Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 130
Filtrar
1.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 3(6): 100330, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719865

RESUMO

Introduction: In the phase 3 study involving the use of durvalumab with or without tremelimumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy in untreated extensive-stage SCLC (CASPIAN study), first-line durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide (EP) significantly improved overall survival (OS) versus EP alone (p = 0.0047). We report exploratory subgroup analyses of treatment patterns and outcomes according to the presence of baseline brain or central nervous system metastases. Methods: Patients (WHO performance status 0 or 1), including those with asymptomatic or treated-and-stable brain metastases, were randomized to four cycles of durvalumab plus EP followed by maintenance durvalumab until progression or up to six cycles of EP and optional prophylactic cranial irradiation. Prespecified analyses of OS and progression-free survival (PFS) in subgroups with or without brain metastases used unstratified-Cox proportional hazards models. The data cutoff was on January 27, 2020. Results: At baseline, 28 out of 268 patients (10.4%) in the durvalumab plus EP arm and 27 out of 269 patients (10.0%) in the EP arm had known brain metastases, of whom 3 of 28 (10.7%) and 4 of 27 (14.8%) had previous brain radiotherapy, respectively. Durvalumab plus EP (versus EP alone) prolonged OS (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) in patients with (0.79, 0.44-1.41) or without (0.76, 0.62-0.92) brain metastases, with similar PFS results (0.73, 0.42-1.29 and 0.80, 0.66-0.97, respectively). Among patients without brain metastases, similar proportions in each arm developed new brain lesions as part of their first progression (8.8% and 9.5%), although 8.3% in the EP arm received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Similar proportions in each arm received subsequent brain radiotherapy (20.5% and 21.2%), although more common in patients with than without baseline brain metastases (45.5% and 18.0%). Conclusions: The OS and PFS benefit with first-line durvalumab plus EP were maintained irrespective of the presence of brain metastases, further supporting its standard-of-care use.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the Phase I/III IMpower133 study, atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide (CP/ET) followed by maintenance atezolizumab for first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) led to significant improvement in both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus CP/ET followed by maintenance placebo. We explored the benefit of atezolizumab versus placebo in the subset of patients who reached the IMpower133 maintenance phase as well as the safety profile of maintenance therapy. METHODS: Patients with untreated ES-SCLC were randomized 1:1 to four 21-day cycles of CP/ET with atezolizumab or placebo, followed by maintenance atezolizumab or placebo. The primary endpoints were OS and investigator-assessed PFS. A multivariate Cox model from the start of maintenance treatment was used to evaluate the treatment effect and account for lead-time bias; a generalized linear model was used to identify prognostic or predictive characteristics for reaching the maintenance phase. RESULTS: A similar proportion of patients in each arm received at least the first dose of maintenance therapy (atezolizumab: 77%, n=154/201; placebo: 81%, n=164/202) and were included in the maintenance analysis population. An ECOG performance status of 0 and absence of liver metastases at baseline were identified as prognostic factors for reaching the maintenance phase. The positive treatment effect with atezolizumab remained after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Median OS and PFS from the start of maintenance therapy in the atezolizumab versus placebo arm was 12.5 versus 8.4 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.80) and 2.6 versus 1.8 months (HR, 0.63 [95% CI: 0.49-0.80]), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) from the start of maintenance therapy occurred in 41% (n=64/155) and 25% (n=41/163) of safety-evaluable patients in the atezolizumab and placebo arms, respectively, and were grade 3/4 in 28% (n=43/155) and 23% (n=37/163) of the respective populations; no patient in the atezolizumab arm and one patient in the placebo arm had a grade 5 TRAE. CONCLUSIONS: These data in the context of other immunotherapy trials in ES-SCLC suggest that induction with atezolizumab plus CP/ET as well as maintenance treatment with atezolizumab are important components that contributed to the OS benefit observed in IMpower133. Safety results from randomization and from the start of maintenance therapy were similar between the treatment arms despite the continuation of atezolizumab in the maintenance phase.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659580

