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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 1015-1018, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a family affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS: Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to detect potential deletion and duplication of the Dystrophin gene. Haplotype analysis was performed using five short tandem repeat polymorphism loci (3'-STR, 5'-STR, 45-STR, 49-STR, 50-STR of the DMD gene. RESULTS: A same deletional mutation (exons 51-55) of the DMD gene was detected in two brothers but not in their mother. The patients and fetus have inherited different haplotypes of the Dystrophin gene from their mother, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected. CONCLUSION: The mother was very likely to harbor germline mosaicism for the Dystrophin gene variant. Genetic testing of peripheral blood samples cannot rule out germline mosaicism in the mother. Prenatal diagnosis should be provided for subsequent pregnancies in this family.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7291-7306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564878

RESUMO

Purpose: The aims of this study were to prepare a baicalein self-microemulsion with baicalein-phospholipid complex as the intermediate (BAPC-SMEDDS) and to compare its effects with those of conventional baicalein self-microemulsion (CBA-SMEDDS) on baicalein oral absorption and lymphatic transport. Methods: Two SMEDDS were characterized by emulsifying efficiency, droplet size, zeta potential, cloud point, dilution stability, physical stability, and in vitro release and lipolysis. Different formulations of 40 mg/kg baicalein were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate their respective bioavailabilities. The chylomicron flow blocking rat model was used to evaluate their lymphatic transport. Results: The droplet sizes of BAPC-SMEDDS and CBA-SMEDDS after 100x dilution were 9.6±0.2 nm and 11.3±0.4 nm, respectively. In vivo experiments indicated that the relative bioavailability of CBA-SMEDDS and BAPC-SMEDDS was 342.5% and 448.7% compared to that of free baicalein (BA). The AUC0-t and Cmax of BAPC-SMEDDS were 1.31 and 1.87 times higher than those of CBA-SMEDDS, respectively. The lymphatic transport study revealed that 81.2% of orally absorbed BA entered the circulation directly through the portal vein, whereas approximately 18.8% was transported into the blood via lymphatic transport. CBA-SMEDDS and BAPC-SMEDDS increased the lymphatic transport ratio of BA from 18.8% to 56.2% and 70.2%, respectively. Therefore, self-microemulsion not only significantly improves oral bioavailability of baicalein, but also increases the proportion lymphatically transported. This is beneficial to the direct interaction of baicalein with relevant immune cells in the lymphatic system and for proper display of its effects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the oral absorption and lymphatic transport characteristics of free baicalein and baicalein SMEDDS with different compositions. This is of great significance to studies on lymphatic targeted delivery of natural immunomodulatory compounds.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14235, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578430

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) global myocardial strain and LV involvement characteristics in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) and to evaluate their predictive value of adverse cardiac events. Sixty consecutive ARVD/C patients with a definite diagnosis of ARVD/C who underwent CMR examination and thirty-four healthy controls were enrolled retrospectively. The CMR images were analyzed for LV myocardial strain and the presence of LV involvement. The endpoint was defined as a composite of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart transplantation, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock. LV global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), and radial strain (GRS) were significantly impaired in ARVC/D patients compared to healthy controls (GLS: -13.89 ± 3.26% vs. -16.68 ± 2.74%, GCS: -15.65 ± 3.40% vs. -19.20 ± 2.23%, GRS: 34.57 ± 11.98% vs. 49.92 ± 12.59%; P < 0.001 for all). Even in ARVC/D patients with preserved LVEF, LV GLS, GCS and GRS were also significantly reduced than in controls. During a mean follow-up period of 4.10 ± 1.77 years, the endpoint was reached in 17 patients. LV GLS >-12.65% (HR, 3.58; 95%CI, 1.14 to 11.25; p = 0.029) and history of syncope (HR, 4.99; 95%CI, 1.88 to 13.24; p = 0.001) were the only independent predictors of cardiac outcomes. The LV myocardial deformation derived from FT CMR was significantly impaired in ARVD/C patients, and this alteration can occur before the impairment of LVEF. LV GLS >-12.65% and history of syncope were the only independent prognostic markers of adverse cardiac outcomes.

