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1.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 7(1): 78, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493736

RESUMO

A prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD) may precede motor manifestations by decades. PD patients' siblings are at higher risk for PD, but the prevalence and distribution of prodromal symptoms are unknown. The study objectives were (1) to assess motor and non-motor features estimating prodromal PD probability in PD siblings recruited within the European PROPAG-AGEING project; (2) to compare motor and non-motor symptoms to the well-established DeNoPa cohort. 340 PD siblings from three sites (Bologna, Seville, Kassel/Goettingen) underwent clinical and neurological evaluations of PD markers. The German part of the cohort was compared with German de novo PD patients (dnPDs) and healthy controls (CTRs) from DeNoPa. Fifteen (4.4%) siblings presented with subtle signs of motor impairment, with MDS-UPDRS-III scores not clinically different from CTRs. Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension were present in 47 siblings (13.8%), no different to CTRs (p = 0.072). No differences were found for olfaction and overall cognition; German-siblings performed worse than CTRs in visuospatial-executive and language tasks. 3/147 siblings had video-polysomnography-confirmed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), none was positive on the RBD Screening Questionnaire. 173/300 siblings had <1% probability of having prodromal PD; 100 between 1 and 10%, 26 siblings between 10 and 80%, one fulfilled the criteria for prodromal PD. According to the current analysis, we cannot confirm the increased risk of PD siblings for prodromal PD. Siblings showed a heterogeneous distribution of prodromal PD markers and probability. Additional parameters, including strong disease markers, should be investigated to verify if these results depend on validity and sensitivity of prodromal PD criteria, or if siblings' risk is not elevated.

3.
Aging Cell ; 20(7): e13409, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160893

RESUMO

Blood circulating microRNAs (c-miRs) are potential biomarkers to trace aging and longevity trajectories to identify molecular targets for anti-aging therapies. Based on a cross-sectional study, a discovery phase was performed on 12 donors divided into four groups: young, old, healthy, and unhealthy centenarians. The identification of healthy and unhealthy phenotype was based on cognitive performance and capabilities to perform daily activities. Small RNA sequencing identified 79 differentially expressed c-miRs when comparing young, old, healthy centenarians, and unhealthy centenarians. Two miRs, that is, miR-19a-3p and miR-19b-3p, were found increased at old age but decreased at extreme age, as confirmed by RT-qPCR in 49 donors of validation phase. The significant decrease of those miR levels in healthy compared to unhealthy centenarians appears to be due to the presence of isomiRs, not detectable with RT-qPCR, but only with a high-resolution technique such as deep sequencing. Bioinformatically, three main common targets of miR-19a/b-3p were identified, that is, SMAD4, PTEN, and BCL2L11, converging into the FoxO signaling pathway, known to have a significant role in aging mechanisms. For the first time, this study shows the age-related increase of plasma miR-19a/b-3p in old subjects but a decrease in centenarians. This decrease is more pronounced in healthy centenarians and was confirmed by the modified pattern of isomiRs comparing healthy and unhealthy centenarians. Thus, our study paves the way for functional studies using c-miRs and isomiRs as additional parameter to track the onset of aging and age-related diseases using new potential biomarkers.

4.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 197: 111514, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098514

RESUMO

Centenarians experience successful ageing, although they still present high heterogeneity in their health status. The frailty index is a biomarker of biological age, able to capture such heterogeneity, even at extreme old age. At the same time, other biomarkers (e.g., epigenetic clocks) may be informative the biological age of the individual and potentially describe the ageing status in centenarians. In this article, we explore the relationship between epigenetic clocks and frailty index in a cohort of Italian centenarians. No association was reported, suggesting that these two approaches may describe different aspects of the same ageing process.

