derived from different recent origins. Integrating structural models of catalytic subunits and enzymatic activities data provided new insight about how recently modified enzymes were selected depending on the structure of new substrates. This study enhances understanding and prediction of adaptive evolution of catabolic pathways in bacteria in response to new chemicals.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae/genética , Comamonadaceae/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Família Multigênica , Nitrobenzenos/metabolismo , Comamonadaceae/enzimologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Nitrobenzenos/química , Especificidade por Substrato
2.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(2): 1053-1065, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103811

RESUMO

The chemical synthesis intermediate 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DCNB) is an environmental pollutant. Diaphorobacter sp. strain JS3050 utilizes 3,4-DCNB as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. However, the molecular determinants of its catabolism are poorly understood. Here, the complete genome of strain JS3050 was sequenced and key genes were expressed heterologously to establish the details of its degradation pathway. A chromosome-encoded three-component nitroarene dioxygenase (DcnAaAbAcAd) converted 3,4-DCNB stoichiometrically to 4,5-dichlorocatechol, which was transformed to 3,4-dichloromuconate by a plasmid-borne ring-cleavage chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (DcnC). On the chromosome, there are also genes encoding enzymes (DcnDEF) responsible for the subsequent transformation of 3,4-dichloromuconate to ß-ketoadipic acid. The fact that the genes responsible for the catabolic pathway are separately located on plasmid and chromosome indicates that recent assembly and ongoing evolution of the genes encoding the pathway is likely. The regiospecificity of 4,5-dichlorocatechol formation from 3,4-DCNB by DcnAaAbAcAd represents a sophisticated evolution of the nitroarene dioxygenase that avoids misrouting of toxic intermediates. The findings enhance the understanding of microbial catabolic diversity during adaptive evolution in response to xenobiotics released into the environment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catecóis/metabolismo , Comamonadaceae/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Nitrobenzenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Comamonadaceae/enzimologia , Comamonadaceae/genética , Dioxigenases/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo
3.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582057

RESUMO

Bats (order Chiroptera) are one of the most diverse and widely distributed group of mammals with a close relationship to humans. Over the past few decades, a number of studies have been performed on bat viruses; in contrast, bacterial pathogens carried by bats were largely neglected. As more bacterial pathogens are being identified from bats, the need to study their natural microbiota is becoming urgent. In the current study, fecal samples of four bat species from different locations of China were analyzed for their microbiota composition. Together with the results of others, we concluded that bat microbiota is most commonly dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; the strict anaerobic phylum Bacteroidetes, which is dominant in other terrestrial mammals, especially humans and mice, is relatively rare in bats. This phenomenon was interpreted as a result of a highly specified gastrointestinal tract in adaptation to the flying lifestyle of bats. Further comparative study implied that bat microbiota resemble those of the order Carnivora. To discover potential bacterial pathogens, a database was generated containing the 16S rRNA gene sequences of known bacterial pathogens. Potential bacterial pathogens belonging to 12 genera were detected such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, among which some have been previously reported in bats. This study demonstrated high resolution and repeatability in detecting organisms of rare existence, and the results could be used as guidance for future bacterial pathogen isolation.

4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(4)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811044

RESUMO

All nitroarene dioxygenases reported so far originated from Nag-like naphthalene dioxygenase of Gram-negative strains, belonging to group III of aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs). Gram-positive Rhodococcus sp. strain ZWL3NT utilizes 3-nitrotoluene (3NT) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy for growth. It was also reported that 3NT degradation was constitutive and the intermediate was 3-methylcatechol. In this study, a gene cluster (bndA1A2A3A4) encoding a multicomponent dioxygenase, belonging to group IV of RHOs, was identified. Recombinant Rhodococcus imtechensis RKJ300 carrying bndA1A2A3A4 exhibited 3NT dioxygenase activity, converting 3NT into 3-methylcatechol exclusively, with nitrite release. The identity of the product 3-methylcatechol was confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A time course of biotransformation showed that the 3NT consumption was almost equal to the 3-methylcatechol accumulation, indicating a stoichiometry conversion of 3NT to 3-methylcatechol. Unlike reported Nag-like dioxygenases transforming 3NT into 4-methylcatechol or both 4-methylcatechol and 3-methylcatechol, this Bph-like dioxygenase (dioxygenases homologous to the biphenyl dioxygenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1) converts 3NT to 3-methylcatechol without forming 4-methylcatechol. Furthermore, whole-cell biotransformation of strain RKJ300 with bndA1A2A3A4 and strain ZWL3NT exhibited the extended and same substrate specificity against a number of nitrobenzene or substituted nitrobenzenes, suggesting that BndA1A2A3A4 is likely the native form of 3NT dioxygenase in strain ZWL3NT.IMPORTANCE Nitroarenes are synthetic molecules widely used in the chemical industry. Microbial degradation of nitroarenes has attracted extensive attention, not only because this class of xenobiotic compounds is recalcitrant in the environment but also because the microbiologists working in this field are curious about the evolutionary origin and process of the nitroarene dioxygenases catalyzing the initial reaction in the catabolism. In contrast to previously reported nitroarene dioxygenases from Gram-negative strains, which originated from a Nag-like naphthalene dioxygenase, the 3-nitrotoluene (3NT) dioxygenase in this study is from a Gram-positive strain and is an example of a Bph-like nitroarene dioxygenase. The preference of hydroxylation of this enzyme at the 2,3 positions of the benzene ring to produce 3-methylcatechol exclusively from 3NT is also a unique property among the studied nitroarene dioxygenases. These findings will enrich our understanding of the diversity and origin of nitroarene dioxygenase in microorganisms.