4.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 123, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM) are susceptible to coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the impact of DM on plaque progression in the non-stented segments of stent-implanted patients has been rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of DM on the prevalence, characteristics and severity of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) verified plaque progression in stented patients. A comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients was performed. METHODS: A total of 98 patients who underwent clinically indicated serial CCTAs arranged within 1 month before and at least 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were consecutively included. All the subjects were categorized into diabetic group (n = 36) and non-diabetic groups (n = 62). Coronary stenosis extent scores, segment involvement scores (SIS), segment stenosis scores (SSS) at baseline and follow-up CCTA were quantitatively assessed. The prevalence, characteristics and severity of plaque progression was evaluated blindly to the clinical data and compared between the groups. RESULTS: During the median 1.5 year follow up, a larger number of patients (72.2% vs 40.3%, P = 0.002), more non-stented vessels (55.7% vs 23.2%, P < 0.001) and non-stented segments (10.3% vs 4.4%, P < 0.001) showed plaque progression in DM group, compared to non-DM controls. More progressive lesions in DM patients were found to be non-calcified plaques (31.1% vs 12.8%, P = 0.014) or non-stenotic segments (6.6% vs 3.0%, p = 0.005) and were more widely distributed on left main artery (24.2% vs 5.2%, p = 0.007), the right coronary artery (50% vs 21.1%, P = 0.028) and the proximal left anterior artery (33.3% vs 5.1%, P = 0.009) compared to non-DM patients. In addition, DM patients possessed higher numbers of progressive segments per patient, ΔSIS and ΔSSS compared with non-DM individuals (P < 0.001, P = 0.029 and P < 0.001 respectively). A larger number of patients with at least two progressive lesions were found in the DM group (P = 0.006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that DM (OR: 4.81; 95% CI 1.64-14.07, P = 0.004) was independently associated with plaque progression. CONCLUSIONS: DM is closely associated with the prevalence and severity of CCTA verified CAD progression. These findings suggest that physicians should pay attention to non-stent segments and the management of non-stent segment plaque progression, particularly to DM patients.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502994

RESUMO

Accurate segmentation of anatomical brain structures is crucial for many neuroimaging applications, e.g., early brain development studies and the study of imaging biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases. Although multi-atlas segmentation (MAS) has achieved many successes in the medical imaging area, this approach encounters limitations in segmenting anatomical structures associated with poor image contrast. To address this issue, we propose a new MAS method that uses a hypergraph learning framework to model the complex subject-within and subject-to-atlas image voxel relationships and propagate the label on the atlas image to the target subject image. To alleviate the low-image contrast issue, we propose two strategies equipped with our hypergraph learning framework. First, we use a hierarchical strategy that exploits high-level context features for hypergraph construction. Because the context features are computed on the tentatively estimated probability maps, we can ultimately turn the hypergraph learning into a hierarchical model. Second, instead of only propagating the labels from the atlas images to the target subject image, we use a dynamic label propagation strategy that can gradually use increasing reliably identified labels from the subject image to aid in predicting the labels on the difficult-to-label subject image voxels. Compared with the state-of-the-art label fusion methods, our results show that the hierarchical hypergraph learning framework can substantially improve the robustness and accuracy in the segmentation of anatomical brain structures with low image contrast from magnetic resonance (MR) images.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 701-712, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539978

RESUMO

Most trace metals exhibit a dual role in marine waters, acting as nutrients at low concentration and being toxic at high concentration. But besides concentration range, speciation is also an important factor. They both show both seasonal and spatial variations. A thorough comparison between total dissolved and particulate concentrations estimated from manual sampling and an assessment of the bioavailability using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) has been performed in this work for Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb, at several sampling points of the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ). Additional information to trace back the origin and identify the anthropogenic fingerprint of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was measured using stable carbon isotope measurements in particulate organic matter. Our results show that: (i) particulate and total dissolved metal concentrations are higher at two stations, one in the harbor of Oostende and one offshore; (ii) dissolved and particulate trace metal concentrations do not correlate with the dissolved labile fractions; and (iii) SPM in the harbor zone is likely from allochthonous sources, while in the offshore station marine origin has been evidenced. Our results indicate that, even though contamination is higher in the harbor zones, the trace metal toxicity, which is linked to the metal bioavailability, is most likely not higher than in the open sea. However, with increasing acidification of the ocean, a shift from particulate to dissolved phase might lead to increasing adverse effects on the coastal environment.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540238