5.
Geroscience ; 43(4): 1975-1993, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117600

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) accumulates with aging and is elevated in long-lived species. Metallothioneins (MTs), small cysteine-rich proteins involved in metal homeostasis and Cd detoxification, are known to be related to longevity. However, the relationship between Cd accumulation, the role of MTs, and aging is currently unclear. Specifically, we do not know if long-lived species evolved an efficient metal stress response by upregulating their MT levels to reduce the toxic effects of environmental pollutants, such as Cd, that accumulate over their longer life span. It is also unknown if the number of MT genes, their expression, or both protect the organisms from potentially damaging effects during aging. To address these questions, we reanalyzed several cross-species studies and obtained data on MT expression and Cd accumulation in long-lived mouse models. We confirmed a relationship between species maximum life span in captive mammals and their Cd content in liver and kidney. We found that although the number of MT genes does not affect longevity, gene expression and protein amount of specific MT paralogs are strongly related to life span in mammals. MT expression rather than gene number may influence the high Cd levels and longevity of some species. In support of this, we found that overexpression of MT-1 accelerated Cd accumulation in mice and that tissue Cd was higher in long-lived mouse strains with high MT expression. We conclude that long-lived species have evolved a more efficient stress response by upregulating the expression of MT genes in presence of Cd, which contributes to elevated tissue Cd levels.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Metalotioneína , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Rim , Fígado , Metalotioneína/genética , Camundongos
6.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(11): 4748-4764, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132815

RESUMO

DLX5 and DLX6 are two closely related transcription factors involved in brain development and in GABAergic differentiation. The DLX5/6 locus is regulated by FoxP2, a gene involved in language evolution and has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and mental retardation. Targeted inactivation of Dlx5/6 in mouse GABAergic neurons (Dlx5/6VgatCre mice) results in behavioral and metabolic phenotypes notably increasing lifespan by 33%. Here, we show that Dlx5/6VgatCre mice present a hyper-vocalization and hyper-socialization phenotype. While only 7% of control mice emitted more than 700 vocalizations/10 min, 30% and 56% of heterozygous or homozygous Dlx5/6VgatCre mice emitted more than 700 and up to 1,400 calls/10 min with a higher proportion of complex and modulated calls. Hyper-vocalizing animals were more sociable: the time spent in dynamic interactions with an unknown visitor was more than doubled compared to low-vocalizing individuals. The characters affected by Dlx5/6 in the mouse (sociability, vocalization, skull, and brain shape…) overlap those affected in the "domestication syndrome". We therefore explored the possibility that DLX5/6 played a role in human evolution and "self-domestication" comparing DLX5/6 genomic regions from Neanderthal and modern humans. We identified an introgressed Neanderthal haplotype (DLX5/6-N-Haplotype) present in 12.6% of European individuals that covers DLX5/6 coding and regulatory sequences. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype includes the binding site for GTF2I, a gene associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a hyper-sociability and hyper-vocalization neurodevelopmental disorder. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype is significantly underrepresented in semi-supercentenarians (>105 years of age), a well-established human model of healthy aging and longevity, suggesting their involvement in the coevolution of longevity, sociability, and speech.

7.
Elife ; 102021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941312

RESUMO

Extreme longevity is the paradigm of healthy aging as individuals who reached the extreme decades of human life avoided or largely postponed all major age-related diseases. In this study, we sequenced at high coverage (90X) the whole genome of 81 semi-supercentenarians and supercentenarians [105+/110+] (mean age: 106.6 ± 1.6) and of 36 healthy unrelated geographically matched controls (mean age 68.0 ± 5.9) recruited in Italy. The results showed that 105+/110+ are characterized by a peculiar genetic background associated with efficient DNA repair mechanisms, as evidenced by both germline data (common and rare variants) and somatic mutations patterns (lower mutation load if compared to younger healthy controls). Results were replicated in a second independent cohort of 333 Italian centenarians and 358 geographically matched controls. The genetics of 105+/110+ identified DNA repair and clonal haematopoiesis as crucial players for healthy aging and for the protection from cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Reparo do DNA , Longevidade/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 639428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790779

