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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-dose tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk, but remains untested in chest-irradiated cancer survivors - a population with breast cancer risk comparable to BRCA mutation carriers. We hypothesized that low-dose tamoxifen would be safe and efficacious in reducing radiation-related breast cancer risk. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, phase IIb, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (FDA IND107367) between 2010 and 2016 at 15 US sites. Eligibility included ≥12Gy of chest radiation by age 40y and age at enrollment ≥25y. Patients were randomized 1:1 to low-dose tamoxifen (5mg/day) or identical placebo tablets for 2y. The primary endpoint was mammographic dense area at baseline, 1y and 2y. Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a role in breast carcinogenesis; circulating IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 levels at baseline, 1y and 2y served as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (low-dose tamoxifen: n=34, placebo: n=38) enrolled at a median age of 43.8y (35-49) were evaluable. They had received chest radiation at a median dose of 30.3 Gy. Compared with the placebo arm, the low-dose tamoxifen arm participants had significantly lower mammographic dense area (P=0.02) and IGF1 levels (P<0.0001), and higher IGFBP-3 levels (P=0.02). There was no difference in toxicity biomarkers (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, lipids, and anti-thrombin III; urine N-telopeptide crosslinks) between the treatment arms. We did not identify any grade 3-4 adverse events related to low-dose tamoxifen. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized trial in chest-irradiated cancer survivors, we find that low-dose tamoxifen is effective in reducing established biomarkers of breast cancer risk and could serve as a risk-reduction strategy.

2.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927293, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The diagnoses of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-associated polyposis conditions are typically based on suggestive personal features and/or family history, and the identification of a pathogenic variant in the APC gene. However, with large-scale genome sequencing, it is now possible to identify pathogenic variants before or even without the presentation of the expected clinical features. This case describes a novel pathogenic APC variant. CASE REPORT We report the unexpected identification of a rare, pathogenic germline APC variant, p.S2627Gfs*12 in an 80-year-old man with a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, without any family history of APC-associated polyposis or personal history of colorectal cancer. After the identification of the APC variant, a review of the patient's medical records showed a personal history of 15 adenomatous polyps over a decade ago, with no follow-up genetic testing at the time. CONCLUSIONS This novel APC variant has not been characterized to date. The presence of the APC-p.S2627Gfs*12 variant in this patient led to the recommendation of additional cascade genetic testing and surveillance measures for any family members who tested positive for this variant. This report highlights the broad spectrum of the APC-associated polyposis features, and a mild phenotype associated with the pathogenic APC p.S2627Gfs*12 variant.

3.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927415, 2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND RET p.V804M is a known activating oncogenic variant that confers an increased risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Based on age-specific penetrance, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) categorizes this variant as posing moderate risk. Therefore, ATA guidelines endorse prophylactic thyroidectomy for carriers in childhood (by age 5-10 years) or adulthood, or when the serum calcitonin level becomes elevated. The recommendation for thyroidectomy is increasingly controversial due to the recently reported low penetrance of the RET p.V804M variant in a large unbiased ascertainment cohort. CASE REPORT We describe the unexpected identification of this variant in a 62-year-old woman undergoing broad, multigene cancer panel testing for her personal and family history of breast cancer. There was no known family history of MTC. Biochemical screening prompted by the RET p.V804M result revealed a mildly elevated serum calcitonin. Pathology examination of her thyroidectomy specimen revealed multifocal medullary thyroid microcarcinoma; her sibling's prophylactic thyroidectomy after a RET p.V840M-positive result similarly revealed early-stage MTC. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the value of genetic counseling, shared decision-making, cascade testing, and timely thyroidectomy in the management of a patient with an unexpected RET p.V804M result.

