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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
2.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 71(Pt A): 101893, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for several cancer types, but there are no contemporary published estimates of the state-level burden of cancer attributed to alcoholic beverage consumption. Such estimates are needed to inform public policy and cancer control efforts. We estimated the proportion and number of incident cancer cases and cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption by sex in adults aged ≥30 years in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013-2016. METHODS: Age-, sex-, and state-specific cancer incidence and mortality data (2013-2016) were obtained from the US Cancer Statistics database. State-level, self-reported age and sex stratified alcohol consumption prevalence was estimated using the 2003-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and adjusted with state sales data. RESULTS: The proportion of alcohol-attributable incident cancer cases ranged from 2.9 % (95 % confidence interval: 2.7 %-3.1 %) in Utah to 6.7 % (6.4 %-7.0 %) in Delaware among men and women combined, from 2.7 % (2.5 %-3.0 %) in Utah to 6.3 % (5.9 %-6.7 %) in Hawaii among men, and from 2.7 % (2.4 %-3.0 %) in Utah to 7.7 % (7.2 %-8.3 %) in Delaware among women. The proportion of alcohol-attributable cancer deaths also varied considerably across states: from 1.9 % to 4.5 % among men and women combined, from 2.1% to 5.0% among men, and from 1.4 % to 4.4 % among women. Nationally, alcohol consumption accounted for 75,199 cancer cases and 18,947 cancer deaths annually. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption accounts for a considerable proportion of cancer incidence and mortality in all states. Implementing state-level policies and cancer control efforts to reduce alcohol consumption could reduce this cancer burden.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for women at high risk of symptom-detected breast cancers that were missed by screening would enable targeting of enhanced screening regimens. To this end, we examined associations of breast cancer risk factors by mode of detection in screened women from the Cancer Prevention Study (CPS)-II Nutrition Cohort. METHODS: Among 77,206 women followed for a median of 14.8 years, 2711 screen-detected and 1281 symptom-detected breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable-adjusted associations were estimated using joint Cox proportional hazards regression models with person-time calculated contingent on screening. RESULTS: Factors associated with higher risks of symptom-detected and screen-detected breast cancer included current combined hormone therapy (HT) use (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.72-2.48 and 1.45, 1.27-1.65, respectively) and history of benign breast disease (1.85, 1.64-2.08 and 1.43, 1.31-1.55, respectively). Current estrogen-only HT use was associated with symptom-detected (1.40, 1.15-1.71) but not screen-detected (0.95, 0.83-1.09) breast cancer. Higher risk of screen-detected but not symptom-detected breast cancer was observed for obese vs. normal body mass index (1.22, 1.01-1.48 and 0.76, 0.56-1.01, respectively), per 3 h/day sitting time (1.10, 1.04-1.16 and 0.97, 0.89-1.06, respectively), and ≥ 2 drinks per day vs. nondrinker (1.40, 1.16-1.69 and 1.27, 0.97-1.66, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factors for symptom-detected vs. screen-detected breast cancer were observed and most notably, use of combined and estrogen-only HT and a history of benign breast disease were associated with increased risk of symptomatic detected breast cancer. IMPACT: If confirmed, these data suggest that such women may benefit from more intensive screening to facilitate early detection.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between time-use behaviors and prospective weight change is poorly understood. METHODS: A subset of Cancer Prevention Study-3 participants (n = 549, 58% women, 66% non-Latinx white) self-reported weight in 2015 and 2018 and completed an accelerometer protocol for seven days. Sedentary time, sleep, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) were treated as a compositional variable and multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between activity composition and weight change stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Compositional isotemporal substitution analysis was used to quantify change in weight associated with reallocating 30 min./day. RESULTS: Activity composition was associated with weight change among women (p = 0.007), but not men (p = 0.356), and among Latinx (p = 0.032) and white participants (p = 0.001), but not Black participants (p = 0.903). Replacement of 30 min./day sedentary time with moderate-vigorous PA was associated with 3.49 lbs. loss (-6.76, -0.22) in Latinx participants and replacement with sleep was associated with 1.52 (0.25, 2.79) and 1.31 (0.40, 2.21) lbs. gain in white women and men. CONCLUSION: The distribution of time spent in daily behaviors was associated with three-year weight change in women, Latinx, and white participants. This was the first longitudinal compositional study of weight change; thus, more studies are needed.

9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess body fatness and physical activity independently influence the risk of several types of cancer. However, few studies have examined whether physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We examined the individual and joint associations between BMI (kg/m2) and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, MET-hours/week) with the risk of three established excess body fatness-related cancers (breast, colon, and endometrial) among 43,795 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort (1992/1993-2015). Further exclusions for women without an intact uterus resulted in 31,805 women for endometrial cancer analyses. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with interaction terms to assess multiplicative interaction. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated to assess additive interaction. RESULTS: BMI and MVPA were individually associated with breast and endometrial cancer risk, but only BMI was associated with colon cancer risk. In joint analyses, increasing levels of MVPA did not lower the risk of these cancers among obese women. For example, compared to the common referent (BMI 18.5- < 25 kg/m2, MVPA > 0- < 7.5 MET-hours/week), BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among women with low MVPA (> 0-< 7.5 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22 - 1.67) and high MVPA (≥ 15 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.25 - 1.87; RERI = 0.20, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.54, multiplicative Pinteraction = 0.64). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher BMI for risk of breast, endometrial, or colon cancer among postmenopausal women.

