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1.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 142-148, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health problem that affects millions of hospitalized patients worldwide. In Argentina, evidence suggests that its incidence has risen in recent years. When severe, AKI may require a renal replacement therapy (RRT) where continuous RRT (CRRT) and intermittent RRT (IRRT) are plausible options for patients in the intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost utility of CRRT versus IRRT for the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners, the largest social security health insurance for elders in Argentina. METHODS: This was a model-based cost-utility analysis. Long-term costs and health outcomes were estimated for a hypothetical cohort with a Markov model. Parameters used were obtained from published literature and validated with local experts. Local costs were estimated and expressed in $AR of 2016. Several sensitivity analyses were run to analyze the impact of uncertainty on results. RESULTS: Continuous RRT dominated IRRT by cumulating over the model more quality-adjusted life years and less costs. Total discounted quality-adjusted life years for both cohorts were 1049 and 1034, respectively, and total costs were $95 362 and $103 871. Cost-effectiveness (CE) results reflect these differences in favor of CRRT with a deterministic cost-saving incremental CE ratio and a probability of CRRT being CE of 65.4%, considering a CE threshold of 1 gross domestic product per capita. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous RRT for patients with AKI eligible for CRRT or IRRT would probably be a cost-effective intervention for the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners' view. Nevertheless, there is considerable uncertainty around results, mainly due to the lack of adequate controlled studies and local data on the prognosis of these patients in Argentina.

2.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitor monotherapy is a simplified treatment strategy for virally suppressed HIV-positive patients that has the potential for cost savings, as fewer drugs are used than with combination therapy. However, evidence for its economic value is limited. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy followed by treatment intensification in case of viral load rebound versus combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir in HIV-1 infected patients with viral suppression in the ANRS 140 DREAM trial. METHODS: DREAM was conducted in 36 French Hospitals between 2009 and 2013. For each treatment strategy, we estimated the unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted mean costs (in €, year 2010 values) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per patient, as well as incremental costs and QALYs per patient. We then assessed uncertainty using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, scenario analyses and cost-effectiveness price-threshold (CEPT) analysis. RESULTS: In the base-case analysis considering 2009-2013 antiretroviral drug (ARV) prices, adjusted incremental costs and QALYs were - €3296 (95% confidence interval [CI] - 5202 to - 1391) and 0.006 (95% CI - 0.021 to 0.033), respectively, over 2 years, suggesting that monotherapy was cost-effective with a probability of 100% at various cost-effectiveness thresholds. In scenario analyses considering 2018 ARV prices, monotherapy remained cost-effective but with a lower probability (94% vs. 100% in the base-case analysis). The current price of cART would have to decrease by 34% to be cost-effective with a probability of 95%. CONCLUSION: Monotherapy appears to be cost-effective compared with cART for virologically suppressed HIV-positive patients in France. CEPT analysis is a useful tool to identify the preferred strategy to adopt given that ARV prices change rapidly. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00946595.

3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(38): 8-15, Abril 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-996317

RESUMO

NTRODUCCIÓN: El consumo de alcohol es uno de los principales factores de riesgo. Para relevar las condiciones previas al establecimiento de políticas públicas orientadas a disminuir el consumo de alcohol en Argentina, se fijaron tres objetivos: a) caracterizar la demanda y oferta de bebidas alcohólicas; b) evaluar la situación normativa respecto de políticas de control de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio, y las pautas de publicidad televisiva; c) definir qué modelos de carga de enfermedad atribuible y costo-efectividad de las intervenciones podrían ser aplicables. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gasto de los Hogares 2004/5 y 2012/3 y de la base Euromonitor Internacional. Se examinaron el marco normativo y las acciones televisivas de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio. Se revisó la literatura sobre modelos de carga de enfermedad y costo-efectividad de intervenciones. RESULTADOS: El consumo de bebidas alcohólicas no se modificó entre 2004/5 y 2012/3, y la industria está muy concentrada. El marco de regulación de la publicidad es laxo; más de la mitad de los avisos de TV se emiten en horario diurno, por lo que se expone a menores y se incumplen los acuerdos internacionales subscritos. Hay tres enfoques principales de modelamiento epidemiológico y económico que podrían ser aplicables. CONCLUSIONES: Se caracterizaron aspectos económicos, jurídico-legales y epidemiológicos útiles para impulsar una agenda pública orientada a disminuir el consumo de alcohol


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Saúde Pública , Revisão , Publicidade como Assunto , Bebidas Alcoólicas
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49465

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados. Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3–18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6–32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones. Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions. The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados. Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões. As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Argentina , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde
5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e150, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-961831

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


ABSTRACT Objective To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Argentina/epidemiologia , Avaliação em Saúde
6.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 14: 89-95, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Re-use of medical devices labeled and marketed for single use only is a current practice around the world. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the average difference per surgery in device-related costs (DRCs) when performed with single-use devices under a single-use policy (SUP) instead of a re-use policy (RP) from the perspective of the private health sector of Argentina. METHODS: An analytical model was developed in Microsoft Excel and populated with data from a literature review, a Delphi-like panel, and local cost estimations. Four single-use devices were selected for analysis: plastic trocars, endocutters, linear cutters, and harmonic scalpels. DRCs were expressed in 2012 US dollars and divided into four cost categories: devices, adverse events, device failure, and surgical time extension. Outputs were expressed as DRCs per surgery under a SUP, under a RP, the difference between them expressed in US dollars (Diff_$), and the difference between them expressed as a percentage of surgery costs (Diff_%S). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to analyze the impact of uncertainty on results. RESULTS: Expected DRCs per surgery were as follows: for trocars: SUP, US $424.6; RP, US $244.2; Diff_$, US $-180.4; and Diff_%S, -3.8%; for endocutters: SUP, US $1667.4; RP, US $1102.3; Diff_$, US $-565.1; and Diff_%S, -11.1%; for linear cutters: SUP, US $1228.1; RP, US $1045.9; Diff_$, US $-182.2; and Diff_%S, -3.4%; and for harmonic scalpels: SUP, US $1040.9; RP, US $292.4; Diff_$, US $-748.5; and Diff_%S, -14.8%. Sensitivity analyses showed results to be robust. CONCLUSIONS: RP was shown to be less costly in all devices and scenarios considered. Nevertheless, the real frequency of adverse events and their cost implications are still uncertain. More research is needed to assess the effectiveness and safety of these off-label policies.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/economia , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 152, 2017 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28148228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts (GW) are a significant public health issue in Venezuela. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the two available vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Venezuelan girls in order to inform decision-makers. METHODS: A previously published Markov cohort model, informed by the best available evidence, was adapted to the Venezuelan context to evaluate the effects of vaccination on health and healthcare costs from the perspective of the healthcare payer in an 11-year-old girls cohort of 264,489. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at 5%. Eight scenarios were analyzed to depict the cost-effectiveness under alternative vaccine prices, exchange rates and dosing schemes. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared to screening only, the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines were cost-saving in all scenarios, avoiding 2,310 and 2,143 deaths, 4,781 and 4,431 CCs up to 18,459 GW for the quadrivalent vaccine and gaining 4,486 and 4,395 discounted QALYs respectively. For both vaccines, the main determinants of variations in the incremental costs-effectiveness ratio after running deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were transition probabilities, vaccine and cancer-treatment costs and HPV 16 and 18 distribution in CC cases. When comparing vaccines, none of them was consistently more cost-effective than the other. In sensitivity analyses, for these comparisons, the main determinants were GW incidence, the level of cross-protection and, for some scenarios, vaccines costs. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccines showed to be cost-saving or cost-effective in Venezuela, falling below the threshold of one Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (104,404 VEF) per QALY gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cadeias de Markov , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Condiloma Acuminado/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Venezuela
8.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 13(11): 1053-1065, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the requirements for medical devices licensing and reimbursement in four Latin-American countries. METHODS: We conducted a literature search in major databases, and generic Internet engines, and interviewed key informants. RESULTS: We included all publications describing regulation and/or coverage and enriched them with key informant's interviews. We found that licensing processes are similar. The decision-making process for coverage is not formally different than the one used for drugs. Although countries differ, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico have an explicit process informed by Health Technology Assessment. In general, coverage policies are defined for procedures and don´t specify device brand or model, and for that reason they may reimburse without explicit one by one device evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The process for licensing and reimbursement is broadly similar but less stringent than that for drugs. It allows the adoption of medical devices without individual comprehensive assessment.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro , Licenciamento , Legislação de Dispositivos Médicos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , América do Sul
10.
Qual Life Res ; 25(2): 323-33, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To derive a value set from Uruguayan general population using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire and report population norms. METHODS: General population individuals were randomly assigned to value 10 health states using composite time trade off and 7 pairs of health states through discrete choice experiments. A stratified sampling with quotas by location, gender, age and socio-economic status was used to respect the Uruguayan population structure. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews. The EuroQol valuation technology was used to administer the protocol as well as to collect the data. OLS and maximum likelihood robust regression models with or without interactions were tested. RESULTS: We included 794 respondents between 20 and 83 years. Their characteristics were broadly similar to the Uruguayan population. The main effects robust model was chosen to derive social values. Values ranged from -0.264 to 1. States with a misery index = 6 had a mean predicted value of 0.965. When comparing the Uruguayan population with the Argentinian EQ-5D-5L crosswalk value set, the prediction for states which differed from full health only in having one of the dimensions at level 2 were about 0.05 higher in Uruguay. The mean index value, using the selected Uruguayan EQ-5D-5L value set, for the general population in Uruguay was 0.895. In general, older people had worse values and males had slightly better values than females. CONCLUSION: We derived the EQ-5D-5L Uruguayan value set, the first in Latin America. These results will help inform decision-making using economic evaluations for resource allocation decisions.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Uruguai , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129044, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26057930

RESUMO

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Despite strong evidence showing the efficacy of routine oxytocin in preventing PPH, the proportion of women receiving it after delivery is still below 100%. The Uniject injection system prefilled with oxytocin (Uniject) has the potential advantage, due to its ease of use, to increase oxytocin utilization rates. We aimed to assess its cost-effectiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We used an epidemiological model to estimate: a) the impact of replacing oxytocin in ampoules with Uniject on the incidence of PPH, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a health care system perspective, and b) the minimum increment in oxytocin utilization rates required to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy. A consensus panel of LAC experts was convened to quantify the expected increase in oxytocin rates as a consequence of making Uniject available. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, the incremental cost of Uniject with respect to oxytocin in ampoules was estimated to be USD 1.00 (2013 US dollars). In the cost-effectiveness analysis, Uniject ranged from being cost-saving (in 8 out of 30 countries) to having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of USD 8,990 per QALY gained. In most countries these ICERs were below one GDP per capita. The minimum required increment in oxytocin rates to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy ranged from 1.3% in Suriname to 16.2% in Haiti. Switching to Uniject could prevent more than 40,000 PPH events annually in LAC. Uniject was cost-saving or very cost-effective in almost all countries. Even if countries can achieve only small increases in oxytocin rates by incorporating Uniject, this strategy could be considered a highly efficient use of resources. These results were robust in the sensitivity analysis under a wide range of assumptions.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Injeções/métodos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Seringas/classificação , Região do Caribe , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/economia , Injeções/instrumentação , América Latina , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/economia , Autoadministração , Seringas/economia
13.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 31(1-2): 2-11, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Differential pricing, based on countries' purchasing power, is recommended by the World Health Organization to secure affordable medicines. However, in developing countries innovative drugs often have similar or even higher prices than in high-income countries. We evaluated the potential implications of trastuzumab global pricing policies in terms of cost-effectiveness (CE), coverage, and accessibility for patients with breast cancer in Latin America (LA). METHODS: A Markov model was designed to estimate life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs from a healthcare perspective. To better fit local cancer prognosis, a base case scenario using transition probabilities from clinical trials was complemented with two alternative scenarios with transition probabilities adjusted to reflect breast cancer epidemiology in each country. RESULTS: Incremental discounted benefits ranged from 0.87 to 1.00 LY and 0.51 to 0.60 QALY and incremental CE ratios from USD 42,104 to USD 110,283 per QALY (2012 U.S. dollars), equivalent to 3.6 gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) per QALY in Uruguay and to 35.5 GDPPC in Bolivia. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 0 percent probability that trastuzumab is CE if the willingness-to-pay threshold is one GDPPC per QALY, and remained so at three GDPPC threshold except for Chile and Uruguay (4.3 percent and 26.6 percent, respectively). Trastuzumab price would need to decrease between 69.6 percent to 94.9 percent to became CE in LA. CONCLUSIONS: Although CE in other settings, trastuzumab was not CE in LA. The use of health technology assessment to prioritize resource allocation and support price negotiations is critical to making innovative drugs available and affordable in developing countries.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Custos e Análise de Custo , Trastuzumab/economia , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , América Latina , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Econométricos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
14.
s.l; s.n; [2012].
Não convencional em Inglês | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-833497