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adding bevacizumab to erlotinib prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC in the Japanese JO25567 trial, but limited data were available in non-Asian patients. BEVERLY is an Italian, multicenter, randomized, phase 3 investigating the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib as first-line treatment of advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC. METHODS: Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to erlotinib plus bevacizumab or erlotinib alone. Investigator-assessed PFS and blinded independent centrally reviewed PFS were coprimary end points. With 80% power in detecting a 0.60 hazard ratio and two-sided α error of 0.05, 126 events of 160 patients were needed. The trial was registered as NCT02633189 and EudraCT 2015-002235-17. RESULTS: From April 11, 2016, to February 27, 2019, a total of 160 patients were randomized to erlotinib plus bevacizumab (80) or erlotinib alone (80). At a median follow-up of 36.3 months, median investigator-assessed PFS was 15.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.2-18.6) with erlotinib plus bevacizumab and 9.6 months (95% CI: 8.2-10.6) with erlotinib alone (hazard ratio = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.92). Blinded independent centrally reviewed PFS analysis confirmed this result. A statistically significant interaction with treatment effect was found for smoking habit (p = 0.0323), with PFS prolongation being clinically significant only among current or previous smokers. Hypertension (grade ≥3: 24% versus 5%), skin rash (grade ≥ 3: 31% versus 14%), thromboembolic events (any grade: 11% versus 4%), and proteinuria (any grade: 23% versus 6%) were more frequent with the combination. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of bevacizumab to first-line erlotinib prolonged PFS in Italian patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC; toxicity was increased with the combination but without unexpected safety issues.

4.
Future Oncol ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722877

RESUMO

Background: Clinical and laboratory biomarkers in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) receiving chemo-immunotherapy (CIT) are still poorly explored. Materials & methods: All consecutive aNSCLC patients who received at least one cycle of first-line CIT were enrolled. The impact of several clinical and laboratory biomarkers on outcomes was evaluated through Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was shown to be an independent prognostic biomarker of both worse progression-free survival and worse overall survival. The EPSILoN score was able to divide patients into three different prognostic groups, with a median overall survival of 73.2, 45.6 and 8.6 months for the favorable, intermediate and poor groups, respectively. Conclusion: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and EPSILoN score were shown to have a prognostic value in aNSCLC patients treated with CIT.


Patients affected by inoperable lung cancer, due to great extension or to the presence of metastases, are currently treated with intravenous drugs that act on immune system activation alone or in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment. The characteristics of these patients (both their medical history and their blood exams) need to be studied to find out if some of them can help clinicians to predict if they will benefit from the combination of immunotherapy with chemotherapy. The authors collected the data of patients with advanced lung cancer treated in their hospital and found out that a value calculated from their blood exams, collected before the start of treatment, and a combination of values named EPSILoN score (which considers patients' clinical condition, their history of tobacco smoking, the presence of metastases in the liver and two blood exam parameters, namely the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and LDH level) can predict how their disease will evolve during first-line treatment with chemotherapy in combination with immunotherapy.

5.
Lung Cancer ; 170: 41-51, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714425

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbor mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. First-line therapy for these patients is often osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR TKI. Erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, and dacomitinib are first- and second-generation TKIs that are also available. However, almost all patients eventually develop disease progression due to TKI-acquired resistance. The mechanisms of resistance after TKI exposure often involve EGFR or its downstream pathways. While a frequently utilized strategy for combating acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs remains standard platinum-based chemotherapy, clinical investigation of promising novel agents targeting common resistance mechanisms such as MET, HER2, and HER3 is of increased interest. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of resistance to TKIs in EGFR-mutant NSCLC, examine current treatment standards, and discuss novel developing therapies. Both EGFR-dependent (involving secondary mutations in EGFR) and EGFR-independent (mutations that bypass EGFR signaling and histologic transformation) resistance mechanisms are considered. Several novel treatment strategies are emerging to overcome these resistance mechanisms, as the understanding and identification of specific EGFR-TKI resistance mechanisms continues to improve. The treatments in development aim to target or bypass the mechanisms of resistance, including MET-, HER2-, and HER3-directed therapies. In patients with acquired TKI resistance, molecular profiling at the time of initial progression may help identify relevant mechanisms of resistance. Clinical trial participation is vital to continued investigation for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

6.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; : 100335, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619644