4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline genetic testing is crucial to the care of ovarian cancer patients, and as part of the guideline-based care for ovarian cancer patient's adherence to this recommendation has been low. We sought to determine whether embedding a genetic counselor (GC) within a medical and gynecologic oncology clinic would increase testing rates and improve the timeliness of testing. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 358 ovarian cancer patients seen by medical and gynecologic oncologists between 2013 and 2015. Rates of referrals, completion of counseling, and genetic testing and timeliness of counseling were abstracted before and after a GC was embedded in the clinic in 2014. An additional year of data (2015) was collected to evaluate sustainability of the intervention. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2015, 88-92% of women were referred for genetic testing, but in 2013 only 66% completed counseling and 61% were tested. After a GC was embedded in the clinic in 2014, more than 80% of referred women completed counseling and germline genetic testing. Time to genetic counseling also decreased from a median of 107 to 40 days, irrespective of age and cancer family history (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Embedding a GC into the workflow for ovarian cancer patients is an effective way of improving access to genetic counseling, testing rates, and the timeliness of testing.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether evidence-based depression prevention programs can be optimized by matching youth to interventions that address their psychosocial vulnerabilities. METHOD: This randomized controlled trial included 204 adolescents (M = 14.26 years, SD = 1.65; 56.4% female). Youth were categorized as high or low on cognitive and interpersonal risks for depression and randomized to Coping with Stress (CWS), a cognitive-behavioral program, or Interpersonal Psychotherapy - Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), an interpersonal program. Some participants received a match between risk and prevention (high cognitive-low interpersonal risk teen in CWS, low cognitive-high interpersonal risk teen in IPT-AST), others received a mismatch (e.g., low cognitive-high interpersonal risk teen in CWS). Outcomes were depression diagnoses and symptoms through 18 months post-intervention (21 months total). RESULTS: Matched adolescents showed significantly greater decreases in depressive symptoms than mismatched adolescents from post-intervention through 18-month follow-up and across the entire 21-month study period (effect size [d] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .02, .87). Rates of depressive disorders among matched adolescents were lower than mismatched adolescents, but this difference fell short of statistical significance (10.1% vs. 25.2%, t(193) = -1.58, p = .12). CONCLUSION: This study illustrates one approach to personalizing depression prevention as a form of precision mental health. Findings suggest that risk-informed personalization may enhance effects beyond a "one size fits all" approach.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2002151, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), is approved for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in germline (g)BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Olaparib Expanded, an investigator-initiated, phase II study, assessed olaparib response in patients with MBC with somatic (s)BRCA1/2 mutations or g/s mutations in homologous recombination (HR)-related genes other than BRCA1/2. METHODS: Eligible patients had MBC with measurable disease and germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 HR-related genes (cohort 1) or somatic mutations in these genes or BRCA1/2 (cohort 2). Prior PARPi, platinum-refractory disease, or progression on more than two chemotherapy regimens (metastatic setting) was not allowed. Patients received olaparib 300 mg orally twice a day until progression. A single-arm, two-stage design was used. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); the null hypothesis (≤ 5% ORR) would be rejected within each cohort if there were four or more responses in 27 patients. Secondary endpoints included clinical benefit rate and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Fifty-four patients enrolled. Seventy-six percent had estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative disease. Eighty-seven percent had mutations in PALB2, sBRCA1/2, ATM, or CHEK2. In cohort 1, ORR was 33% (90% CI, 19% to 51%) and in cohort 2, 31% (90% CI, 15% to 49%). Confirmed responses were seen only with gPALB2 (ORR, 82%) and sBRCA1/2 (ORR, 50%) mutations. Median PFS was 13.3 months (90% CI, 12 months to not available/computable [NA]) for gPALB2 and 6.3 months (90% CI, 4.4 months to NA) for sBRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No responses were observed with ATM or CHEK2 mutations alone. CONCLUSION: PARP inhibition is an effective treatment for patients with MBC and gPALB2 or sBRCA1/2 mutations, significantly expanding the population of patients with breast cancer likely to benefit from PARPi beyond gBRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These results emphasize the value of molecular characterization for treatment decisions in MBC.