RESUMO

Aging is an unstoppable process coupled to the loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diseases. Epigenetic alteration is one of the hallmarks of aging, which involves changes in DNA methylation patterns, post-translational modification of histones, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNA interference. Invertebrate model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, have been used to investigate the biological mechanisms of aging because they show, evolutionarily, the conservation of many aspects of aging. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the epigenetic changes of aging with invertebrate models, providing insight into the relationship between epigenetic dynamics and aging.

8.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare conventional 3D volumetric-interpolated breath-hold examination (C-VIBE) sequence image quality to that of golden-angle radial stack-of stars acquisition scheme (R-VIBE) in rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients had undergone pre-contrast C-VIBE, followed by DCE-MRI with R-VIBE and post-contrast C-VIBE in the visualization of rectal cancer. The first phase and the last phase of R-VIBE sequence were compared with pre-contrast and post-contrast C-VIBE sequences, respectively. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of rectal neoplasms, gluteus maximus, and subcutaneous fat were compared between the two different sequences. A further qualitative score system (graded 1-5) was used to evaluate the overall image. Quantitative and qualitative parameters from the two sequences were compared. RESULTS: In all patients, R-VIBE achieved the same SNR and CNR ratings in pre- and post-contrast (all P > 0.05), with the exception of a higher SNR of fat in pre-contrast images (P = 0.037). In addition, there were no significant differences in scores of overall image quality, lesion conspicuity, and rectal wall boundary (all P > 0.05). There was an improved score in artifacts of post-contrast R-VIBE sequence (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: R-VIBE sequence can provide comparable image quality and less motion artifacts to that of C-VIBE sequence and is feasible for imaging of rectal cancer.

9.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547563

RESUMO

Aurantio-obtusin is an anthraquinone derived from Cassia obtusifolia (cassiae semen). It is also used as a tool and a detection index for the identification of cassiae semen, as stipulated by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Anthraquinones, the main components in cassiae semen, have been reported to show hepatotoxicity. This study investigates the hepatotoxicity of aurantio-obtusin in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We randomly divided the animals into a blank control group and treated three test groups with different doses of aurantio-obtusin: Low dose (4 mg/kg), medium dose (40 mg/kg), and high dose (200 mg/kg). Each group was treated with aurantio-obtusin for 28 days, whereas the control group was administered an equal volume of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) aqueous solution. Subsequently, we conducted biochemical, hematological, and pathological investigations and determined the weight of different organs. We used serum metabolomics to identify possible biomarkers related to hepatotoxicity. The low-dose group showed no significant liver injury, whereas the medium- and high-dose groups manifested obvious liver injury. Compared with the control group, the test groups showed an increase in alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase levels. The liver organ coefficient also significantly increased. Additionally, we found significant changes in the hematological indices. Metabolomics analysis showed that aurantio-obtusin induced 28 endogenous markers related to liver injury. Our data indicate that aurantio-obtusin induces hepatotoxicity in rat liver in a dose-dependent manner and is mediated by pathways involving bile acids, fatty acids, amino acids, and energy metabolism. In particular, changes in bile acid content during treatment with therapeutic agents containing aurantio-obtusin deserve increased attention.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1911058, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490542