RESUMO

Background: Differential pricing (DP) on the basis of countries' purchasing power has been recommended by the WHO to secure more affordably priced medicines. However, in developing counties (DC) many innovative drugs have similar or even higher prices than in high-income countries (HIC). We conducted a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis to estimate the impact of this pricing policy on the CE of trastuzumab in Latin-America (LA). Methods: Model structure and a common methodology for identifying costs and resource use were agreed with country teams. A Markov model was designed to evaluate life years (LY), quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs \r\nfrom a health care sector perspective. A systematic search on effectiveness, local epidemiology and costs studies was undertaken to populate the model. A base case scenario using transition probabilities from trastuzumab clinical trials, and two alternative scenarios with transition probabilities adjusted to reflect breast cancer epidemiology in each country, were built to better fit local cancer prognosis. Findings: Incremental discounted benefits and costs of the trastuzumab strategy ranged from 0·87 to 1·00 LY, 0·51 to 0·60 QALY and $24,683 to $60,835 (2012 US dollars). Incremental CE ratios ranged from $42,104 to $110,283 per QALY, equivalent to 3·6 gross domestic products per capita (GDPc) per QALY in Uruguay to up to 35·5 GDPc per QALY in Bolivia. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed a 0% probability that trastuzumab is CE if the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold is one GDPpc per QALY, and remains 0% at a WTP threshold of three GDPc except in Chile and Uruguay (probability 4·3% and 26·6% respectively). Conclusion: Despite its proven CE in other settings, trastuzumab was not CE in LA at its current price. Better cooperation between the public and private sectors is still needed to make innovative drugs available and affordable in DC.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo/métodos , Uso de Medicamentos , Trastuzumab , América Latina
15.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 28(3): 540-7, 2011 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22086638

RESUMO

Budgetary Impact Analysis (BIA) applied to health care can be defined as the estimate of the net financial costs that a given intervention would represent for a health care institution given the case it was covered. Routinely, BIAs are used to decide the inclusion or exclusion of drugs in therapeutic schemes; actually, the increased use of BIAs have raised awareness about the fact that health economic evaluations represent a partial view in the analysis of the consequences of incorporating health technologies. This paper seeks to identify the determinants and components of BIA, and to describe the development of a spreadsheet model that enables us to assess the Budget impact of any health technology and perform estimations with differing degrees of complexity. Its design explicitly adapts to the user skills and gaps in information, thus seeking to promote the development of these tools in the management fields in our countries.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Humanos
16.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 10(5): 525-37, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20950069

RESUMO

Economic evaluation guidelines are widespread in developed countries with fourth hurdle systems but as of yet not in Latin America. In the present article, a systematic search was conducted in order to retrieve regional guidelines in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and the gray literature. Four national guidelines were found: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. We report a thorough review of these documents, as well as a comparison among them. We conclude that, despite some differences found, they are broadly similar, and are broadly in accordance with international documents. The existence of these documents, together with other experiences in the region that explicitly use economic evaluation information for health decision making clearly shows that this global tendency is gaining momentum in Latin America, although there is still a long way to go. In the near future we will be able to see if these documents were successfully used and applied for transparent and evidence-based decision making.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Guias como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Modelos Econômicos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
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