11.
Cancer ; 127(1): 115-123, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sitting time with quality of life in cancer survivors compared with a cancer-free group. The current study examined differences in global mental health (GMH) and global physical health (GPH) across levels of MVPA and sitting among cancer survivors and cancer-free participants. METHODS: Cancer Prevention Study II participants (59.9% of whom were female with an age of 77.8 ± 5.8 years) were grouped as: 1) survivors who were 1 to 5 years after diagnosis (3718 participants); 2) survivors who were 6 to 10 years after diagnosis (4248 participants); and 3) cancer-free participants (ie, no history of cancer; 69,860 participants). In 2009, participants completed MVPA, sitting, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System GMH/GPH surveys. Mean differences in GMH and GPH T scores across MVPA (none, 0 to <7.5, 7.5 to <15, 15 to <22.5, and ≥22.5 metabolic equivalent [MET]-hours/week) and sitting (0 to <3, 3 to <6, and ≥6 hours/day) were assessed using multivariate generalized linear models. RESULTS: The mean GMH and GPH scores were statistically significantly higher in cancer-free participants compared with cancer survivor groups, although the differences were not clinically meaningful (mean difference of 0.52 for GMH and 0.88 for GPH). More MVPA was associated with higher GMH and GPH scores for all 3 groups (P for trend <.001), and differences between the least and most active participants were found to be clinically meaningful (mean differences of ≥4.34 for GMH and ≥6.39 for GPH). Similarly, a lower duration of sitting was associated with higher GMH and GPH scores for all groups (P for trend <.001), with clinically meaningful differences observed between the least and most sedentary participants (mean differences of ≥2.74 for GMH and ≥3.75 for GPH). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study provide evidence of the importance of increased MVPA and decreased sitting for improved health in older adults with or without a prior cancer diagnosis.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e18556, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic cohort studies have begun to leverage electronic research participant portals to facilitate data collection, integrate wearable technologies, lower costs, and engage participants. However, little is known about the acceptability of portal use by research participants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to conduct focus groups among a sample of Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) participants to better understand their preferences and concerns about research portals. METHODS: CPS-3 participants were stratified based on sex, race and ethnicity, age, and cancer status, and randomly invited to participate. Focus groups used an exploratory case design with semistructured guides to prompt discussion. Using a constant comparison technique, transcripts were assigned codes to identify themes. RESULTS: Participants (31/59, 52% women; 52/59, 88% White/non-Latinx) were favorably disposed toward using a research participant portal to take surveys, communicate with the study staff, and upload data. Most participants indicated that a portal would be beneficial and convenient but expressed concerns over data safety. Participants stressed the importance of an easy-to-use and trustworthy portal that is compatible with mobile devices. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to being beneficial to researchers, portals may also benefit participants as long as the portals are secure and simple. Participants believe that portals can provide convenient ways to report data and remain connected to the study.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2680-2685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests the association between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk is weaker among current smokers than among never smokers. METHODS: We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among adults who reported smoking status at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982, including 420,543 never smokers, 282,244 former cigarette smokers, and 219,885 current cigarette smokers. After excluding the first 3 years of follow-up to reduce reverse causation, we calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: During the full follow-up period from 1985 to 2014, 7,904 participants died of pancreatic cancer. The HR per 5 BMI units was lower among current smokers [HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.20] than never smokers (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). BMI was significantly less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers reporting ≥20 cigarettes/day (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18) than among never smokers. During follow-up within 10 years of enrollment, when current smokers at enrollment were the most likely to have still been smoking, BMI was not associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16, P = 0.03 for difference between current and never smokers). BMI HRs were similar among former and never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a weaker association between BMI and pancreatic cancer among current smokers than among never smokers. IMPACT: In populations with low smoking prevalence, the pancreatic cancer burden due to BMI is likely to be higher than that predicted by risk estimates from studies including substantial numbers of smokers.

14.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964460

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to the burden of disease worldwide. Most of the global population resides in places where air pollution levels, because of emissions from industry, power generation, transportation, and domestic burning, considerably exceed the World Health Organization's health-based air-quality guidelines. Outdoor air pollution poses an urgent worldwide public health challenge because it is ubiquitous and has numerous serious adverse human health effects, including cancer. Currently, there is substantial evidence from studies of humans and experimental animals as well as mechanistic evidence to support a causal link between outdoor (ambient) air pollution, and especially particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air, with lung cancer incidence and mortality. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of lung cancer deaths annually worldwide are attributable to PM air pollution. Epidemiological evidence on outdoor air pollution and the risk of other types of cancer, such as bladder cancer or breast cancer, is more limited. Outdoor air pollution may also be associated with poorer cancer survival, although further research is needed. This report presents an overview of outdoor air pollutants, sources, and global levels, as well as a description of epidemiological evidence linking outdoor air pollution with cancer incidence and mortality. Biological mechanisms of air pollution-derived carcinogenesis are also described. This report concludes by summarizing public health/policy recommendations, including multilevel interventions aimed at individual, community, and regional scales. Specific roles for medical and health care communities with regard to prevention and advocacy and recommendations for further research are also described.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E78, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762807