RESUMO

Importance: This is the first comprehensive national study reporting the rates of abuse, neglect, and bullying from family and classmates or teachers among Chinese transgender and gender-nonbinary adolescents and identifying risk factors associated with poor mental health in this population. Objective: To assess the rates of abuse, neglect, and bullying and their association with poor mental health among Chinese transgender and gender nonbinary adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national survey study used an online self-selecting survey conducted between January 1, 2017, and September 29, 2017, in China. Eligibility criteria included reporting being aged 12 to 18 years and being transgender or gender nonbinary. Data analysis was performed from March 25 to 28, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was self-reported poor mental health, including depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 9-item scale. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the 7-item General Anxiety Disorder scale. Suicidal ideation was measured using standardized questions adapted from previous Chinese studies. Abuse, neglect, and bullying were measured using specifically designed questions. Results: Of 564 responses collected, 385 respondents (mean [SD] age, 16.7 [1.2] years) met inclusion criteria, including 109 (28.3%) transgender adolescent boys, 167 (43.4%) transgender adolescent girls, and 109 (28.3%) gender-nonbinary adolescents. Among 319 respondents who reported that their parents were aware of their gender identity, 296 (92.8%) reported having experienced parental abuse or neglect. Among the full cohort, 295 respondents (76.6%) reported having experienced abuse or bullying owing to being transgender or gender nonbinary in school from classmates or teachers. There were 173 respondents (44.9%) with Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 9-item scale scores indicating they were at risk of major depressive disorder, and 148 respondents (38.4%) had 7-item General Anxiety Disorder scale scores indicating they were at risk of an anxiety disorder. In univariate analysis, reporting experiences of bullying from a classmate or teacher was significantly associated with suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.04-2.70]; P = .03), but the association was no longer statistically significant after controlling for level of educational attainment, aversion to assigned sex, and depressed mood at the onset of puberty (odds ratio, 1.63 [95% CI, 0.97-2.73]; P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, transgender and gender-nonbinary adolescents in China reported high rates of abuse, neglect, and bullying at home and in school and high rates of symptoms associated with poor mental health. This study highlights the importance of reducing home- and school-based abuse, neglect, and bullying of transgender and gender-nonbinary adolescents in China to improve mental health outcomes; however, broader change in the social environment may be required to address the prejudice and stigma aimed at gender minorities.

11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111686, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520928

RESUMO

The rapid increase of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and the cross-resistance of MRSA to other antibiotics create an urgent demand for new therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most promising options for next-generation antibiotics. In this study, novel peptides were designed based on antimicrobial peptide fragments derived from Aristicluthys nobilia interferon-I to promote anti-MRSA activity and decrease adverse effects. Design strategies included substitutions of charged or hydrophobic amino acid residues for noncharged polar residues to promote amphipathicity. Two designed peptides, P5 (YIRKIRRFFKKLKKILKK-NH2) and P9 (SYERKINRHFKTLKKNLKKK-NH2), showed potent antimicrobial activities against both sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and MRSA strains without significant hemolysis or cytotoxicity to human hemocytes and renal epithelial cells. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and qRT-PCR were employed to investigate the effects of P5 and P9 on S. aureus biofilm formation, morphology, and virulence-related gene expression. P5 and P9 significantly inhibited the biofilm and destroyed the cell membrane integrity, in addition to down-regulating several virulence factor genes and biofilm formation-related genes including spa, hld, and sdrC. P5 and P9 could be promising candidate antibacterial agents for the treatment of MRSA infections.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121215, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546220

RESUMO

Blast furnace dust (BFD), a hazardous metallurgical waste, is generated during the iron-making process and consists plenty of Fe and C. This study is among the first to apply BFD in catalytic-ceramic-filler (CCF) preparation and degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP). The novel BFD based Fe-Ni CCF obviously enhanced the removal of CIP (from around 42%-72% after 3 h) in comparation with troditional Fe-C ceramic-filler(CF). The Fe-Ni CCF was further applied in a coupled system of electrolysis assisted catalytic micro-electrolysis (E-CME) process for CIP wastewater treatment. Under optimal operating conditions (iron rod as anode, voltage of 10v and HRT of 3 h), nearly 97% of CIP, 90% of total organic carbon (TOC) and 99% of total phosphorus (TP) were removed by E-CME process in near-neutral solution. The degradation mechanism analysis by LC-MS revealed that polyhydroxy sub-stituted, piperazine rings cleavage and so on were the main reaction of CIP in E-CME process. Additionally, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) residue after E-CME process could be effectively eliminated by up-flow anaerobic filter (UAF), owing to the significant improvement of wastewater biodegradability by E-CME pretreatment. This study provides a new way for co-friend recycling of BFD and a highly-efficient, cost-sffective technology for CIP wastewater treatment.