8.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

9.
Clin J Pain ; 36(12): 897-906, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior work in a cohort of youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP) identified patient subgroups (High Pain Dysfunctional, High Pain Adaptive, Low Pain Adaptive) that predicted differences in the course of FAP from childhood into young adulthood. We aimed to replicate these subgroups in a new sample of adolescents with FAP using the original classification algorithm and to extend subgroup characteristics to include parental characteristics and health service use. METHODS: Adolescents (n=278; ages 11 to 17 y, 66% females) presenting to a gastroenterology clinic for abdominal pain, and their parents (92% mothers) completed self-report measures; adolescents also completed a 7-day pain diary. RESULTS: The replicated patient subgroups exhibited distress and impairment similar to subgroups in the original sample. Moreover, in novel findings, the High Pain Dysfunctional subgroup differed from other subgroups by the predominance of mother-daughter dyads jointly characterized by high levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain behavior, and pain catastrophizing. The High Pain Dysfunctional subgroup used more health care services than Low Pain Adaptive but did not differ from High Pain Adaptive. DISCUSSION: Findings replicate and extend the original FAP classification and suggest that the subgroups have unique patient and parent features that may reflect distinct illness mechanisms requiring different treatments.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with a family history of breast cancer are frequently referred for hereditary cancer genetic testing, yet < 10% are found to have pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. Large-scale genotyping studies have identified common variants (primarily single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with individually modest breast cancer risk that, in aggregate, account for considerable breast cancer susceptibility. Here, we describe the development and empirical validation of an SNP-based polygenic breast cancer risk score. METHODS: A panel of 94 SNPs was examined for association with breast cancer in women of European ancestry undergoing hereditary cancer genetic testing and negative for pathogenic variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes. Candidate polygenic risk scores (PRSs) as predictors of personal breast cancer history were developed through multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, cancer history, and ancestry. An optimized PRS was validated in 2 independent cohorts (n = 13,174; n = 141,160). RESULTS: Within the training cohort (n = 24,259), 4,291 women (18%) had a personal history of breast cancer and 8,725 women (36%) reported breast cancer in a first-degree relative. The optimized PRS included 86 variants and was highly predictive of breast cancer status in both validation cohorts (P = 6.4 × 10-66; P < 10-325). The odds ratio (OR) per unit standard deviation was consistent between validations (OR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.39 to 1.52]; OR 1.47 [95% CI, 1.45 to 1.49]). In a direct comparison, the 86-SNP PRS outperformed a previously described PRS of 77 SNPs. CONCLUSION: The validation and implementation of a PRS for women without pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes offers potential for risk stratification to guide surveillance recommendations.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

12.
J Genet Couns ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851753

RESUMO

The study describes patient-reported experiences and recommendations to improve the genetic counseling and multigene panel testing (MGPT) process. A descriptive mixed-method study with concurrently collected and integrated qualitative and quantitative data was conducted. Eligible participants were English-speaking adults with a breast or gynecologic cancer diagnosis who had received genetic counseling and testing with a MGPT from one Comprehensive Cancer Center. Satisfaction with the genetic counseling, genetic knowledge using a recently validated scale (KnowGene), the multidimensional impact of cancer risk assessment (MICRA), family communication, and the association with demographic factors were evaluated. To supplement the large quantitative data set, qualitative focus group responses and open-ended text items were collected. Univariate and multivariable associations between each outcome of interest and personal characteristics were assessed. Qualitative data were content-analyzed. 603 participants completed the survey (48% response rate) and 10 individuals participated in the focus groups. Participants were mostly Caucasian, educated with a college degree or more, and female with median age 58 (24-91), and 78% of participants had a breast cancer diagnosis. Of all individuals undergoing genetic testing using a MGPT, 13% had a pathogenic variant identified, and 30% had a variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Overall, participants reported satisfaction with the genetic counseling and testing process (mean 36.9 [SD 4.7]). On average, participants had 7 incorrect answers out of 19 on the genetic knowledge scale (mean 12.3 [SD 3.4]). MICRA scores showed overall low levels of distress and uncertainty, as well as positive experiences, with wide variability (median 17 [0-84]). Age, marital status, education level, type of cancer diagnosis, and genetic testing results were significantly associated with outcomes. Most participants communicated genetic testing results to mainly female first-degree relatives. A wide range of individual preferences affecting overall satisfaction, or suggestions for improvement were shared. As new models of streamlined cancer genetic services are being clinically implemented, approaches should continue to assess and tailor the process based on patients' informational and emotional needs.

