Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 340
Filtrar
1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with homologous recombination deficient tumors achieve significantly higher pathologic complete response (pCR) rates when treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are prognostic and predictive of chemotherapy benefit in early stage TNBC. The relationship between TILs, BRCA1/2 mutation status and Homologous Recombination Deficiency (HRD) status in TNBC remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a pooled analysis of 5 phase II studies that included patients with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy to evaluate the association of TILs with HRD status (Myriad Genetics) and tumor BRCA1/2 mutation status. Further, the relationship between pathologic response assessed using the residual cancer burden (RCB) index and HRD status with adjustment for TILs was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 161 patients, stromal TIL (sTIL) density was not significantly associated with HRD status (p=0.107) or tumor BRCA1/2 mutation status (p=0.391). In multivariate analyses, sTIL density (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.94-1.61, p=0.139) was not associated with pCR, but was associated with RCB 0/I status (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.20-2.28, p=0.001). HRD was significantly associated with both pCR (OR 12.09, 95% CI 4.11-44.29, p= 7.82 x10-7) and RCB 0/I (OR 10.22, 95% CI 4.11-28.75, p= 1.09 x10-7) in these models. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy, TIL density was not significantly associated with either tumor BRCA1/2 mutation status or HRD status. In this pooled analysis, HRD and sTIL density were independently associated with treatment response, with HRD status being the strongest predictor.

2.
Cancer ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer subtypes are associated with distinct metastatic patterns. Whether germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation status is independently associated with central nervous system (CNS) relapse, controlling for tumor subtype, is unknown. METHODS: Patients who were treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and diagnosed with a first locoregional recurrence (LRR) or metastasis between 1981 and 2014 were identified using 2 institutional registries: 1) patients treated for recurrent breast cancer and 2) patients who underwent BRCA testing. The frequencies of LRR, sites of metastasis, and breast cancer-specific survival from LRR or metastasis were calculated, and the factors associated with CNS recurrence were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: The final study cohort included 30 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 32 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 270 noncarriers. Most BRCA1 carriers (73%) had triple-negative breast cancer; whereas most BRCA2 carriers (72%) had hormone receptor-positive tumors. BRCA1 carriers frequently experienced lung and distant lymph node metastasis, whereas BRCA2 carriers and noncarriers most often experienced bone metastasis. Although CNS disease occurred frequently in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (53% BRCA1, 50% BRCA2, 25% noncarriers; P < .001), only BRCA2 mutation (P = .006) was significantly associated with CNS metastasis in multivariable analysis controlling for tumor subtype. BRCA2 mutation (P = .01), triple-negative subtype (P < .001), and the involvement of CNS (P < .001) and other non-CNS distant sites (relative to locoregional recurrence or contralateral disease; P < .001) at presentation of recurrent breast cancer were associated with risk for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CNS involvement is frequent in women with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations who have metastatic breast cancer. BRCA2 mutation carriers had a significantly higher frequency of CNS metastasis than noncarriers when controlling for breast cancer subtype.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578472
4.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(33): 3152-3165, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To update the ASCO guideline on pharmacologic interventions for breast cancer risk reduction and provide guidance on clinical issues that arise when deciding to use endocrine therapy for breast cancer risk reduction. METHODS: An Expert Panel conducted targeted systematic literature reviews to identify new studies. RESULTS: A randomized clinical trial that evaluated the use of anastrozole for reduction of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer provided the predominant basis for the update. UPDATED RECOMMENDATIONS: In postmenopausal women at increased risk, the choice of endocrine therapy now includes anastrozole (1 mg/day) in addition to exemestane (25 mg/day), raloxifene (60 mg/day), or tamoxifen (20 mg/day). The decision regarding choice of endocrine therapy should take into consideration age, baseline comorbidities, and adverse effect profiles. Clinicians should not prescribe anastrozole, exemestane, or raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction to premenopausal women. Tamoxifen 20 mg/day for 5 years is still considered standard of care for risk reduction in premenopausal women who are at least 35 years old and have completed childbearing. Data on low-dose tamoxifen as an alternative to the standard dose for both pre- and postmenopausal women with intraepithelial neoplasia are discussed in the Clinical Considerations section of this article. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines.

