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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(3): 253-261, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3, particularly subtype 3b, is increasing in prevalence and distribution in China. This study evaluated the prevalence, regional distribution, clinical characteristics, host factors, treatment outcomes, and disease progression of patients with HCV genotype 3 in China. METHODS: A 5-year follow-up was preceded by a cross-sectional study. Treatment choices were at the discretion of treating physicians. Estimated infection time to overall-disease-progression (defined by ≥1 of: newly diagnosed cirrhosis; cirrhosis at baseline, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score increased 2 points or more; progression from compensated cirrhosis to decompensated cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver transplantation; or death) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the risk factors for disease progression. RESULTS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 997 patients, including 91 with HCV genotype 3 infection. Among them, subtype 3b (57.1%) was more dominant than subtype 3a (38.5%). Five hundred and twelve patients were included into the follow-up phase. Among patients analyzed for estimated infection time to overall-disease-progression, 52/304 (17.1%) patients with HCV genotype 1 and 4/41 (9.8%) with HCV genotype 3 (4/26 with genotype 3b, 0/13 with genotype 3a, and 0/2 with undefined subtype of genotype 3) experienced overall-disease-progression. Patients with HCV genotype 3 were younger than those with genotype 1 (mean age: 39.5 ±â€Š8.7 vs. 46.9 ±â€Š13.6 years) and demonstrated more rapid disease progression (mean estimated infection time to overall-disease-progression 27.1 vs. 35.6 years). CONCLUSIONS: HCV genotype 3, specifically subtype 3b, is associated with more rapid progression of liver disease. Further analysis to compare HCV subtype 3a and 3b is needed in high prevalence regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01293279, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01293279; NCT01594554, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01594554.

2.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(2): 457-467.e21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with entecavir suppresses virus replication and reduces disease progression, but could require life-long therapy. To investigate clinical outcome events and safety associated with long-term treatment with entecavir, we followed up patients treated with entecavir or another standard-of-care HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue for up to 10 years. We assessed long-term outcomes and relationships with virologic response. METHODS: Patients with chronic HBV infection at 299 centers in Asia, Europe, and North and South America were assigned randomly to groups that received entecavir (n = 6216) or an investigator-selected nonentecavir HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue (n = 6162). Study participants were followed up for up to 10 years in hospital-based or community clinics. Key end points were time to adjudicated clinical outcome events and serious adverse events. In a substudy, we examined relationships between these events and virologic response. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in time to event assessments for primary end points including malignant neoplasms, liver-related HBV disease progression, and death. There were no differences between groups in the secondary end points of nonhepatocellular carcinoma malignant neoplasms and hepatocellular carcinoma. In a substudy of 5305 patients in China, virologic response, regardless of treatment group, was associated with a reduced risk of liver-related HBV disease progression (hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.038-0.221) and hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.009-0.113). Twelve patients given entecavir (0.2%) and 50 patients given nonentecavir drugs (0.8%) reported treatment-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic HBV infection, we associated entecavir therapy with a low rate of adverse events over 10 years of follow-up evaluation. Patients receiving entecavir vs another nucleos(t)ide analogue had comparable rates of liver- and non-liver-related clinical outcome events. Participants in a China cohort who maintained a virologic response, regardless of treatment group, had a reduced risk of HBV-related outcome events including hepatocellular carcinoma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no: NCT00388674.

3.
Front Chem ; 7: 770, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824916

RESUMO

Nanocarriers with responsibility and surface functionality of targeting molecules have been widely used to improve therapeutic efficiency. Hence, we report the assembly of pH-responsive and targeted polymer nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDPA) as the core and poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (PCBMA) as the shell, functionalized with cyclic peptides containing Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-D-Phenylalanine-Lysine (RGD). The resulting polymer NPs (PDPA@PCBMA-RGD NPs) can maintain the pH-responsivity of PDPA (pKa ~6.5) and low-fouling property of PCBMA that significantly resist non-specific interactions with RAW 264.7 and HeLa cells. Meanwhile, PDPA@PCBMA-RGD NPs could specifically target αvß3 integrin-expressed human glioblastoma (U87) cells. The pH-responsiveness and low-fouling properties of PDPA@PCBMA NPs are comparable to PDPA@poly(ethylene glycol) (PDPA@PEG) NPs, which indicates that PCBMA is an alternative to PEG for low-fouling coatings. The advantage of PDPA@PCBMA NPs lies in the presence of carboxyl groups on their surfaces for further modification (e.g., RGD functionalization for cell targeting). The reported polymer NPs represent a new carrier that have the potential for targeted therapeutic delivery.