13.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 18: 66-79, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525663

RESUMO

Somatic mutations have long been recognized as an important feature of cancer. However, analysis of somatic mutations, to date, has focused almost entirely on the protein coding regions of the genome. The potential roles of somatic mutations in human long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are therefore largely unknown, particularly their functional significance across different cancer types. In this study, we characterized some lncRNAs whose expression was affected by somatic mutations (defined as MutLncs) and constructed global MutLnc landscapes across 17 cancer types by systematically integrating multiple levels of data. MutLncs were commonly downregulated and carried low mutation frequencies and non-silent mutations in most cancer types. Co-occurrence analysis in pan-cancer highlighted combined patterns of specific MutLncs, suggesting that a number of MutLncs influence diverse cancer types through combination effects. Several conserved and cancer-specific functions of MutLncs were determined. We further explored the somatic mutations affecting lncRNA expression via mixed and unmixed effects, which led to specific functions in pan-cancer. Survival analysis indicated that MutLncs and co-occurrence pairs can potentially serve as cancer biomarkers. Clarification of the specific roles of MutLncs in human cancers could be beneficial for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of different cancer types and developing the appropriate treatments.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549821

RESUMO

The therapeutic benefits of whole grains on diabetes mellitus have been continuously confirmed by in-depth research. To date, limited studies have investigated the effect of extruded products of whole grains on the insulin signaling pathway in vivo. This study investigated the effects of oral consumption of whole grain extrudate, including 97% brown rice and 3% defatted rice bran (w/w, BRD), on glucose metabolism and the hepatic insulin signaling pathway in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. BRD treatment induced a remarkable reduction in blood glucose. Moreover, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were ameliorated in the BRD-treated group compared with those in the db/db control group. BRD also increased the hepatic glycogen content by reducing the expression and increasing the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß). The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and their respective mRNA expression levels in the liver were simultaneously decreased in the BRD-treated group. BRD also significantly upregulated the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and protein kinase B (AKT). These results indicate that BRD exhibits antidiabetic potential by activating the IRS1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, further regulating the expression of the FOXO1 gene and p-GSK3ß protein, thus inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, increasing hepatic glycogen storage, and improving insulin resistance. Therefore, BRD could be used as a functional ingredient to alleviate the symptoms of hyperglycemia.

15.
Int J Mol Med ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485603

RESUMO

Although a number of experimental models have been developed for liver research, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The present study attempted to develop a simple and effective 3­dimensional mouse liver microsphere tissue culture (LMTC) model in vitro for the analysis of hepatic functions. Hepatic characteristics and potential applications of this model were compared with that of mouse model in vivo and mouse primary hepatocytes in vitro. Using freshly­perfused mouse liver tissue passed through 80­mesh sift strainer (sift80), it was demonstrated that under the optimal culture conditions, the sift80 microsphere tissue cultured in 2% bovine calf serum medium remained viable with marked proliferating cell nuclear antigen and anti­Myc proto­oncogene protein expression, exhibited normal hepatic functions including indocyanine green (ICG) uptake/release and periodic acid­Schiff staining, and expressed hepatocyte­specific genes for up to 2 weeks. The microsphere tissue was responsive to bone morphogenic protein 9 (BMP9) stimulation leading to upregulation of downstream targets of BMP9 signaling. Furthermore, 3 commonly­used liver­damaging drugs were indicated to effectively inhibit hepatic ICG uptake, and induce the expression of hepatotoxicity­associated genes. Therefore, this simplified LMTC model may be a useful in vitro tissue culture model to investigate drug­induced liver injury and metabolism, and hepatocyte­based cell singling.