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by specific alterations of brain DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. Age and sex, two major risk factors for AD, are also known to largely affect the epigenetic profiles in brain, but their contribution to AD-associated DNAm changes has been poorly investigated. In this study we considered publicly available DNAm datasets of four brain regions (temporal, frontal, entorhinal cortex, and cerebellum) from healthy adult subjects and AD patients, and performed a meta-analysis to identify sex-, age-, and AD-associated epigenetic profiles. In one of these datasets it was also possible to distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) profiles. We showed that DNAm differences between males and females tend to be shared between the four brain regions, while aging differently affects cortical regions compared to cerebellum. We found that the proportion of sex-dependent probes whose methylation is modified also during aging is higher than expected, but that differences between males and females tend to be maintained, with only a few probes showing age-by-sex interaction. We did not find significant overlaps between AD- and sex-associated probes, nor disease-by-sex interaction effects. On the contrary, we found that AD-related epigenetic modifications are significantly enriched in probes whose DNAm varies with age and that there is a high concordance between the direction of changes (hyper or hypo-methylation) in aging and AD, supporting accelerated epigenetic aging in the disease. In summary, our results suggest that age-associated DNAm patterns concur to the epigenetic deregulation observed in AD, providing new insights on how advanced age enables neurodegeneration.

9.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 194: 111426, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385396

RESUMO

Advanced age is the major risk factor for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), but to date the biological relationship between PD and ageing remains elusive. Here we describe the rationale and the design of the H2020 funded project "PROPAG-AGEING", whose aim is to characterize the contribution of the ageing process to PD development. We summarize current evidences that support the existence of a continuum between ageing and PD and justify the use of a Geroscience approach to study PD. We focus in particular on the role of inflammaging, the chronic, low-grade inflammation characteristic of elderly physiology, which can propagate and transmit both locally and systemically. We then describe PROPAG-AGEING design, which is based on the multi-omic characterization of peripheral samples from clinically characterized drug-naïve and advanced PD, PD discordant twins, healthy controls and "super-controls", i.e. centenarians, who never showed clinical signs of motor disability, and their offspring. Omic results are then validated in a large number of samples, including in vitro models of dopaminergic neurons and healthy siblings of PD patients, who are at higher risk of developing PD, with the final aim of identifying the molecular perturbations that can deviate the trajectories of healthy ageing towards PD development.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Geriatria , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Atividade Motora , Degeneração Neural , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transdução de Sinais , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
10.
Ageing Res Rev ; 66: 101234, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321254

RESUMO

Epidemiological data convey severe prognosis and high mortality rate for COVID-19 in elderly men affected by age-related diseases. These subjects develop local and systemic hyper-inflammation, which are associated with thrombotic complications and multi-organ failure. Therefore, understanding SARS-CoV-2 induced hyper-inflammation in elderly men is a pressing need. Here we focus on the role of extracellular DNA, mainly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and telomeric DNA (telDNA) in the modulation of systemic inflammation in these subjects. In particular, extracellular mtDNA is regarded as a powerful trigger of the inflammatory response. On the contrary, extracellular telDNA pool is estimated to be capable of inhibiting a variety of inflammatory pathways. In turn, we underpin that telDNA reservoir is progressively depleted during aging, and that it is scarcer in men than in women. We propose that an increase in extracellular mtDNA, concomitant with the reduction of the anti-inflammatory telDNA reservoir may explain hyper-inflammation in elderly male affected by COVID-19. This scenario is reminiscent of inflamm-aging, the portmanteau word that depicts how aging and aging related diseases are intimately linked to inflammation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(23): 24057-24080, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276343

RESUMO

The existence of a sex gap in human health and longevity has been widely documented. Autosomal DNA methylation differences between males and females have been reported, but so far few studies have investigated if DNA methylation is differently affected by aging in males and females. We performed a meta-analysis of 4 large whole blood datasets, comparing 4 aspects of epigenetic age-dependent remodeling between the two sexes: differential methylation, variability, epimutations and entropy. We reported that a large fraction (43%) of sex-associated probes undergoes age-associated DNA methylation changes, and that a limited number of probes show age-by-sex interaction. We experimentally validated 2 regions mapping in FIGN and PRR4 genes and showed sex-specific deviations of their methylation patterns in models of decelerated (centenarians) and accelerated (Down syndrome) aging. While we did not find sex differences in the age-associated increase in epimutations and entropy, we showed that the number of probes having an age-related increase in methylation variability is 15 times higher in males compared to females. Our results can offer new epigenetic tools to study the interaction between aging and sex and can pave the way to the identification of molecular triggers of sex differences in longevity and age-related diseases prevalence.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ilhas de CpG , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Domínios Proteicos Ricos em Prolina , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Physiol ; 11: 575968, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262703