4.
Langmuir ; 35(51): 16869-16875, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815492

RESUMO

We report the fabrication of polymer nanogels with a pH-responsive core and a pH-sheddable shell and investigate the pH-dependent cell association of the pH-responsive polymer nanogels. The pH-responsive core composed of poly(2-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDPA) with a pKa ≈ 6.2 was synthesized by using polymerization in emulsion droplets. The pH-sheddable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) shell was coated on the amine-modified PDPA nanogels by an acid-degradable amide bond. The PEG shell is cleavable in response to the acidic tumor microenvironment, and subsequently, the surface charge of the nanogels can be reversed, which effectively enhances cellular association of these nanogels. The reported pH-responsive polymer nanogels provide a promising way for the better understanding of bio-nano interactions and potentially enrich the application of therapeutic delivery for cancer therapy.

5.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 2585409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885733

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Little information is available about the assessment and optimal use of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) and transient elastography (TE) in predicting liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and concurrent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study is aimed at comparing their diagnostic performances and developing an optimal approach for predicting liver cirrhosis in CHB patients with NAFLD. Methods: Consecutive CHB patients with NAFLD were enrolled. The GPR was calculated, and TE was performed using liver biopsy as a reference standard. The accuracy of predicting liver cirrhosis using GPR and TE was assessed and compared, and an optimal approach was developed. Results: Both TE and GPR correlated significantly with the histological fibrosis stage. TE and GPR had excellent performance in predicting liver cirrhosis, and the comparison of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that TE was superior to GPR (0.95 vs. 0.85, P = 0.039). Moreover, the dual cutoffs established by the likelihood ratio showed that GPR had a similar misclassification but higher indeterminate rate than TE (54.5% vs. 11.7%, P < 0.001). Additionally, a 2-step approach using GPR followed by TE had comparable performance to that of both GPR and TE tests for all patients (misclassification: 8.9% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.866; indeterminate rate: 15.2% vs. 17.2%, P = 0.750) but could reduce TE scans by approximately one-third. Conclusions: Both TE and GPR show excellent performance in predicting liver cirrhosis in CHB patients with NAFLD. The 2-step approach using GPR followed by TE may be optimal for the assessment of cirrhosis in CHB patients with NAFLD.

6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 475, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) is a member of the Fox transcription factor family involved in regulation of many cancers. However, the role of FOXG1 in hepatocellular carcinogenesisis largely unclear. The present study aimed at examining the biological function and underlying mechanism of FOXG1 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor metastasis as well as its clinical significance. METHODS: Levels of FOXG1 were determined by immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analysis in HCC cell lines and human HCC samples. The effect of FOXG1 on cancer cell invasion and metastasis was investigated in vitro and in vivo in either FOXG1-silenced or overexpressing human HCC cell lines. Immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed to investigate the interaction of FOXG1, ß-catenin, TCF4 and the effect on Wnt target-gene promoters. RESULTS: In human HCC, the level of FOXG1 progressively increased from surrounding non tumorous livers to HCC, reaching the highest levels in metastatic HCC. Furthermore, expression levels of FOXG1 directly correlated with cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. In FOXG1-overexpressing cells, FOXG1 promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin by directly binding to ß-catenin and it associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs) on Wnt responsive enhancers (WREs) in chromatin. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that FOXG1 plays a key role in mediating cancer cell metastasis through the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in HCC cells and predicts HCC prognosis after surgery. Targeting FOXG1 may provide a new approach for therapeutic treatment in the future.