RESUMO

Introduction: The Thoracic Centers International COVID-19 Collaboration (TERAVOLT) registry found ∼ 30% mortality in patients with thoracic malignancies during the initial COVID surges. Data from South Africa suggested a decrease in severity and mortality with the Omicron wave. Our objective was to assess mortality of patients with thoracic malignancies with the Omicron-predominant wave, and efficacy of vaccination. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational study was conducted. Twenty-eight institutions contributed data from January 14, 2022 through February 4, 2022. Inclusion criteria was any thoracic cancer and a COVID-19 diagnosis on or after November 1, 2021. Endpoints included mortality, hospitalization, symptomatic COVID infection, asymptomatic COVID infection, and delay in cancer therapy. Analysis was done through contingency tables and a multivariable logistic model. Results: We enrolled 346 patients. Median age was 65, 52.3% were female, 74.2% were current or former smokers, 86% had NSCLC, 72% were Stage IV at time of COVID diagnosis, and 66% were receiving therapy. Variant was unknown for 70%; for those known, Omicron represented 82%. Overall mortality was 3.2%. Using multivariate analysis, COVID vaccination with booster compared with no vaccination showed a protective effect on hospitalization or death (OR 0.30, CI 0.15-0.57, p=0.0003), while vaccination without booster did not (OR of 0.64, CI 0.33-1.24, p=0.1864). Cancer care was delayed in 56.4% of patients. Conclusions: TERAVOLT found reduced patient mortality with the most recent COVID surge. COVID vaccination with booster improved outcomes of hospitalization or death. Delays in cancer therapy remain an issue, which has the potential to worsen cancer-related mortality.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053597

RESUMO

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(6): 1117-1126, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary analysis of VISION showed tepotinib had durable clinical activity in patients with MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present updated outcomes for clinically relevant subgroups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase II, open-label, multi-cohort study of 500 mg (450 mg active moiety) tepotinib in patients with METex14 skipping NSCLC assessed efficacy and safety in predefined subgroups according to age, prior therapies (chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors), and brain metastases. An ad hoc retrospective analysis using Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) criteria assessed intracranial activity. RESULTS: 152 patients were evaluable for efficacy (median age: 73.1). Overall, objective response rate (ORR) was 44.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 36.7-53.0]. Patients aged <75 (n = 84) and ≥75 (n = 68) had ORRs of 48.8% (95% CI: 37.7-60.0) and 39.7% (95% CI: 28.0-52.3), respectively. Treatment-naïve (n = 69) versus previously treated (n = 83) patients showed consistent efficacy [ORR (95% CI): 44.9% (32.9-57.4) vs. 44.6% (33.7-55.9); median duration of response (95% CI): 10.8 (6.9-not estimable) vs. 11.1 (9.5-18.5) months]. Of 15 patients analyzed by RANO-BM (12 received prior radiotherapy), 13 achieved intracranial disease control; 5 of 7 patients with measurable brain metastases had partial intracranial responses. Of 255 patients evaluable for safety, 64 (25.1%) experienced grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAE), leading to discontinuation in 27 patients (10.6%). Rates of adverse events (AE) were broadly consistent irrespective of prior therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Tepotinib showed meaningful activity across subgroups by age, prior therapies, and brain metastases, with a manageable safety profile and few treatment discontinuations. See related commentary by Rosner and Spira, p. 1055.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Piperidinas , Piridazinas , Pirimidinas , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Éxons , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Cancer Discov ; 12(1): 90-107, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789537