16.
J Vasc Surg ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who experience intermittent claudication report a range of symptoms. Patients with symptoms other than classically described intermittent claudication may be at the highest risk for functional decline and mobility loss. Therefore, technologies allowing for characterization of PAD severity are desirable. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for measurements of muscle heme oxygen saturation (StO2) during exercise. We hypothesized lower extremities affected by PAD would exhibit distinct NIRS profiles as measured by a low-cost, wireless NIRS device and that NIRS during exercise predicts walking limitation. METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with PAD and 10 control participants. All patients with PAD completed a computed tomographic angiography, 6-minute walk test, and a standardized treadmill test. Controls completed a 540-second treadmill test for comparison. StO2 measurements were continuously taken from the gastrocnemius during exercise. Variables were analyzed by Fischer's exact, χ2, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate. Correlations were assessed by partial Spearman correlation coefficients adjusted for occlusive disease pattern. RESULTS: Patients with PAD experienced claudication onset at a median of 108 seconds with a median peak walking time of 288 seconds. The baseline StO2 was similar between PAD and control. The StO2 of PAD and control participants dropped below baseline at a median of 1 and 104 seconds of exercise, respectively (P < .0001). Patients with PAD reached minimum StO2 earlier than control participants (119 seconds vs 522 seconds, respectively; P < .001) and experienced a greater change in StO2 at 1 minute of exercise (-73.2% vs 8.3%; P < .0001) and a greater decrease at minimum exercise StO2 (-83.4% vs -16.1%; P < .0001). For patients with PAD, peak walking time, and 6-minute walking distance correlated with percent change in StO2 at 1 minute of exercise (r = -0.76 and -0.67, respectively; P < .001) and time to minimum StO2 (r = 0.79 and 0.70, respectively; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this initial evaluation of a novel, low-cost NIRS device, lower extremities affected by PAD exhibited characteristic changes in calf muscle StO2, which differentiated them from healthy controls and were strongly correlated with walking impairment. These findings confirm and expand on previous work demonstrating the potential clinical value of NIRS devices and the need for further research investigating the ability of low-cost NIRS technology to evaluate, diagnose, and monitor treatment response in PAD.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133671, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401508

RESUMO

In this paper, a facile approach was developed for highly effective oil/water separation by incorporating of the dimethyldiallylammonium chloride acrylamide polymer (P(AM-DMDAAC)) into graphene aerogels. The functionalized 3D graphene aerogel integrated a series of excellent physical properties, including low density (11.4 mg/cm3), large specific surface area (206.591 m2/g), and great hydrophobicity (contact angle of 142.7°). The modified aerogel showed excellent adsorption capacity for oils and organic solvents (up to 130 g/g). The saturation can be reached in a short time and the adsorption capacity remained nearly unchanged after repeated heating cycles. Meanwhile, we found a simple method to achieve controlled wettability transition of P(AM-DMDAAC)/graphene aerogels (PGAs) by changing the pH values. The hydrophobic PGA prepared at pH 2.03 showed outstanding oil/water separation performance (130 g/g). As the pH increased, the oil adsorption capabilities of PGAs decreased slightly, but the adsorption performance for the hydrophilic organic dye was significantly improved. Therefore, as a recyclable and efficient water purification material, the sustainable and environment-friendly polymer-modified graphene aerogel has great application potential.