7.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 7(3): 221-225, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608213

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Genotype (GT) 1 remains the predominant hepatitis c virus (HCV) GT in Chinese patients. Over 80% of those Chinese patients harbor the interferon-sensitive CC allele of IFNL4rs12979860, which is favorable for interferon-based treatment regimens. This phase III clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the ritonavir-boosted danoprevir plus pegylated-interferon α-2a and ribavirin regimen for 12 weeks in treatment-naïve mainland Chinese patients infected with HCV GT1 without cirrhosis. Methods: One hundred and forty-one treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic HCV GT1 Chinese patients (age ≥18 years) were enrolled for this single-arm, multicenter, phase III MANASA study (NCT03020082). Patients received a combination of ritonavir-boosted danoprevir (100 mg/100 mg) twice a day plus subcutaneous injection of weekly pegylated-interferon α-2a (180 µg) and oral ribavirin (1000/1200 mg/day body weight <75/≥75 kg) for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was sustained virologic response rate at 12 weeks after the end of treatment. The secondary end-points were safety outcomes, tolerability, virologic response over time and relapse rate. Results: All enrolled patients were HCV GT1-infected, and most among them (97.9%, 123/141) had the HCV GT1b subtype. Single-nucleotide polymorphism test showed that the majority of patients were of the IFNL4 rs12979860 CC genotype (87.2%, 123/141). Overall, 140 patients completed the 12-week treatment, and 97.1% (136/140) patients achieved sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (per protocol population group, 95% confidence interval: 92.9-99.2%). Only drug-related serious adverse event occurred. Most of the adverse events were grade 1 and grade 2 alanine aminotransferase elevation or liver dysfunction. One patient discontinued treatment because of severe head injury in a car accident. Conclusions: The triple regimen of ritonavir-boosted danoprevir plus pegylated-interferon α-2a and ribavirin produced a sustained virologic response rate of 97.1% after 12 weeks treatment in noncirrhotic HCV GT1-infected Chinese patients, and was safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration Clinical-Trials.gov Identifier: NCT03020082.

8.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 7(3): 249-257, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608217

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Data are limited on the use of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a (peg-IFNα) in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB). We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of peg-IFNα in Chinese patients with hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative CHB in routine clinical practice. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, observational, non-interventional cohort study, patients were assessed for up to 1 year after peg-IFNα treatment cessation. Treating physicians established the dosing and treatment duration according to Chinese clinical practice. Effectiveness of peg-IFNα treatment was measured by the percentage of: patients with HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL and loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (commonly known as HBsAg); HBV DNA level at end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months and 1 year posttreatment; and time course change in quantitative HBV DNA and HBsAg. Results: At EOT, 6 months posttreatment, and 1 year posttreatment, the percentage of patients with HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL was 90.0%, 81.8%, and 82.2%, and that of patients with HBsAg loss was 6.5%, 9.4%, and 9.5%, respectively. The HBV DNA level decreased from 5.61 log IU/mL at baseline to 2.48 log IU/mL at EOT and 2.67 log IU/mL at 1 year posttreatment. The HBsAg level decreased from 3.08 log IU/mL at baseline to 2.24 log IU/mL at EOT and 2.10 log IU/mL at 1 year posttreatment. The incidence of adverse events was 52.0%. Conclusions: Peg-IFNα has the potential to provide functional cure (HBsAg loss) for CHB and is well tolerated in hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative CHB patients in routine clinical practice in China. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01730508).