5.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 107, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533767

RESUMO

The introduction of next-generation sequencing has resulted in testing multiple genes simultaneously to identify inherited pathogenic variants (PVs) in cancer susceptibility genes. PVs with low minor allele frequencies (MAFs) (< 25-35%) are highlighted on germline genetic test reports. In this review, we focus on the challenges of interpreting PVs with low MAF in breast cancer patients undergoing germline testing and the implications for management.The clinical implications of a germline PV are substantial. For PV carriers in high-penetrance genes like BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, prophylactic mastectomy is often recommended and radiation therapy avoided when possible for those with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). For germline PV carriers in more moderate-risk genes such as PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2, annual breast MRI is recommended and prophylactic mastectomies considered for those with significant family histories. Detection of PVs in cancer susceptibility genes can also lead to recommendations for other prophylactic surgeries (e.g., salpingo-oophorectomy) and increased surveillance for other cancers. Therefore, recognizing when a PV is somatic rather than germline and distinguishing somatic mosaicism from clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is essential. Mutational events that occur at a post-zygotic stage are somatic and will only be present in tissues derived from the mutated cell, characterizing classic mosaicism. Clonal hematopoiesis is a form of mosaicism restricted to the hematopoietic compartment.Among the genes in multi-gene panels used for germline testing of breast cancer patients, the detection of a PV with low MAF occurs most often in TP53, though has been reported in other breast cancer susceptibility genes. Distinguishing a germline TP53 PV (LFS) from a somatic PV (TP53 mosaicism or CH) has enormous implications for breast cancer patients and their relatives.We review how to evaluate a PV with low MAF. The identification of the PV in another tissue confirms mosaicism. Older age, exposure to chemotherapy, radiation, and tobacco are known risk factors for CH, as is the absence of a LFS-related cancer in the setting of a TP53 PV with low MAF. The ability to recognize and understand the implications of somatic PVs, including somatic mosaicism and CH, enables optimal personalized care of breast cancer patients.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4182, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519911

RESUMO

Myoepithelial cells play key roles in normal mammary gland development and in limiting pre-invasive to invasive breast tumor progression, yet their differentiation and perturbation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated myoepithelial cells in normal breast tissues of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers and in non-carrier controls, and in sporadic DCIS. We found that in the normal breast of non-carriers, myoepithelial cells frequently co-express the p63 and TCF7 transcription factors and that p63 and TCF7 show overlapping chromatin peaks associated with differentiated myoepithelium-specific genes. In contrast, in normal breast tissues of BRCA1 mutation carriers the frequency of p63+TCF7+ myoepithelial cells is significantly decreased and p63 and TCF7 chromatin peaks do not overlap. These myoepithelial perturbations in normal breast tissues of BRCA1 germline mutation carriers may play a role in their higher risk of breast cancer. The fraction of p63+TCF7+ myoepithelial cells is also significantly decreased in DCIS, which may be associated with invasive progression.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 741-748, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317348

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures performed in the U.S. This study examines the incidence, management, and prognosis of incidental breast cancer identified in reduction specimens from a large cohort of reduction mammoplasty patients. METHODS: Breast pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of incidental cancers in bilateral reduction mammoplasty specimens from five institutions between 1990 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 4804 women met the inclusion criteria of this study; incidental cancer was identified in 45 breasts of 39 (0.8%) patients. Six patients (15%) had bilateral cancer. Overall, the maximum diagnosis by breast was 16 invasive cancers and 29 ductal carcinomas in situs. Thirty-three patients had unilateral cancer, 15 (45.5%) of which had high-risk lesions in the contralateral breast. Twenty-one patients underwent mastectomy (12 bilateral and nine unilateral), residual cancer was found in 10 in 25 (40%) therapeutic mastectomies. Seven patients did not undergo mastectomy received breast radiation. The median follow-up was 92 months. No local recurrences were observed in the patients undergoing mastectomy or radiation. Three of 11 (27%) patients who did not undergo mastectomy or radiation developed a local recurrence. The overall survival rate was 87.2% and disease-free survival was 82.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty for macromastia have a small but definite risk of incidental breast cancer. The high rate of bilateral cancer, contralateral high-risk lesions, and residual disease at mastectomy mandates thorough pathologic evaluation and careful follow-up of these patients. Mastectomy or breast radiation is recommended for local control given the high likelihood of local recurrence without either.