RESUMO

In tumor-bearing mice, cyclic fasting or fasting-mimicking diets (FMD) enhance the activity of antineoplastic treatments by modulating systemic metabolism and boosting antitumor immunity. Here we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the safety and biological effects of cyclic, five-day FMD in combination with standard antitumor therapies. In 101 patients, the FMD was safe, feasible, and resulted in a consistent decrease of blood glucose and growth factor concentration, thus recapitulating metabolic changes that mediate fasting/FMD anticancer effects in preclinical experiments. Integrated transcriptomic and deep-phenotyping analyses revealed that FMD profoundly reshapes anticancer immunity by inducing the contraction of peripheral blood immunosuppressive myeloid and regulatory T-cell compartments, paralleled by enhanced intratumor Th1/cytotoxic responses and an enrichment of IFNγ and other immune signatures associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with cancer. Our findings lay the foundations for phase II/III clinical trials aimed at investigating FMD antitumor efficacy in combination with standard antineoplastic treatments. SIGNIFICANCE: Cyclic FMD is well tolerated and causes remarkable systemic metabolic changes in patients with different tumor types and treated with concomitant antitumor therapies. In addition, the FMD reshapes systemic and intratumor immunity, finally activating several antitumor immune programs. Phase II/III clinical trials are needed to investigate FMD antitumor activity/efficacy.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Jejum , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(1): e17-e28, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients. However, their efficacy remains uncertain in uncommon histologies (UH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from ICI treated aNSCLC patients (April,2013-January,2021) in one Institution were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression model, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were assessed. RESULTS: Of 375 patients, 79 (21.1%) had UH: 19 (24.1%) sarcomatoid carcinoma, 15 (19.0%) mucinous adenocarcinoma, 10 (12.6%) enteric adenocarcinoma, 8 (10.1%) adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, 7 (8.9%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 6 (7.6%) mixed histology non-adenosquamous, 5 (6.3%) adenosquamous carcinoma, 9 (11.4%) other UH. In UH group, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) <1%, 1-49%, ≥50% and unknown expression were reported in 27.8%, 22.8%, 31.7% and 17.7% patients respectively and ICI was the second/further-line in the majority of patients. After a median follow-up of 35.64 months (m), median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.5 m in UH [95% CI 2.2-2.9 m] versus (vs.) 2.7 m in CH [95% CI 2.3-3.2 m, P-value = .584]; median overall survival (mOS) was 8.8 m [95% CI 4.9-12.6 m] vs. 9.7 m [95% CI 8.0-11.3 m, P-value = .653]. At multivariate analyses only ECOG PS was a confirmed prognostic factor in UH. ORR and DCR were 25.3% and 40.5% in UH vs. 21.6% and 49.5% in CH [P-value = .493 and .155 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were detected between UH and CH groups. Prospective trials are needed to understand ICIs role in UH population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 689114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409049

RESUMO

Background: Advanced treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consist of immunotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both. Decisions surrounding NSCLC can be considered as preference-sensitive because multiple treatments exist that vary in terms of mode of administration, treatment schedules, and benefit-risk profiles. As part of the IMI PREFER project, we developed a protocol for an online preference survey for NSCLC patients exploring differences in preferences according to patient characteristics (preference heterogeneity). Moreover, this study will evaluate and compare the use of two different preference elicitation methods, the discrete choice experiment (DCE) and the swing weighting (SW) task. Finally, the study explores how demographic (i.e., age, gender, and educational level) and clinical (i.e., cancer stage and line of treatment) information, health literacy, health locus of control, and quality of life may influence or explain patient preferences and the usefulness of a digital interactive tool in providing information on preference elicitation tasks according to patients. Methods: An online survey will be implemented with the aim to recruit 510 NSCLC patients in Belgium and Italy. Participants will be randomized 50:50 to first receive either the DCE or the SW. The survey will also collect information on participants' disease-related status, health locus of control, health literacy, quality of life, and perception of the educational tool. Discussion: This protocol outlines methodological and practical steps to quantitatively elicit and study patient preferences for NSCLC treatment alternatives. Results from this study will increase the understanding of which treatment aspects are most valued by NSCLC patients to inform decision-making in drug development, regulatory approval, and reimbursement. Methodologically, the comparison between the DCE and the SW task will be valuable to gain information on how these preference methods perform against each other in eliciting patient preferences. Overall, this protocol may assist researchers, drug developers, and decision-makers in designing quantitative patient preferences into decision-making along the medical product life cycle.

14.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2955-2969, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295690

RESUMO

In the immunotherapy era, considering the prolonged survival benefit and responses observed with immunecheckpoint inhibitors (ICI) in many cancer types, the identification of patients with rapid progression (PD) and deaths upon ICI has found some skepticism and resistance among the scientific community. Nevertheless, an acceleration of tumour during ICI, defined as hyperprogressive disease (HPD), has been recognized across different cancer types and evidence regarding rapid PDs and deaths are emerging in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and thymic malignancies and in uncommon non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) populations. Of note, PD and early deaths (ED) rates upon single agent ICI were up to 60% and 30% in MPM and 70% and 38% in SCLC patients, respectively. Similarly, rapid PDs and deaths were observed in clinical trials and retrospective studies including patients with poor performance status (PS), HIV infection and rare NSCLC histologies. Atypical patterns of response, such as pseudoprogression (PsPD) may also occur in other thoracic malignancies (MPM) and in some uncommon populations (i.e., HIV patients), however probably at lower rate compared to HPD. The characterizations of HPD and PsPD mechanisms and the identification of common definition criteria are the next future challenges in this area of cancer research.