Assuntos
Catecóis/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/enzimologia , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/genética , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Tolueno/metabolismo
5.
FEBS Lett ; 593(18): 2646-2654, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260103

RESUMO

In prokaryotes, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems constitute adaptive immune systems against mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Here, we introduce the Markov cluster algorithm (MCL) to Makarova et al.'s method in order to select a more reasonable profile. Additionally, our new Maximum Continuous Cas Subcluster (MCCS) method helps identification of tightly clustered loci. The comparison with two other commonly used programs shows that the method could identify Cas proteins with higher accuracy and lower Additional Prediction Rate (APR). Moreover, we developed a web-based server, CasLocusAnno (http://cefg.uestc.cn/CasLocusAnno), capable of annotating Cas proteins, cas loci and their (sub)types less than ~ 28 s following the whole proteome sequence submission. Its standalone version can be downloaded at https://github.com/RiversDong/CasLocusAnno.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Loci Gênicos/genética , Internet , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos
6.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214154

RESUMO

Geptop has performed effectively in the identification of prokaryotic essential genes since its first release in 2013. It estimates gene essentiality for prokaryotes based on orthology and phylogeny. Genome-scale essentiality data of more prokaryotic species are available, and the information has been collected into public essential gene repositories such as DEG and OGEE. A faster and more accurate toolkit is needed to meet the increasing prokaryotic genome data. We updated Geptop by supplementing more validated essentiality data into reference set (from 19 to 37 species), and introducing multi-process technology to accelerate the computing speed. Compared with Geptop 1.0 and other gene essentiality prediction models, Geptop 2.0 can generate more stable predictions and finish the computation in a shorter time. The software is available both as an online server and a downloadable standalone application. We hope that the improved Geptop 2.0 will facilitate researches in gene essentiality and the development of novel antibacterial drugs. The gene essentiality prediction tool is available at http://cefg.uestc.cn/geptop.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814982

RESUMO

The in-depth study of viral genomes is of great help in many aspects, especially in the treatment of human diseases caused by viral infections. With the rapid accumulation of viral sequencing data, improved, or alternative gene-finding systems have become necessary to process and mine these data. In this article, we present Vgas, a system combining an ab initio method and a similarity-based method to automatically find viral genes and perform gene function annotation. Vgas was compared with existing programs, such as Prodigal, GeneMarkS, and Glimmer. Through testing 5,705 virus genomes downloaded from RefSeq, Vgas demonstrated its superiority with the highest average precision and recall (both indexes were 1% higher or more than the other programs); particularly for small virus genomes (≤ 10 kb), it showed significantly improved performance (precision was 6% higher, and recall was 2% higher). Moreover, Vgas presents an annotation module to provide functional information for predicted genes based on BLASTp alignment. This characteristic may be specifically useful in some cases. When combining Vgas with GeneMarkS and Prodigal, better prediction results could be obtained than with each of the three individual programs, suggesting that collaborative prediction using several different software programs is an alternative for gene prediction. Vgas is freely available at http://cefg.uestc.cn/vgas/ or http://121.48.162.133/vgas/. We hope that Vgas could be an alternative virus gene finder to annotate new genomes or reannotate existing genome.