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) has beneficial effects on hypertension, glucose homeostasis, and other health conditions; however, its association with mortality is not as well understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (data collection 1982-2014), a prospective US cohort that consisted of 72,462 men and women who were free of major chronic diseases; 18,034 of the cohort died during 13 years of follow-up (2001-2014). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, controlling for various potential confounding factors, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MSA (none, >0 to <1 h/wk, 1 to <2 h/wk, and ≥2 h/wk) in relation to mortality risk, independent of and in combination with aerobic physical activity. RESULTS: The association between MSA and mortality appeared to be nonlinear (quadratic trend P value, <.001). After multivariable adjustment and comparison with no MSA, engaging in less than 2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lowered all-cause mortality (>0 to <1 h/wk: HR = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.82-0.94; 1 to <2 h/wk: HR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), but engaging in 2 or more hours per week was not associated with reduced risk (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92-1.09). Associations were similar but not significant for cancer mortality. Engaging in >0 to <1 hr/wk of MSA was associated with a 19% lower risk (HR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) of cardiovascular disease mortality, but more time spent in MSA was not associated with reduced risk (quadratic trend P value =.005). Associations did not vary by amount of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity. CONCLUSION: Engaging in ≥2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lower all-cause mortality, independent of aerobic activity. Reasons for the lack of association with higher amounts of MSA are unclear. Our findings support recommending muscle-strengthening activities for overall health.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2383-2386, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of a potential inverse association between coffee, particularly caffeinated coffee, consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and few studies have examined this association by tumor hormone receptor status. To provide further evidence, we examined total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption in relation to postmenopausal invasive breast cancer incidence overall, and by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) subtype. METHODS: Among 57,075 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer free and reported coffee intake in 1999, we identified 2,980 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up through June 2015. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Neither total, caffeinated, nor decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with invasive breast cancer risk; HRs (95% CIs) comparing consumption of ≥2 cups per day with <1 cup per month were 0.99 (0.89-1.11), 0.96 (0.87-1.06), and 1.06 (0.95-1.19), respectively. Similarly, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of hormone receptor-positive (ER+ or PR+) or hormone receptor-negative (ER- and PR-) breast tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support an association between coffee consumption and invasive breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This large prospective study contributes to the limited evidence on coffee consumption and breast cancer risk, finding no association overall or by tumor receptor subtype.

18.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 70(4): 245-271, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515498

RESUMO

The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes the Diet and Physical Activity Guideline to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. This guideline is developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and reflects the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS guideline focuses on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. This 2020 ACS guideline is consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3110-3118, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506449

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead are persistent environmental toxins that are known or probable carcinogens, based on evidence for causality for nonhematologic cancers. Associations of these metals with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown but biologically plausible. To examine the associations of circulating levels of lead and cadmium exposure with risk of B-cell NHL (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma, we conducted a nested case-control study among 299 incident B-cell NHLs and 76 MM cases within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II NC). Each case was incidence-density matched to two eligible controls on age, race, sex and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lymphoid malignancies overall and stratified by subtype. We observed a significant positive association between high erythrocyte lead concentration and risk of lymphoid malignancies overall (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33 per 17.6 µg/L (1 standard deviation [SD])) and follicular lymphoma in particular (RR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.80 per SD). In contrast, there was no association between erythrocyte cadmium and risk of B-NHL (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.75-1.06 per 0.37 µg/L [1 SD]), or any B-NHL subtypes; but a strong inverse association with MM risk (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, per SD). Results from our study suggest a positive association between erythrocyte lead level and risk of lymphoid malignancies and a possible inverse association between cadmium and myeloma. Additional research is needed to confirm and further explore these findings.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101730, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk generally appears null, but recent evidence suggests that risk may vary by coffee type. We examined associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with colorectal cancer risk overall and with colon and rectum separately, among older U.S. men and women. METHODS: In 1999, 47,010 men and 60,051 women with no previous diagnosis of cancer, aged 47-96 years, in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire that assessed caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake; consumption was updated in 2003. A total of 1829 colorectal cancer cases were verified through June 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking history, alcohol, caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee intake (depending on the model), and other colorectal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee, compared to no decaffeinated coffee, was associated with lower risk of overall colorectal cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96, P-trend = 0.04), colon cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99, P-trend = 0.05) and rectal cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.99, P-trend = 0.17). Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with higher risk of rectal cancer (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99-1.89, P-trend = 0.04), but not with colorectal or colon cancer. CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, higher intake of decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers. Further study on associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk by subsite is needed.

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