9.
Antivir Ther ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This 5-year follow-up of the CCgenos cross-sectional study aimed to observe real-life outcomes in a cohort of 997 Han Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection and to explore the impacts of HCV genotype, patient characteristics and treatment status. METHODS: Clinical information and centralized HCV RNA measures were collected every 6/3 months for untreated/treated patients. Overall disease progression was defined as ≥1 of: de novo development of cirrhosis, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score increased by ≥2 points (if cirrhosis at baseline), progression to decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver transplant or death. Cox regression assessed risk factors for the time from estimated infection to cirrhosis or HCC. Logistic regression assessed risk factors for incidence rates of cirrhosis and overall disease progression. RESULTS: 281 of 514 patients enrolled across China completed 5 years of follow-up. Overall disease progression occurred in 36/364 (9.9%) treated patients and 35/148 (23.6%) untreated patients (odds ratio = 0.35; 95% CI 0.21, 0.59; P<0.0001). Overall disease progression occurred in 6/231 (2.6%) patients achieving sustained virological response at 24 weeks (SVR24) versus 11/82 (13.4%) who did not (P=0.0002). Cirrhosis development was significantly associated with abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (AST), age ≥40 years, body mass index ≥28 kg/m2, HCV GT1, platelet count <100×109/l, and AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥2 (multivariate Cox regression, P<0.05). HCC was significantly associated with HCV GT1 and platelet count <100×109/l (multivariate Cox regression, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Achieving SVR24 significantly reduced the probability of overall disease progression but no significant difference was seen for both cirrhosis and HCC during 5 years of follow-up.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16778, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been widely recommended as a first-line antiviral agent to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Qingzhong and Viread, formulations of TDF commercialized by Jiangsu Chia-tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Co Ltd and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively, have both been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration, China. This study analyzed the efficacy and safety of these 2 TDF agents in Chinese patients with CHB. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority phase 3 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02287857), 330 Chinese patients with CHB [hepatitis B envelope antigen-positive (HBeAg) (+): 232] were randomly assigned to receive Qingzhong (group A: 161 patients) or Viread (group B: 169 patients) 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Subsequently, all patients were administered Qingzhong 300 mg once daily from week 49 to week 240. The primary end point was the degree of decline of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels at week 48 and the secondary endpoints were viral suppression, normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBeAg loss or seroconversion, and virological breakthrough. RESULTS: Among patients with CHB who were HBeAg (+), the mean HBV DNA titer decreased similarly between the groups at week 48. The percentages of patients who achieved undetectable HBV DNA were similar between the groups (85.11% and 82.35% in groups A and B, respectively) and similar losses of HBeAg and HBeAg seroconversion rates were achieved. Moreover, for patients with CHB who were HBeAg (-), reductions in HBV DNA were similar. Among all patients with CHB, the rates of normalization of ALT and the loss of HBsAg were similar. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the 48-week administration of Qingzhong showed noninferior efficacy and safety profiles compared to Viread in Chinese patients with CHB.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 1538439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198792

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Serum immunoglobulins are frequently increased in patients with chronic liver disease, but little is known about the role of serum immunoglobulins and their correlations with interleukin-27 (IL-27) in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). This study was aimed at determining the role of serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels and their associations with IL-27 in noncirrhotic patients with HBV-ACLF. Methods: Samples were assessed from thirty patients with HBV-ACLF, twenty-four chronic hepatitis B (CHB) subjects, and eighteen normal controls. Disease severity of HBV-ACLF was evaluated. Serum IL-27 levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunoglobulin levels were assessed using immunoturbidimetric assay. Correlations between immunoglobulin levels and IL-27 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to predict the 3-month mortality. Results: 25 (83.3%) HBV-ACLF patients had elevated serum IgG levels (>1 ULN), 14 (46.7%) patients had elevated IgA, and 15 (50%) had raised IgM. IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were higher in HBV-ACLF patients than in CHB patients and normal controls. Moreover, IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were positively correlated with Tbil levels but negatively correlated with prothrombin time activity (PTA) levels. Additionally, IgG levels were significantly increased in nonsurviving patients than in surviving HBV-ACLF patients (P = 0.007) and positively correlated with MELD score (r = 0.401, P = 0.028). Also, IgG levels were positively correlated with IL-27 levels in HBV-ACLF patients (r = 0.398, P = 0.029). Furthermore, ROC curve showed that IgG levels could predict the 3-month mortality in HBV-ACLF patients (the area under the ROC curve: 0.752, P = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that serum immunoglobulins were preferentially elevated in HBV-ACLF patients. IgG levels were positively correlated with IL-27 and may predict prognosis in HBV-ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Doença Aguda , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Humanos , Interleucina-27/sangue , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
12.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 65, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b is recommended for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to investigate the sustainability of off-treatment responses among Chinese HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN alfa-2b from a randomized trial. METHODS: Eligible Chinese patients (n = 322) were followed up by one visit after a median of 6 years (LTFU) following their participation in a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of three PEG-IFN alfa-2b dosing regimens (1.0 or 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 24 weeks or 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 48 weeks). Primary endpoints at the LTFU were sustained SR and CR (SR/CR at the end of original study [EOS] and at the LTFU). SR was defined as HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe and CR as HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe and HBV-DNA < 2000 IU/mL. RESULTS: The proportions of patients achieving sustained SR among patients who had SR at EOS were high in three treatment groups (61.9, 65.5, 76.5%, respectively, p = 0.46); treatment with PEG-IFN alfa-2b 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 48 weeks had the highest proportion of a sustained CR among patients who had CR at EOS (75.0%, p = 0.05). A considerable number of patients achieved sustained SR (18.2-29.9%) and sustained CR (14.8-18.3%) after EOS despite no further NA treatment. At the LTFU, rates of SR and CR were less than 70.0 and 50.0%, respectively, among all enrolled patients regardless of additional nucleos(t)ide analogs before the LTFU. CONCLUSIONS: PEG IFN alfa-2b therapy had considerable off-treatment sustainability in Chinese HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with serological and complete responses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Invest ; 129(8): 3347-3360, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112529