15.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069851

RESUMO

(1) Background. The onset of a drug-drug interaction (DDI) may affect treatment efficacy and toxicity of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) use. Here we present the use of Drug-PIN® (Personalized Interactions Network) software to detect DDIs in aNSCLC patients undergoing EGFR-TKIs. (2) Methods. We enrolled patients with Stage IV aNSCLC already treated with or candidates to receive EGFR-TKIs, in any line; ECOG PS 0-2; taking at least one concomitant drug. Cancer treatments, concomitant drugs, and clinical and laboratory data were collected and inserted in Drug-PIN®. (3) Results. Ninety-two patients, median age of 68.5 years (range 43-89), were included. In total, 20 clinically relevant DDIs needing medical intervention in a total of 14 patients were identified; the 14 major DDIs were related to a high-grade interaction between TKIs and SSRIs, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, H2-receptor antagonist and calcium antagonists. A negative association between statin intake and PFS was identified (p = 0.02; HR 0.281, 95% CI 0.096-0.825). (4) Conclusions. This is the first retrospective study assessing the prevalence of DDIs, the clinical need for medical intervention and the impact of concomitant drugs on EGFR-TKIs survival in aNSCLC.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 157: 9-16, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The next-generation ALK inhibitor brigatinib is approved for use in patients with ALK inhibitor-naïve ALK-positive advanced NSCLC and in patients previously treated with crizotinib. A phase II trial showed that brigatinib is active in patients with ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC) who had progressed on prior crizotinib (response rate 56 %, median PFS 16.7 months, median OS 34.1 months). We report final data from the UVEA-Brig study of brigatinib in ALK inhibitor-pretreated ALK-positive mNSCLC in clinical practice. METHODS: UVEA-Brig was a retrospective chart review of patients treated with brigatinib in Italy, Norway, Spain and the UK in an expanded access program. Adults with ALK-positive mNSCLC, including those with brain lesions, resistant to or intolerant of ≥1 prior ALK inhibitor and ECOG performance status ≤3 were eligible. Patients received brigatinib 180 mg once daily with a 7-day lead-in at 90 mg. The objectives were to describe patient characteristics, clinical disease presentation, treatment regimens used and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Data for 104 patients (male: 43 %; median age: 53 [29-80] years; ECOG performance status 0/1/2/3: 41/41/10/5 %; brain/CNS metastases: 63 %) were analyzed. Patients had received a median of 2 (1-6) lines of systemic therapy prior to brigatinib (37.5 % received ≥3) and a median of 1 (1-5) lines of prior ALK inhibitor-containing therapy (crizotinib 83.6 %; ceritinib 50.0 %; alectinib 6.7 %; lorlatinib 4.8 %). At the time of analysis, 77 patients had discontinued brigatinib. Overall, the response rate was 39.8 %, median PFS was 11.3 (95 % CI:8.6-12.9) months and median OS was 23.3 (95 % CI: 16.0-NR) months. Four patients discontinued brigatinib treatment due to adverse events. 53 patients received systemic therapy after brigatinib, 42 with an ALK inhibitor (lorlatinib, n = 34). CONCLUSIONS: These real-world data indicate the activity and tolerability of brigatinib in patients with ALK-positive mNSCLC who were more heavily pretreated than patients included in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Compostos Organofosforados , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803958

RESUMO

First-line immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapy has deeply changed the treatment landscape and prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients with no targetable alterations. Nonetheless, a percentage of patients progressed on ICI as monotherapy or combinations. Open questions remain on patients' selection, the identification of biomarkers of primary resistance to immunotherapy and the treatment strategies to overcome secondary resistance to first-line immunotherapy. Local ablative approaches are the main therapeutic strategies in oligoprogressive disease, and their role is emerging in patients treated with immunotherapy. Many therapeutic strategies can be adapted in aNSCLC patients with systemic progression to personalize the treatment approach according to re-characterization of the tumors, previous ICI response, and type of progression. This review's aim is to highlight and discuss the current and potential therapeutic approaches beyond first-line ICI-based therapy in aNSCLC patients based on the pattern of disease progression (oligoprogression versus systemic progression).