8.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 16(4): 1274-1279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212095

RESUMO

Essential genes are those genes of an organism that are considered to be crucial for its survival. Identification of essential genes is therefore of great significance to advance our understanding of the principles of cellular life. We have developed a novel computational method, which can effectively predict bacterial essential genes by extracting and integrating homologous features, protein domain feature, gene intrinsic features, and network topological features. By performing the principal component regression (PCR) analysis for Escherichia coli MG1655, we established a classification model with the average area under curve (AUC) value of 0.992 in ten times 5-fold cross-validation tests. Furthermore, when employing this new model to a distantly related organism-Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4, we still got a reliable AUC value of 0.788. These results indicate that our feature-integrated approach could have practical applications in accurately investigating essential genes from broad bacterial species, and also provide helpful guidelines for the minimal cell.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genes Essenciais , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Curva ROC , Análise de Regressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(8): 2072-2085, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060177

RESUMO

Pandemic cholera is a major concern for public health because of its high mortality and morbidity. Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments were performed on a representative strain of the current cholera pandemic. Although the base-pair substitution mutation rates in Vibrio cholerae (1.24 × 10-10 per site per generation for wild-type lines and 3.29 × 10-8 for mismatch repair deficient lines) are lower than that previously reported in other bacteria using MA analysis, we discovered specific high rates (8.31 × 10-8 site/generation for wild-type lines and 1.82 × 10-6 for mismatch repair deficient lines) of base duplication or deletion driven by large-scale copy number variations (CNVs). These duplication-deletions are located in two pathogenic islands, IMEX and the large integron island. Each element of these islands has discrepant rate in rapid integration and excision, which provides clues to the pandemicity evolution of V. cholerae. These results also suggest that large-scale structural variants such as CNVs can accumulate rapidly during short-term evolution. Mismatch repair deficient lines exhibit a significantly increased mutation rate in the larger chromosome (Chr1) at specific regions, and this pattern is not observed in wild-type lines. We propose that the high frequency of GATC sites in Chr1 improves the efficiency of MMR, resulting in similar rates of mutation in the wild-type condition. In addition, different mutation rates and spectra were observed in the MA lines under distinct growth conditions, including minimal media, rich media and antibiotic treatments.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases/genética , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/microbiologia , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Pandemias , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Meios de Cultura , Período de Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhas Genômicas , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rifampina/farmacologia , Vibrio cholerae/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(12): 3461-3470, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27037114

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The gene cluster encoding the 2-chloronitrobenzene (2CNB) catabolism pathway in Pseudomonas stutzeri ZWLR2-1 is a patchwork assembly of a Nag-like dioxygenase (dioxygenase belonging to the naphthalene dioxygenase NagAaAbAcAd family from Ralstonia sp. strain U2) gene cluster and a chlorocatechol catabolism cluster. However, the transcriptional regulator gene usually present in the Nag-like dioxygenase gene cluster is missing, leaving it unclear how this cluster is expressed. The pattern of expression of the 2CNB catabolism cluster was investigated here. The results demonstrate that the expression was constitutive and not induced by its substrate 2CNB or salicylate, the usual inducer of expression in the Nag-like dioxygenase family. Reverse transcription-PCR indicated the presence of at least one transcript containing all the structural genes for 2CNB degradation. Among the three promoters verified in the gene cluster, P1 served as the promoter for the entire catabolism operon, but the internal promoters P2 and P3 also enhanced the transcription of the genes downstream. The P3 promoter, which was not previously defined as a promoter sequence, was the strongest of these three promoters. It drove the expression of cnbAcAd encoding the dioxygenase that catalyzes the initial reaction in the 2CNB catabolism pathway. Bioinformatics and mutation analyses suggested that this P3 promoter evolved through the duplication of an 18-bp fragment and introduction of an extra 132-bp fragment. IMPORTANCE: The release of many synthetic compounds into the environment places selective pressure on bacteria to develop their ability to utilize these chemicals to grow. One of the problems that a bacterium must surmount is to evolve a regulatory device for expression of the corresponding catabolism genes. Considering that 2CNB is a xenobiotic that has existed only since the onset of synthetic chemistry, it may be a good example for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying rapid evolution in regulatory networks for the catabolism of synthetic compounds. The 2CNB utilizer Pseudomonas stutzeri ZWLR2-1 in this study has adapted itself to the new pollutant by evolving the always-inducible Nag-like dioxygenase into a constitutively expressed enzyme, and its expression has escaped the influence of salicylate. This may facilitate an understanding of how bacteria can rapidly adapt to the new synthetic compounds by evolving its expression system for key enzymes involved in the degradation of a xenobiotic.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Nitrobenzenos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pseudomonas stutzeri/enzimologia , Pseudomonas stutzeri/genética , Biologia Computacional , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dioxigenases/genética , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Recombinação Genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcrição Genética
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