RESUMO

PD-L1 is a promising therapeutic target in aggressive cancers. However, immune landscapes and cancer hallmarks of human PD-L1+ tumors, as well as their roles in determining therapeutic efficacies are unknown. Here we identified, in detailed studies of gene data regarding 9769 patients of 32 types of human cancers, that PD-L1 could not exclusively represent IFN-γ signature and potentially signified pro-inflammatory myeloid responses in a tumor. PD-L1 heterogeneity endowed by local immune landscapes controlled cancer hallmarks and clinical outcomes of patients. Mechanically, NF-κB signal elicited by macrophage inflammatory responses generated PD-L1+ cancer cells exhibiting capabilities to aggressively survive, support angiogenesis, and metastasize, whereas STAT1 signal triggered by activated T cells induced PD-L1+ cancer cells susceptive to apoptosis. Importantly, PD-L1+ cancer cells generated by macrophages established great resistance to conventional chemotherapy, cytotoxicity of tumor-specific effector T cells, and therapy of immune checkpoint blockade. Therapeutic strategy combining immune checkpoint blockade with macrophage depletion or NF-κB inhibition in vivo effectively and successfully elicited caner regression. Our results provide insight into the functional features of PD-L1+ tumors and suggest that strategies to influence functional activities of inflammatory cells may benefit immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

14.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(10): 1146-1155, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087479

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major public health issue worldwide. HBsAg loss is associated with functional remission and improved long-term outcome, and is considered to be a 'functional cure' (also referred to as clinical or immunologic cure) for chronic hepatitis B. This ideal goal of therapy can be achieved using optimized combination regimens with direct-acting antivirals [eg nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs)] and immunomodulators [eg pegylated interferon alpha2a (Peg-IFN)] in selected patients with chronic hepatitis B. Among different combination therapies currently available, those with NA lead-in followed by Peg-IFN in virally suppressed patients has been demonstrated to be effective. This review provides an updated overview of the evidence supporting the use of combination therapies and summarizes expert consensus on the roadmap to attain functional cure for chronic hepatitis B patients.