18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 376, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a traditional Chinese herb, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is valued for its florets to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Basing on previous chemical analysis, the main active compounds are flavonoids in its florets. Although flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has been well-documented in many model species, unique biosynthetic pathway remains to be explored in safflower. Of note, as an important class of transitional enzymes, chalcone isomerase (CHI) has not been characterized in safflower. RESULTS: According to our previous research, CHIs were identified in a safflower transcriptome library built by our lab. To characterize CHI in safflower, a CHI gene named CtCHI1 was identified. A multiple sequences alignment and phylogenetic tree demonstrate that CtCHI1 shares 92% amino acid identity and close relationship with CHI to Saussurea medusa. Additionally, subcellular localization analysis indicated CtCHI1-GFP fusion protein was mainly in the cell nucleus. Further, we purified CtCHI1 protein from E. coli which can effectively catalyze isomerization of 2',4',4,6'-tetrahydroxychalcone into naringenin in vitro. Via genetic engineer technology, we successfully obtained transgenic tobacco and safflower lines. In transgenic tobacco, overexpression of CtCHI1 significantly inhibited main secondary metabolites accumulation, including quercetin (~ 79.63% for ovx-5 line) and anthocyanins (~ 64.55% for ovx-15 line). As shown in transgenic safflower, overexpression of CtCHI1 resulted in upstream genes CtPAL3 and CtC4H1 increasing dramatically (up to ~ 3.9fold) while Ct4CL3, CtF3H and CtDFR2 were inhibited. Also, comparing the whole metabolomics database by PCA and PLS-DA between transgenic and control group, 788 potential differential metabolites were marked and most of them displayed up-regulated trends. In parallel, some isolated secondary metabolites, such as hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), rutin, kaempferol-3-O-ß-rutinoside and dihydrokaempferol, accumulated in transgenic safflower plants. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that CtCHI1 is an active, functional, catalytic protein. Moreover, CtCHI1 can negatively and competitively regulate anthocyanins and quercetin pathway branches in tobacco. By contrast, CtCHI1 can positively regulate flavonol and chalcone metabolic flow in safflower. This research provides some clues to understand CHI's differential biochemical functional characterization involving in flavonoid pathway. More molecular mechanisms of CHI remain to be explored in the near future.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11148, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366951

RESUMO

To determine the feasibility of deformation analysis in the right ventricle (RV) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We enrolled 104 T2DM patients, including 14 with impaired right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and 90 with preserved RVEF, and 26 healthy controls in this prospective study. CMR was used to determine RV feature-tracking parameters. RV strain parameters were compared among the controls, patients with preserved and reduced RVEF. Binary logistic regression was used to predict RV dysfunction. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy. The agreement was tested by Bland-Altman analysis. Compared with controls, longitudinal and circumferential global peak strain (PS) and PS at mid-ventricular, apical slices were significantly decreased in T2DM patients with or without reduced RVEF (p < 0.05). Within the T2DM patients, the global longitudinal PS (GLPS) and the longitudinal PS at mid-ventricular segments were significantly reduced in the reduced RVEF group than in preserved RVEF groups (p < 0.05). GLPS was an independent predictor of RV dysfunction (odds ratio: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.037-1.496; p = 0.019). The GLPS demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy (area under curve: 0.716) to predict RV dysfunction. On Bland-Altman analysis, global circumferential PS and GLPS had the best intra- and inter-observer agreement, respectively. In T2DM patients, CMR-FT could quantify RV deformation and identify subclinical RV dysfunction in those with normal RVEF. Further, RV strain parameters are potential predictors for RV dysfunction in T2DM patients.

20.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121008, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470299

RESUMO

In this study, nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) with copper (Cu) bimetallic particles, whichare applied for degradation of Ciprofloxacin (CIP) under weak magnetic field (WMF), were synthesized using green tea extracts (GT-nZVI/Cu). The surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the novel catalytic materials were characterized. It was found that GT-nZVI was more stable and performed better in oxidation resistance than the nZVI synthesized by traditional chemical methods. Besides, the catalytic reactivity of GT-nZVI/Cu was measured with and without WMF, it is obvious from the experimental results the performance of GT-nZVI/Cu system was enhanced significantly with WMF. Moreover, WMF still had a certain effect even after being removed, which is called remanence effect. The mass spectrometry (MS) was utilized to analyze the degradation products of CIP, and the contribution of adsorption and Fenton/Fenton-like oxidation of GT-nZVI/Cu during CIP removal process was further evaluated. It was found that as the removal process progressed, the contribution ratio of Fenton/Fenton-like oxidation rose rapidly and exceeded adsorption after 20 min. Eventually, attempts have been made to regenerate GT-nZVI/Cu, in which physical recovery (ultrasonic) was the main route, and the CIP removal rate decreased as the regeneration times increased. This research provides new insights into the green synthesis and regeneration of nZVI and is expected to realize the practical application of nZVI.

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