9.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 12-20, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic mutations have been identified in approximately 10 percent of patients who present with breast cancer. Notably, failure to identify deleterious genetic mutations has particular implications for patients undergoing abdominally based breast reconstruction, as the donor site can be used only once. The authors sought to determine: (1) how many patients underwent genetic testing before unilateral abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction; (2) how often deleterious mutations were detected after abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction; and (3) the cost-effectiveness of expanding genetic testing in this patient population. METHODS: The authors retrospectively identified all patients who underwent unilateral abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2007 and 2016. Chart review was performed to collect relevant demographic and clinical data. Relevant hospital financial data were obtained. RESULTS: Of the 713 who underwent free flap breast reconstruction, 160 patients met inclusion criteria, and mean follow-up was 5.8 years. Three patients (1.9 percent of 160) underwent contralateral surgery after completing reconstruction, two of whom had BRCA2 and one with ATM mutation. One hundred eleven patients met National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for genetic testing, but of those only 55.9 percent (62 patients) were tested. Financial data revealed that testing every patient in the cohort would result in a net savings of $262,000. CONCLUSIONS: During a relatively short follow-up period, a small percentage of patients were diagnosed with pathogenic mutations and underwent contralateral mastectomy and reconstruction. However, because of the costliness of surgery and the decreased cost of genetic testing, it is cost-effective to test every patient before unilateral abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Assistência à Saúde , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Helicases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
10.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 300-313, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181692

RESUMO

This study addressed the development and evaluation of the Smile Program whose main objective was the prevention of depression and the promotion of well-being in adolescents. The program is based on interventions that have been shown to be efficacious (a cognitive-behavioral approach). Participants were 89 adolescents (mean age = 13.88 years; SD = 0.95) recruited from a sample of 1212 students from seven schools. Results showed a significant reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms in the intervention group (n= 51) as compared to youth in the control group (n= 38). Based on parents' report (n=56), youth in the intervention group had significantly better self-esteem at post-test as compared to youth in the control group. At four months post intervention, youth in the intervention group had higher psychological well-being than those in the control group; at the 8-month follow-up, youth in the intervention condition reported better family self-concept


Este estudio consistió en describir el desarrollo y la evaluación del Programa Sonrisa cuyo principal objetivo fue la prevención de la depresión y la promoción del bienestar en adolescentes. El programa se basa en intervenciones que han demostrado ser eficaces (enfoque cognitivo-conductual). Los participantes fueron 89 adolescentes (edad media = 13,88 años, SD = 0,95) reclutados de una muestra de 1212 estudiantes de 7 escuelas. Los resultados de los autoinformes de los adolescentes mostraron una reducción significativa en los síntomas depresivos en el grupo de intervención (n = 51) en comparación con los adolescentes del grupo control (n = 38). Respecto a los cuestionarios de los padres (n = 56), se halló que los adolescentes en el grupo de intervención tuvieron una autoestima significativamente mejor en el postest en comparación con los del grupo control. Cuatro meses después del programa, los adolescentes del grupo de intervención tenían un mayor bienestar psicológico que los del grupo de control y , en el seguimiento de 8 meses, los adolescentes de la condición de intervención informaron de un mejor autoconcepto familiar