15.
Hepatol Int ; 13(3): 260-269, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Long-term treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has demonstrated suppression of viral replication outside of China. This study aims to assess efficacy, resistance and safety of TDF for up to 240 weeks in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: Patients (HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative) who were randomised to receive TDF 300 mg or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) 10 mg once daily in the 48-week double-blind phase (N = 498) were eligible to enter the open-label TDF phase (TDF-TDF and ADV-TDF groups) for additional 192 weeks. RESULTS: Overall, 457/512 (89.3%) randomised patients completed 240 weeks of treatment. Virological suppression was achieved in 84.5% and 87.9% in HBeAg-positive patients and 89.6% and 89.5% in HBeAg-negative patients in TDF-TDF and ADV-TDF groups, respectively, at week 240. The majority of patients from both groups had normalized alanine transaminase levels. More patients had HBeAg loss (41.7% vs. 36.4%) and HBeAg seroconversion (32.0% vs. 28.3%) in TDF-TDF than in ADV-TDF group, respectively. Only one HBeAg-positive patient in TDF-TDF group had HBsAg loss at week 240. No evidence of resistance to TDF was observed. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups (TDF-TDF, 56.4% vs. ADV-TDF, 51.6%). One patient had serum creatinine elevation ≥ 0.5 mg/dL above baseline, and three patients had confirmed grade 3/4 phosphorus abnormalities (< 2 mg/dL). CONCLUSION: In Chinese patients with chronic HBV, long-term treatment with TDF showed sustained viral suppression without development of resistance up to 240 weeks. No new safety concerns were found with TDF in this patient population. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT01300234; GSK Clinical Study Register 114648.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Immunobiology ; 224(3): 388-396, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), named Δ42PD1, which contains a 42-base-pair in-frame deletion compared with the full-length PD-1. Δ42PD1 is likely constitutively expressed on human monocytes and down-regulated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The mechanism underlying the regulation of Δ42PD-1 expression in monocytes remains unknown. METHODS: By flow cytometry, we investigated the effect of Interferon-gamma (INF-γ) on the expression of Δ42PD1 in primary human monocytes as well as monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937 cells. In addition, signaling pathway inhibitors and Δ42PD1-specific blocking antibody were used to explore the pathway involved in INF-γ-induced Δ42PD1 upregulation, and to elucidate the relationship between Δ42PD1 and TNF-α or IL-6 production by INF-γ primed monocytes in response to pre-fixed E. coli. Furthermore, we assessed T-cell proliferation, activation and cytokine production as enriched CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with THP-1 or U937 cells, with or without Δ42PD1-blocking antibody. RESULTS: Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with IFN-γ resulted in an approximately 4-fold increase in the expression of Δ42PD1 on monocytes. Similarly, IFN-γ upregulates Δ42PD1 expression on human monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. IFN-γ-induced Δ42PD1 upregulation was abolished by JAK inhibitors Ruxolitinib and Tasocitinib, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and AKT inhibitor MK-2206, respectively, but not by STAT1 inhibitor and MAPK signaling pathway inhibitors. JAK, PI3K-AKT, and MAPK signaling inhibitors abolished effectively the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in INF-γ-primed monocytes in response to pre-fixed E. coli. In contrast, Δ42PD1-specific blocking antibody did not affect the IFN-γ-induced priming effect. Furthermore, the MFI ratio of Δ42PD1 to full-length PD-1 (PD-1 Δ/F ratio) was significantly and positively correlated with TNF-α (P = 0.0289, r = 0.6038) produced by circulating CD14+ monocytes in response to pre-fixed E. coli. Notably, Δ42PD1 blockage significantly inhibited CD4+ T-cells proliferation and cytokine production in the co-culture conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that IFN-γ increases Δ42PD1 expression on human monocytes via activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway downstream of JAKs, and that the PD-1 Δ/F ratio is a potential biomarker to predict the functional state of monocytes. Notably, we revealed the Δ42PD1 play a role in T-cell regulation, providing a novel potential approach to manipulate adaptive immune response.

17.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 4130757, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863450

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a common type of liver failure with a high mortality. This study aimed at investigating the safety and efficacy of the combination treatment of plasma exchange (PE) and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSCs) transplantation for HBV-ACLF patients. Methods: A total of 110 HBV-ACLF patients treated in our hospital from January 2012 to September 2017 were enrolled into this trial and divided into the control group (n = 30), UC-MSC group (n = 30), PE group (n = 30), and UC-MSC + PE group (n = 20) based on their treatments. The hepatic function, coagulation, and virological and immunological markers were assessed at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 days. The endpoint outcomes were death and unfavorable outcome (need for liver transplantation or death). Results: The UC-MSC + PE group had the lowest rates of death and unfavorable outcome at 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days posttreatment among the four groups, but the difference did not reach significances. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that hemoglobin, prothrombin activity, and MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) score were the independent factors associated with the unfavorable outcome (all P < 0.05). The levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, and MELD score were significantly decreased during treatments (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: UC-MSCs combined with PE treatment had good safety but cannot significantly improve the short-term prognosis of HBV-ACLF patients with as compared with the single treatment. The long-term efficacy should be further evaluated. This trial is registered with registration no. NCT01724398.