RESUMO

Cold climates represent one of the major environmental challenges that anatomically modern humans faced during their dispersal out of Africa. The related adaptive traits have been achieved by modulation of thermogenesis and thermoregulation processes where nuclear (nuc) and mitochondrial (mt) genes play a major role. In human populations, mitonuclear genetic interactions are the result of both the peculiar genetic history of each human group and the different environments they have long occupied. This study aims to investigate mitonuclear genetic interactions by considering all the mitochondrial genes and 28 nuclear genes involved in brown adipose tissue metabolism, which have been previously hypothesized to be crucial for cold adaptation. For this purpose, we focused on three human populations (i.e., Finnish, British, and Central Italian people) of European ancestry from different biogeographical and climatic areas, and we used a machine learning approach to identify relevant nucDNA-mtDNA interactions that characterized each population. The obtained results are twofold: (i) at the methodological level, we demonstrated that a machine learning approach is able to detect patterns of genetic structure among human groups from different latitudes both at single genes and by considering combinations of mtDNA and nucDNA loci; (ii) at the biological level, the analysis identified population-specific nuclear genes and variants that likely play a relevant biological role in association with a mitochondrial gene (such as the "obesity gene" FTO in Finnish people). Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the evolutionary dynamics (e.g., migration, admixture, and/or local adaptation) that shaped these nucDNA-mtDNA interactions and their functional role.

13.
Semin Immunopathol ; 42(5): 619-634, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159214

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic urgently calls for the development of effective preventive tools. COVID-19 hits greatly the elder and more fragile fraction of the population boosting the evergreen issue of the vaccination of older people. The development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 tailored for the elderly population faces the challenge of the poor immune responsiveness of the older population due to immunosenescence, comorbidities, and pharmacological treatments. Moreover, it is likely that the inflammaging phenotype associated with age could both influence vaccination efficacy and exacerbate the risk of COVID-19-related "cytokine storm syndrome" with an overlap between the factors which impact vaccination effectiveness and those that boost virulence and worsen the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The complex and still unclear immunopathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, together with the progressive age-related decline of immune responses, and the lack of clear correlates of protection, make the design of vaccination strategies for older people extremely challenging. In the ongoing effort in vaccine development, different SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have been developed, tested in pre-clinical and clinical studies and are undergoing clinical testing, but only a small fraction of these are currently being tested in the older fraction of the population. Recent advances in systems biology integrating clinical, immunologic, and omics data can help to identify stable and robust markers of vaccine response and move towards a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the elderly.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Imunossenescência/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Vacinação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125392

RESUMO

In this work we propose an index to estimate the gut microbiota biodiversity using a modeling approach with the aim of describing its relationship with health and aging. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem that links nutrition and metabolism, has a pervasive effect on all body organs and systems, undergoes profound changes with age and life-style, and substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. For these reasons, the gut microbiota is a suitable candidate for assessing and quantifying healthy aging, i.e. the capability of individuals to reach an advanced age, avoiding or postponing major age-related diseases. The importance of the gut microbiota in health and aging has been proven to be related not only to its taxonomic composition, but also to its ecological properties, namely its biodiversity. Following an ecological approach, here we intended to characterize the relationship between the gut microbiota biodiversity and healthy aging through the development a parsimonious model of gut microbiota from which biodiversity can be estimated. We analysed publicly available metagenomic data relative to subjects of different ages, countries, nutritional habits and health status and we showed that a hybrid niche-neutral model well describes the observed patterns of bacterial relative abundance. Moreover, starting from such ecological modeling, we derived an estimate of the gut microbiota biodiversity that is consistent with classical indices, while having a higher statistical power. This allowed us to unveil an increase of the gut microbiota biodiversity during aging and to provide a good predictor of health status in old age, dependent on life-style and aging disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Semin Immunopathol ; 42(5): 635-645, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705346