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Programas Gente Saudável/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia
11.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2478-2484, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Panel testing has led to the identification of TP53 pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant carriers (TP53+) who exhibit a broad range of phenotypes. We sought to evaluate and compare genotype-phenotype associations among TP53+ panel-ascertained subjects. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2017, 317 TP53+ subjects (279 females and 38 males) identified through panel testing at one testing laboratory were found to have evaluable clinical histories and molecular results. Subject cancer histories were obtained from test requisition forms. P/LP variants were categorized by type and were examined in relation to phenotype. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants were associated with the earliest age at first cancer, with a median age of 30.5 years (P = 0.014); increased frequency of a sarcoma diagnosis (P = 0.016); and more often meeting classic LFS testing and Chompret 2015 criteria (P = 0.004 and 0.002 respectively), as compared with dominant-negative missense, other missense, or miscellaneous (splice or in-frame deletion) P/LP variant categories. CONCLUSION: Loss-of-function variants were more often associated with characteristic LFS cancer histories than other variant categories in TP53+ carriers ascertained through multigene panel testing. These findings require validation in other TP53+ cohorts. Genetic counseling for panel-ascertained TP53+ individuals should reflect the dynamic expansion of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome phenotype.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11437-11443, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110002

RESUMO

Limited knowledge of the changes in estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during the transformation of the normal mammary gland to breast cancer hinders the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Differences in estrogen signaling between normal human primary breast epithelial cells and primary breast tumors obtained immediately following surgical excision were explored. Transcriptional profiling of normal ER+ mature luminal mammary epithelial cells and ER+ breast tumors revealed significant difference in the response to estrogen stimulation. Consistent with these differences in gene expression, the normal and tumor ER cistromes were distinct and sufficient to segregate normal breast tissues from breast tumors. The selective enrichment of the DNA binding motif GRHL2 in the breast cancer-specific ER cistrome suggests that it may play a role in the differential function of ER in breast cancer. Depletion of GRHL2 resulted in altered ER binding and differential transcriptional responses to estrogen stimulation. Furthermore, GRHL2 was demonstrated to be essential for estrogen-stimulated proliferation of ER+ breast cancer cells. DLC1 was also identified as an estrogen-induced tumor suppressor in the normal mammary gland with decreased expression in breast cancer. In clinical cohorts, loss of DLC1 and gain of GRHL2 expression are associated with ER+ breast cancer and are independently predictive for worse survival. This study suggests that normal ER signaling is lost and tumor-specific ER signaling is gained during breast tumorigenesis. Unraveling these changes in ER signaling during breast cancer progression should aid the development of more effective prevention strategies and targeted therapeutics.

14.
Cancer ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an uncommon and aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with early disease recurrence and short survival. The prevalence of germline variants in cancer predisposition genes has not been systematically evaluated in women with IBC. METHODS: Among 301 women enrolled in the clinical IBC registry at a single institution between 2010 and 2017, 168 had documented genetic testing. A second cohort of 200 IBC cases who had panel-based germline testing performed through a commercial testing laboratory from 2012 to 2017 was added to the analyses. Personal and family cancer histories and genetic testing results were evaluated when they were available for both cohorts. RESULTS: Among 501 IBC cases, 368 had documented genetic testing. Germline mutations (56 total) were identified in 53 cases (14.4%). BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were found in 7.3% of the subjects, 6.3% had a mutation in other breast cancer genes (PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, and BARD1), and 1.6% had mutations in genes not associated with breast cancer. The prevalence of mutations was 24% (22 of 92) among women with triple-negative IBC, 13% (13 of 99) among women with estrogen receptor- and/or progesterone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative disease, and 9.3% (10 of 108) among women with HER2-positive IBC. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and diversity of germline genetic mutations among patients with IBC suggest that further studies should be performed to assess the role of inherited mutations in IBC carcinogenesis in comparison with non-IBC breast cancer. Since IBC has a high metastatic potential associated with poor prognostic outcomes, proposed future studies may also inform targeted treatment options.