18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(9): 2429-2438, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797567

RESUMO

Lung is a specialized tissue where metastases from primary lung tumors takeoff and those originating from extra-pulmonary sites land. One commonality characterizing these processes is the supportive role exerted by myeloid cells, particularly neutrophils, whose recruitment is facilitated in this tissue microenvironment. Indeed, neutrophils have important part in the pathophysiology of this organ and the key mechanisms regulating neutrophil expansion and recruitment during infection can be co-opted by tumor cells to promote growth and metastasis. Although neutrophils dominate the myeloid landscape of lung cancer other populations including macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils contribute to the complexity of lung cancer TME. In this review, we discuss the origin and significance of myeloid cells heterogeneity in lung cancer, which translates not only in a different frequency of immune populations but it encompasses state of activation, morphology, localization and mutual interactions. The relevance of such heterogeneity is considered in the context of tumor growth and response to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(8): 1298-1311, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887464

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preclinical models recently unveiled the vulnerability of LKB1/KRAS comutated NSCLC to metabolic stress-based treatments. Because miR-17 is a potential epigenetic regulator of LKB1, we hypothesized that wild-type LKB1 (LKB1WT) NSCLC with high miR-17 expression may be sensitive to an energetic stress condition, and eligible for metabolic frailties-based therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We took advantage of NSCLC cell lines with different combinations of KRAS mutation and LKB1 deletion and of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) with high (LKB1WT/miR-17 high) or low (LKB1WT/miR-17 low) miR-17 expression. We evaluated LKB1 pathway impairment and apoptotic response to metformin. We retrospectively evaluated LKB1 and miR-17 expression levels in tissue specimens of patients with NSCLC and PDXs. In addition, a lung cancer series from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set was analyzed for miR-17 expression and potential correlation with clinical features. RESULTS: We identified miR-17 as an epigenetic regulator of LKB1 in NSCLC and confirmed targeting of miR-17 to LKB1 3' untranslated region by luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-17 overexpression functionally impairs the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin treatment prompted apoptosis on miR-17 overexpression only in LKB1WT cell lines, and in LKB1WT/miR-17 high PDXs. A retrospective analysis in patients with NSCLC revealed an inverse correlation between miR-17 and LKB1 expression and highlighted a prognostic role of miR-17 expression in LKB1WT patients, which was further confirmed by The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We identified miR-17 as a mediator of LKB1 expression in NSCLC tumors. This study proposes a miR-17 expression score potentially exploitable to discriminate LKB1WT patients with NSCLC with impaired LKB1 expression and poor outcome, eligible for energy-stress-based treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico , /metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. We also evaluated a control cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line chemotherapy. The interaction between key medications and therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) was validated in pooled multivariable analyses. RESULTS: 950 and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Corticosteroid and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy but not ATB therapy was associated with poorer performance status at baseline in both the cohorts. No association with clinical outcomes was found according to baseline statin, aspirin, ß-blocker and metformin within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the multivariable analysis, ATB emerged as a strong predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79); p=0.0024), and progression free survival (PFS) (HR=1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59); p=0.0192) in the pembrolizumab but not in the chemotherapy cohort. Corticosteroids were associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.69 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.03); p<0.0001), and OS (HR=1.93 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.35); p<0.0001) following pembrolizumab, and shorter PFS (HR=1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56), p=0.0046) and OS (HR=1.58 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.94), p<0.0001), following chemotherapy. PPIs were associated with worse OS (HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.77); p<0.0001) with pembrolizumab and shorter OS (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.24), p=0.0139), with chemotherapy. At the pooled analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction with treatment (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) for corticosteroids (p=0.0020) and PPIs (p=0.0460) with respect to OS, for corticosteroids (p<0.0001), ATB (p=0.0290), and PPIs (p=0.0487) with respect to PFS, and only corticosteroids (p=0.0033) with respect to objective response rate. CONCLUSION: In this study, we validate the significant negative impact of ATB on pembrolizumab monotherapy but not chemotherapy outcomes in NSCLC, producing further evidence about their underlying immune-modulatory effect. Even though the magnitude of the impact of corticosteroids and PPIs is significantly different across the cohorts, their effects might be driven by adverse disease features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...