RESUMO

Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder, associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability. While life expectancy of Down syndrome population has greatly increased over the last decades, mortality rates are still high and subjects are facing prematurely a phenomenon of atypical and accelerated aging. The presence of an immune impairment in Down syndrome subjects is suggested for a long time by the existence of an increased incidence of infections, the incomplete efficacy of vaccinations, and a high prevalence of autoimmunity. Immunologic abnormalities have been described since many years in this population, both from a numerical and a functional points of view, and these abnormalities can mirror the ones observed during normal aging. In this review, we summarize our knowledge on immunologic disturbances commonly observed in subjects with Down syndrome, and in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as regarding chronic inflammation. We then discuss the role of accelerated aging in these observed abnormalities and finally review the potential age-associated molecular and cellular mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Imunossenescência , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação
16.
Adv Nutr ; 11(6): 1671-1685, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647890

RESUMO

Ecological sensing and inflammation have evolved to ensure optima between organism survival and reproductive success in different and changing environments. At the molecular level, ecological sensing consists of many types of receptors located in different tissues that orchestrate integrated responses (immune, neuroendocrine systems) to external and internal stimuli. This review describes emerging data on taste and chemosensory receptors, proposing them as broad ecological sensors and providing evidence that taste perception is shaped not only according to sense epitopes from nutrients but also in response to highly diverse external and internal stimuli. We apply a biological anthropological approach to examine how ecological sensing has been shaped by these stimuli through human evolution for complex interkingdom communication between a host and pathological and symbiotic bacteria, focusing on population-specific genetic diversity. We then focus on how these sensory receptors play a major role in inflammatory processes that form the basis of many modern common metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and aging. The impacts of human niche construction and cultural evolution in shaping environments are described with emphasis on consequent biological responsiveness.


Assuntos
Paladar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Inflamação , Papilas Gustativas , Percepção Gustatória
17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523526

RESUMO

Biological aging is a complex process involving multiple biological processes. These can be understood theoretically though considering them as individual networks-e.g., epigenetic networks, cell-cell networks (such as astroglial networks), and population genetics. Mathematical modeling allows the combination of such networks so that they may be studied in unison, to better understand how the so-called "seven pillars of aging" combine and to generate hypothesis for treating aging as a condition at relatively early biological ages. In this review, we consider how recent progression in mathematical modeling can be utilized to investigate aging, particularly in, but not exclusive to, the context of degenerative neuronal disease. We also consider how the latest techniques for generating biomarker models for disease prediction, such as longitudinal analysis and parenclitic analysis can be applied to as both biomarker platforms for aging, as well as to better understand the inescapable condition. This review is written by a highly diverse and multi-disciplinary team of scientists from across the globe and calls for greater collaboration between diverse fields of research.

18.
Front Public Health ; 8: 172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582603

RESUMO

Chronic pain prevalence is high worldwide and increases at older ages. Signs of premature aging have been associated with chronic pain, but few studies have investigated aging biomarkers in pain-related conditions. A set of DNA methylation (DNAm)-based estimates of age, called "epigenetic clocks," has been proposed as biological measures of age-related adverse processes, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess if different pain-related phenotypes show alterations in DNAm age. In our analysis, we considered three cohorts for which whole-blood DNAm data were available: heat pain sensitivity (HPS), including 20 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for heat pain temperature threshold; fibromyalgia (FM), including 24 cases and 20 controls; and headache, including 22 chronic migraine and medication overuse headache patients (MOH), 18 episodic migraineurs (EM), and 13 healthy subjects. We used the Horvath's epigenetic age calculator to obtain DNAm-based estimates of epigenetic age, telomere length, levels of 7 proteins in plasma, number of smoked packs of cigarettes per year, and blood cell counts. We did not find differences in epigenetic age acceleration, calculated using five different epigenetic clocks, between subjects discordant for pain-related phenotypes. Twins with high HPS had increased CD8+ T cell counts (nominal p = 0.028). HPS thresholds were negatively associated with estimated levels of GDF15 (nominal p = 0.008). FM patients showed decreased naive CD4+ T cell counts compared with controls (nominal p = 0.015). The severity of FM manifestations expressed through various evaluation tests was associated with decreased levels of leptin, shorter length of telomeres, and reduced CD8+ T and natural killer cell counts (nominal p < 0.05), while the duration of painful symptoms was positively associated with telomere length (nominal p = 0.034). No differences in DNAm-based estimates were detected for MOH or EM compared with controls. In summary, our study suggests that HPS, FM, and MOH/EM do not show signs of epigenetic age acceleration in whole blood, while HPS and FM are associated with DNAm-based estimates of immunological parameters, plasma proteins, and telomere length. Future studies should extend these observations in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Metilação de DNA/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor
19.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 51, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cline of human genetic diversity observable across Europe is recapitulated at a micro-geographic scale by variation within the Italian population. Besides resulting from extensive gene flow, this might be ascribable also to local adaptations to diverse ecological contexts evolved by people who anciently spread along the Italian Peninsula. Dissecting the evolutionary history of the ancestors of present-day Italians may thus improve the understanding of demographic and biological processes that contributed to shape the gene pool of European populations. However, previous SNP array-based studies failed to investigate the full spectrum of Italian variation, generally neglecting low-frequency genetic variants and examining a limited set of small effect size alleles, which may represent important determinants of population structure and complex adaptive traits. To overcome these issues, we analyzed 38 high-coverage whole-genome sequences representative of population clusters at the opposite ends of the cline of Italian variation, along with a large panel of modern and ancient Euro-Mediterranean genomes. RESULTS: We provided evidence for the early divergence of Italian groups dating back to the Late Glacial and for Neolithic and distinct Bronze Age migrations having further differentiated their gene pools. We inferred adaptive evolution at insulin-related loci in people from Italian regions with a temperate climate, while possible adaptations to pathogens and ultraviolet radiation were observed in Mediterranean Italians. Some of these adaptive events may also have secondarily modulated population disease or longevity predisposition. CONCLUSIONS: We disentangled the contribution of multiple migratory and adaptive events in shaping the heterogeneous Italian genomic background, which exemplify population dynamics and gene-environment interactions that played significant roles also in the formation of the Continental and Southern European genomic landscapes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Itália
20.
Ageing Res Rev ; 62: 101073, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446955

RESUMO

Lamin A, a main constituent of the nuclear lamina, is the major splicing product of the LMNA gene, which also encodes lamin C, lamin A delta 10 and lamin C2. Involvement of lamin A in the ageing process became clear after the discovery that a group of progeroid syndromes, currently referred to as progeroid laminopathies, are caused by mutations in LMNA gene. Progeroid laminopathies include Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria, Mandibuloacral Dysplasia, Atypical Progeria and atypical-Werner syndrome, disabling and life-threatening diseases with accelerated ageing, bone resorption, lipodystrophy, skin abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. Defects in lamin A post-translational maturation occur in progeroid syndromes and accumulated prelamin A affects ageing-related processes, such as mTOR signaling, epigenetic modifications, stress response, inflammation, microRNA activation and mechanosignaling. In this review, we briefly describe the role of these pathways in physiological ageing and go in deep into lamin A-dependent mechanisms that accelerate the ageing process. Finally, we propose that lamin A acts as a sensor of cell intrinsic and environmental stress through transient prelamin A accumulation, which triggers stress response mechanisms. Exacerbation of lamin A sensor activity due to stably elevated prelamin A levels contributes to the onset of a permanent stress response condition, which triggers accelerated ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Envelhecimento/genética , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/genética , MicroRNAs , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares , Progéria/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética
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