15.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(4): 279-286, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Youth depression can be prevented, yet few programs are offered. Decision makers lack cost information. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program (CBP) versus usual care. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted with data from a randomized controlled trial of 316 youths, ages 13-17, randomly assigned to CBP or usual care. Youths were at risk of depression because of a prior depressive disorder or subthreshold depressive symptoms, or both, and had parents with a prior or current depressive disorder. Outcomes included depression-free days (DFDs), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. RESULTS: Nine months after baseline assessment, youths in CBP experienced 12 more DFDs (p=.020) and .018 more QALYs (p=.007), compared with youths in usual care, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $24,558 per QALY. For youths whose parents were not depressed at baseline, CBP youths had 26 more DFDs (p=.001), compared with those in usual care (ICER=$10,498 per QALY). At 33 months postbaseline, youths in CBP had 40 more DFDs (p=.05) (ICER=$12,787 per QALY). At 33 months, CBP youths whose parents were not depressed at baseline had 91 more DFDs (p=.001) (ICER=$13,620 per QALY). For youths with a currently depressed parent at baseline, CBP was not significantly more effective than usual care at either 9 or 33 months, and costs were higher. CONCLUSIONS: CBP produced significantly better outcomes than usual care and was particularly cost-effective for youths whose parents were not depressed at baseline. Depression prevention programs could improve youths' health at a reasonable cost; services to treat depressed parents may also be warranted.

16.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(8): 1558-1564, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010603

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a measure of cancer genetics knowledge relevant to multigene panel testing. METHODS: The instrument was developed using systematic input from a national panel of genetics experts, acceptability evaluation by patient advocates, and cognitive testing. Twenty-four candidate items were completed by 591 breast or gynecological patients who had undergone genetic counseling and multigene panel testing in the past 18 months. A unidimensional item response theory model was fit with a mix of 2-parameter logistic nested response (2 plnrm) and 2-parameter logistic (2 pl) items. RESULTS: Key domains addressing cancer genetics knowledge were found to be overlapping. Of the 24 candidate items, 8 items were removed due to poor discrimination or local dependence. The remaining 16 items had good fit (RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.946) and discrimination parameters ranging from 0.49 to 1.60. The items specified as 2 plnrm distinguish between those answering incorrect versus don't know, with discrimination ranging from 0.51 to 1.02. Information curves were highest among those with lower knowledge. CONCLUSION: KnowGene is a rigorously developed and effective measure of knowledge after cancer genetic counseling and multigene panel testing. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Measuring knowledge in a systematic way will inform practice and research initiatives in cancer genetics.

17.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-11, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908080

RESUMO

Children of parents with depression are at increased risk for developing psychopathology. The purpose of the current longitudinal study was to examine the dynamic relations between parents' depressive symptoms and children's cognitions, specifically their attributions for the causes of life events. Participants were 227 parent-child dyads with one parent (Mage = 42.19, SD = 6.82; 76% female) and one child (Mage = 12.53, SD = 2.33; 53% female) per family. Parents either were diagnosed with a current major depressive disorder (n = 129; 72.9% female) or were lifetime-free of mood disorders (n = 98; 79.6% female). The Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to obtain a dimensional measure of parents' depressive symptoms, and the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised was used to assess children's attributions of negative and positive events. Evaluations were conducted 5 times across 22 months. We used latent difference score (LDS) modeling to examine the relations between changes in parents' depressive symptoms and changes in children's attributional style over time. The final model provided a close fit to the data: χ2(30) = 35.22, p = .24; comparative fit index = .995, root mean square error of approximation = .028, 90% confidence interval (CI) [.000, .060], standardized root mean square residual = .024. Parents' levels of depressive symptoms significantly predicted the worsening of children's attributions (i.e., becoming more pessimistic) over the 22 months, whereas children's attributions did not significantly predict changes in parents' depressive symptoms at the next time point. Preventive interventions should aim to both reduce parents' depression and teach children strategies for examining the accuracy of their beliefs regarding the causes of life events.