18.
J Med Virol ; 91(7): 1313-1318, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Genotype 3b hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents approximately 50% of patients with genotype 3 in China. We compared the efficacy of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus ribavirin (RBV) in Chinese patients with genotype 3a and 3b HCV. METHODS: The analyzed data are from a phase 3, open-label study of SOF plus RBV for 24 weeks conducted in China. The primary endpoint for the trial was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). RESULTS: Of 126 patients included in this analysis, 58 (46%) had genotype 3a and 68 (54%) had genotype 3b. Both the subtypes were similar in age, sex, body mass index, IL28B, and baseline HCV RNA. However, more treatment-experienced and cirrhotic patients were in the genotype 3b group. All 100% of patients with genotype 3a (95% confidence interval [CI], 94-100), and 91% (95% CI, 82-97) of patients with genotype 3b achieved SVR12 (P = 0.030). For treatment-experienced patients with genotype 3b, the SVR12 rate was 73% (95% CI, 39-94) and 88% (95% CI, 64-99) among patients with and without cirrhosis (P = 1.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: SOF plus RBV for 24 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection resulted in high rates of SVR. However, the SVR12 rate among patients with genotype 3b was lower than that observed in patients with genotype 3a infection, particularly among treatment-experienced patients with cirrhosis.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3951574, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809540

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Concordance between transient elastography (TE) and ultrasonography (US) in assessing liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and concurrent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been rarely studied. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and combined performances of TE and US in assessing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: Consecutive CHB patients with NAFLD were prospectively enrolled. TE and US examinations were performed, with liver biopsy as a reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Differences between the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were compared using DeLong's test. Results: TE and US scores correlated significantly with the histological fibrosis staging scores. TE was significantly superior to US in the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (AUC, 0.84 vs 0.73; P=0.02), advanced fibrosis (AUC, 0.95 vs 0.76; P<0.001), and cirrhosis (AUC, 0.96 vs 0.71; P<0.001). Combining TE with US did not increase the accuracy of detecting significant fibrosis, advanced cirrhosis, or cirrhosis (P=0.62, P=0.69, and P=0.38, respectively) compared to TE alone. However, TE combined with US significantly increased the positive predictive value for significant fibrosis when compared to TE alone. The optimal cut-off values of TE for predicting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis were 8.7 kPa and 10.9 kPa, with negative predictive values of 92.4% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusions: TE is useful for predicting hepatic fibrosis and excluding cirrhosis in CHB patients with NAFLD. A combination of TE and US does not improve the accuracy in assessing liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biópsia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/virologia , Curva ROC
20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(3): 662-670, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653265

RESUMO

Early tumor recurrence after curative surgical resection poses a great challenge to the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We conducted whole genome expression microarrays on 64 primary HCC tumors with clinically defined recurrence status and cross-referenced with RNA-seq data from 18 HCC tumors in the Cancer Genome Atlas project. We identified a 77-gene signature, which is significantly associated with early recurrent (ER) HCC tumors. This ER-associated signature shows significant enrichment in genes involved in cell cycle pathway. We performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the prognostic biomarker potential of these 77 genes and Pearson correlation analysis to identify 11 close clusters. The one gene with the best area under the ROC curve in each of the 11 clusters was selected for validation using reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in an independent cohort of 24 HCC tumors. NUF2 was identified to be the minimal biomarker sufficient to discriminate ER tumors from LR tumors. NUF2 in combination with liver cirrhosis could significantly improve the detection of ER tumors with an AUROC of 0.82 and 0.85 in the test and validation cohort, respectively. In conclusion, NUF2 in combination with liver cirrhosis is a promising prognostic biomarker for early HCC recurrence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma
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