13.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 210, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is needed regarding effective incentive strategies to increase clinician survey response rates. Cash cards are increasingly used as survey incentives; they are appealing because of their convenience and because in some cases their value can be reclaimed by investigators if not used. However, their effectiveness in clinician surveys is not known. In this study within the BRCA Founder OutReach (BFOR) study, a clinical trial of population-based BRCA1/2 mutation screening, we compared the use of upfront cash cards requiring email activation versus checks as clinician survey incentives. METHODS: Participants receiving BRCA1/2 testing in the BFOR study could elect to receive their results from their primary care provider (PCP, named by the patient) or from a geneticist associated with the study. In order to understand PCPs' knowledge, attitudes, experiences and willingness to disclose results we mailed paper surveys to the first 501 primary care providers (PCPs) in New York, Boston, Los Angeles and Philadelphia who were nominated by study participants to disclose their BRCA1/2 mutation results obtained through the study. We used alternating assignment stratified by city to assign the first 303 clinicians to receive a $50 up-front incentive as a cash card (N = 155) or check (N = 148). The cash card required PCPs to send an activation email in order to be used. We compared response rates by incentive type, adjusting for PCP characteristics and study site. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, PCPs who received checks were more likely to respond to the survey than those who received cash cards (54.1% versus 41.9%, p = 0.046); this remained true when we adjusted for provider characteristics (OR for checks 1.61, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59). No other clinician characteristics had a statistically significant association with response rates in adjusted analyses. When we included an interaction term for incentive type and city, the favorable impact of checks on response rates was evident only in Los Angeles and Philadelphia. CONCLUSIONS: An up-front cash card incentive requiring email activation may be less effective in eliciting clinician responses than up-front checks. However, the benefit of checks for clinician response rates may depend on clinicians' geographic location. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03351803 ), November 24, 2017.

14.
Genome Res ; 30(8): 1170-1180, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817165

RESUMO

De novo mutations (DNMs) are increasingly recognized as rare disease causal factors. Identifying DNM carriers will allow researchers to study the likely distinct molecular mechanisms of DNMs. We developed Famdenovo to predict DNM status (DNM or familial mutation [FM]) of deleterious autosomal dominant germline mutations for any syndrome. We introduce Famdenovo.TP53 for Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and analyze 324 LFS family pedigrees from four US cohorts: a validation set of 186 pedigrees and a discovery set of 138 pedigrees. The concordance index for Famdenovo.TP53 prediction was 0.95 (95% CI: [0.92, 0.98]). Forty individuals (95% CI: [30, 50]) were predicted as DNM carriers, increasing the total number from 42 to 82. We compared clinical and biological features of FM versus DNM carriers: (1) cancer and mutation spectra along with parental ages were similarly distributed; (2) ascertainment criteria like early-onset breast cancer (age 20-35 yr) provides a condition for an unbiased estimate of the DNM rate: 48% (23 DNMs vs. 25 FMs); and (3) hotspot mutation R248W was not observed in DNMs, although it was as prevalent as hotspot mutation R248Q in FMs. Furthermore, we introduce Famdenovo.BRCA for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and apply it to a small set of family data from the Cancer Genetics Network. In summary, we introduce a novel statistical approach to systematically evaluate deleterious DNMs in inherited cancer syndromes. Our approach may serve as a foundation for future studies evaluating how new deleterious mutations can be established in the germline, such as those in TP53.

15.
Breast J ; 26(8): 1528-1534, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741080

RESUMO

About 5%-10% of breast cancer is hereditary with BRCA1 and BRCA2 being the most common genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (HBC). Several additional genes have recently been associated with HBC. These genes can be classified as highly or moderately penetrant genes with lifetime risk >30% or 17%-30%, respectively. Highly penetrant genes associated with HBC include TP53, PTEN, CDH1, STK11, and PALB2. While, moderately penetrant genes include CHEK2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, NBN, NF1, RAD51D, and MSH6. Breast cancer risk and recommendations for screening and risk-reduction vary by gene. In general, screening breast MRI is recommended for women at >20% lifetime risk, which includes women with mutations in highly penetrant genes and the majority (but not all) moderately penetrant genes. Consideration of chemoprevention is recommended for women with mutations in high and moderately penetrant genes. Risk-reducing mastectomy does reduce the risk of breast cancer to the greatest extent and can be considered for women with highly penetrant genes. However, this procedure is associated with significant morbidities that should be considered, especially given the benefit of using screening breast MRI for high-risk women. BSO is only recommended for women with mutations in genes associate with increased risk for ovarian cancer and not as a breast cancer risk-reducing strategy. As more women undergo testing, additional genes may be identified and risk estimates for current genes and management recommendations may be modified.

16.
J Fam Psychol ; 34(8): 927-937, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658515

RESUMO

This study examined effects of an adolescent depression prevention program on maternal criticisms and positive remarks, whether the extent of adolescents' depression accounted for effects, and whether effects of the program on maternal criticisms and positive remarks differed by adolescents' gender. Participants were 298 adolescent (Mage = 14.79, SD = 1.36; 59% female) offspring of mothers with histories of depression; youth were randomized to either a cognitive-behavioral prevention (CBP) program or usual care (UC). At baseline and 9-month postintervention evaluations, mothers were administered the Five-Minute Speech Sample to measure number of criticisms and positive remarks made during an open-ended description of their child and their relationship. Adolescents' depression from pre- through postintervention was assessed with interviews. A hierarchical generalized linear model showed a significant condition-by-gender interaction, indicating that, controlling for baseline criticism, at postintervention mothers of girls in CBP made significantly more criticisms than did mothers of girls in UC, whereas mothers of boys in CBP made fewer criticisms than did mothers of boys in UC. The extent of adolescents' depression from pre- through postintervention partially mediated the relation between intervention condition and mothers' criticisms, for boys but not for girls. Second, controlling for preintervention positive remarks, at postintervention, mothers of youth in CBP made significantly more positive remarks about their child than did mothers of youth in UC, regardless of gender; this relation was not mediated by adolescent depression from pre- through postintervention. We suggest possible explanations for the observed effects of CBP on mothers' criticisms and positive remarks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

17.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636452

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in female patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a rare autosomal dominant hereditary syndrome characterized by germline TP53 mutations. Recent studies have shown that the majority of these tumors are estrogen receptor (ER) positive with frequent HER2 co-expression. However, the morphologic features of these tumors have not been as well studied as other germline-associated breast cancers. We evaluated the pathologic features of 27 invasive and in situ carcinomas from patients with known germline TP53 mutations collected through the Li-Fraumeni Consortium. Overall, 60% of cases were HER2 positive and 44% showed ER co-expression. Most DCIS was high nuclear grade with central necrosis and associated periductal fibrosis and lymphocytic response. Invasive carcinomas were mostly of ductal type (NOS), modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (mSBR) high grade, with marked nuclear atypia and high mitotic rate. Prominent tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, syncytial growth pattern, or pushing borders were not seen in these tumors. High p53 IHC expression was seen in tumors from individuals with germline TP53 missense mutations whereas little or no protein expression (<1% nuclear expression, null pattern) was seen in tumors from carriers of non-missense mutations. In this study, we report in detail the morphologic features of invasive and in situ carcinomas in LFS. We found that these tumors share features with cancers harboring somatic TP53 mutations but are distinct from BRCA-associated breast cancers.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e208501, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609350

RESUMO

Importance: To date, few studies have examined the extent to which polygenic single-nucleotide variation (SNV) (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) scores modify risk for carriers of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer susceptibility genes. In previous reports, polygenic risk modification was reduced for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers, but limited information is available for carriers of CHEK2, ATM, or PALB2 PVs. Objective: To examine an 86-SNV polygenic risk score (PRS) for BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective case-control study using data on 150 962 women tested with a multigene hereditary cancer panel between July 19, 2016, and January 11, 2019, was conducted in a commercial testing laboratory. Participants included women of European ancestry between the ages of 18 and 84 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of the 86-SNV score with invasive breast cancer after adjusting for age, ancestry, and personal and/or family cancer history. Effect sizes, expressed as standardized odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, were assessed for carriers of PVs in each gene as well as for noncarriers. Results: The median age at hereditary cancer testing of the population was 48 years (range, 18-84 years); there were 141 160 noncarriers in addition to carriers of BRCA1 (n = 2249), BRCA2 (n = 2638), CHEK2 (n = 2564), ATM (n = 1445), and PALB2 (n = 906) PVs included in the analysis. The 86-SNV score was associated with breast cancer risk in each of the carrier populations (P < 1 × 10-4). Stratification was more pronounced for noncarriers (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.45-1.49) and CHEK2 PV carriers (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.36-1.64) than for carriers of BRCA1 (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32) or BRCA2 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34) PVs. Odds ratios for ATM (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and PALB2 (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) PV carrier populations were intermediate between those for BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 noncarriers. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the 86-SNV score was associated with modified risk for carriers of BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PVs. This finding supports previous reports of reduced PRS stratification for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers. Modification of risk in CHEK2 carriers associated with the 86-SNV score appeared to be similar to that observed in women without a PV. Larger studies are needed to provide more refined estimates of polygenic modification of risk for women with PVs in other moderate-penetrance genes.

19.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

20.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(23): 2700-2701, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516090
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