18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 182: 151-165, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826468

RESUMO

Feedback that young children receive from others can affect their emotions and emerging self-views. The current experiment tested the effect of negative content (criticism) and negative tone (hostile) of the feedback on children's affect, self-evaluations, and attributions. We also explored whether maternal history of depression and children's temperament moderated these relations. Participants were 152 mothers and children (48% girls) aged 4 and 5 years (M = 61.6 months, SD = 6.83). The task involved three scenarios enacted by dolls; a child doll made something (e.g., picture, house, numbers) that had a mistake (e.g., no windows on the house) and proudly showed it to the mother doll, who then gave feedback (standardized, audio recorded) to the child. Children were randomized to one of four maternal feedback conditions: negative or neutral content in either a negative or neutral tone. Negative content (criticism) produced significantly more negative affect and lower self-evaluations than neutral content. When the tone of the feedback was hostile, children of mothers who had been depressed during the children's lifetimes were significantly more likely to make internal attributions for mistakes than children of nondepressed mothers. In addition, among children with low temperamental negative affectivity, in the presence of negative tone, negative content significantly predicted more internal attributions for the errors. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the role of evaluative feedback in children's emerging social cognitions and affect.

19.
Child Abuse Negl ; 90: 127-138, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776738

RESUMO

Rates of substantiated child abuse and neglect vary significantly across counties. Despite strong cross-sectional support for links between social-contextual characteristics and abuse and neglect, few longitudinal studies have tested relations between these risk factors and substantiated rates of abuse/neglect. The goal of this study was to identify county-level socioeconomic and crime factors associated with substantiated abuse/neglect rates over 13 years (2004-2016). Annual county-level data for Tennessee, obtained from the KIDS COUNT Data Center, included rates of substantiated child abuse and neglect, children's race and ethnicity, births to unmarried women, teen birth rate, children in families receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, and children in families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Annual county-level crime report data, obtained from the Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System, included sexual offenses, non-sexual assaults, stalking incidents, thefts, property damage, and drug-related offenses. Bayesian spatio-temporal models indicated that substantiated child abuse and neglect rates were independently and positively associated with teen birth rates, percentages of births to unmarried mothers, drug-related offenses, and percentages of children receiving SNAP benefits. In contrast, substantiated child abuse and neglect rates were negatively associated with percentages of African-American youth. The findings highlighted distinct demographic, socioeconomic, and crime factors associated with substantiated child abuse and neglect rates and have the potential to enhance identification of high-risk counties that could benefit from targeted abuse and neglect prevention efforts.

20.
J Genet Couns ; 28(3): 708-716, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680866

RESUMO

Transgender individuals comprise a growing patient population in genetic counseling practice. The identification of a pathogenic variant in a cancer susceptibility gene may impact a transgender person's decisions regarding hormonal and/or surgical transition. Limited scientific literature exists on specific genetic counseling needs and medical management strategies for transgender individuals. In addition, most genetic counselors have had limited experience and training in conducting genetic counseling sessions with transgender patients. In this report, we describe three cases of transgender individuals who underwent genetic counseling and testing in our clinic. All were at ≥50% risk to carry a familial BRCA1 pathogenic variant. Case 1 is a 20-year-old transgender female initiating hormonal agents. Case 2 is a 19-year-old transgender male considering surgical decisions who has a BRCA1 pathogenic variant on both sides of the family. Case 3 is a 24-year-old transgender male who had previously undergone gender-affirming mastectomy (top surgery) and is taking androgen therapy. Unique aspects of genetic testing, psychosocial counseling, and medical management of transgender individuals have arisen in the course of their care. In this report, we discuss our experiences and practices of case preparation, case management, appropriate genetic testing, and medical management such as screening, surgical decisions, and coordination of care. There is a need for more research in this area and more transgender-specific training for genetic counselors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA