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1.
Mol Ecol ; 28(5): 923-935, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411822

RESUMO

How much temporal recurrence is present in microbial assemblages is still an unanswered ecological question. Even though marked seasonal changes have been reported for whole microbial communities, less is known on the dynamics and seasonality of individual taxa. Here, we aim at understanding microbial recurrence at three different levels: community, taxonomic group and operational taxonomic units (OTUs). For that, we focused on a model microbial eukaryotic community populating a long-term marine microbial observatory using 18S rRNA gene data from two organismal size fractions: the picoplankton (0.2-3 µm) and the nanoplankton (3-20 µm). We have developed an index to quantify recurrence in particular taxa. We found that community structure oscillated systematically between two main configurations corresponding to winter and summer over the 10 years studied. A few taxonomic groups such as Mamiellophyceae or MALV-III presented clear recurrence (i.e., seasonality), whereas 13%-19% of the OTUs in both size fractions, accounting for ~40% of the relative abundance, featured recurrent dynamics. Altogether, our work links long-term whole community dynamics with that of individual OTUs and taxonomic groups, indicating that recurrent and non-recurrent changes characterize the dynamics of microbial assemblages.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Plâncton/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Microbiota , Tamanho da Partícula , Filogenia
2.
Harmful Algae ; 73: 44-57, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602506

RESUMO

In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in <1% of the described species, although elucidation of the life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in developing preventative measures. The knowledge obtained thus far has confirmed the complexity of the algal life cycle, which is composed of discrete life stages whose morphology, ecological niche (plankton/benthos), function, and lifespan vary. The factors that trigger transitions between the different stages in nature are mostly unknown, but it is clear that an understanding of this process provides the key to effectively forecasting bloom recurrence, maintenance, and decline. Planktonic stages constitute an ephemeral phase of the life cycle of most species whereas resistant, benthic stages enable a species to withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods, thus providing dormant reservoirs for eventual blooms and facilitating organismal dispersal. Here we review current knowledge of the life cycle strategies of major groups of HAB producers in marine and brackish waters. Rather than providing a comprehensive discussion, the objective was to highlight several of the research milestones that have changed our understanding of the plasticity and frequency of the different life cycle stages as well as the transitions between them. We also discuss the relevance of benthic and planktonic forms and their implications for HAB dynamics.


Assuntos
Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/fisiologia , Ploidias , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas
3.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1594, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970818

RESUMO

Parasites are one of the ecologically most relevant groups of marine food webs, but their taxonomic and biological complexity hampers the assessment of their diversity and evolutionary trends. Moreover, the within-host processes that govern parasitoid infection, development and reproduction are often unknown. In this study, we describe a new species of a perkinsozoan endoparasitoid that infects the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus, by including observations of its morphology, ultrastructure, life-cycle development and phylogeny. The SSU rDNA sequence and main morphological features were also obtained for a second parasitoid species infecting the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Levanderina fissa. Phylogenetic analyses including the sequences obtained show that all known Perkinsozoa species infecting dinoflagellates cluster together. However, sequences of Parvilucifera prorocentri and those obtained in this study cluster at the base of the clade, while the rest of Parvilucifera representatives form a separated highly-supported cluster. These results, together with differing morphological characters like the formation of a germ-tube, the presence of trichocysts, or the heterochromatin presence in zoospores nucleus justify the erection of Dinovorax pyriformis gen. nov. et sp. nov., and Snorkelia prorocentri gen. nov. et comb. nov. (=Parvilucifera prorocentri). The morphological features and phylogenetic position of these parasitoids represent ancestral characters for the Perkinsozoa phylum, and also for Dinozoa clade, allowing the inference of the evolutionary framework of these Alveolata members.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1624, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912757

RESUMO

Dinoflagellate blooms are natural phenomena that often occur in coastal areas, which in addition to their large number of nutrient-rich sites are characterized by highly restricted hydrodynamics within bays, marinas, enclosed beaches, and harbors. In these areas, massive proliferations of dinoflagellates have harmful effects on humans and the ecosystem. However, the high cell density reached during blooms make them vulnerable to parasitic infections. Under laboratory conditions parasitoids are able to exterminate an entire host population. In nature, Parvilucifera parasitoids infect the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum during bloom conditions but their prevalence and impact remain unexplored. In this study, we evaluated the in situ occurrence, prevalence, and dynamics of Parvilucifera parasitoids during recurrent blooms of A. minutum in a confined site in the NW Mediterranean Sea as well as the contribution of parasitism to bloom termination. Parvilucifera parasitoids were recurrently detected from 2009 to 2013, during seasonal outbreaks of A. minutum. Parasitic infections in surface waters occurred after the abundance of A. minutum reached 104-105 cells L-1, suggesting a density threshold beyond which Parvilucifera transmission is enhanced and the number of infected cells increases. Moreover, host and parasitoid abundances were not in phase. Instead, there was a lag between maximum A. minutum and Parvilucifera densities, indicative of a delayed density-dependent response of the parasitoid to host abundances, similar to the temporal dynamics of predator-prey interactions. The highest parasitoid prevalence was reached after a peak in host abundance and coincided with the decay phase of the bloom, when a maximum of 38% of the A. minutum population was infected. According to our estimates, Parvilucifera infections accounted for 5-18% of the total observed A. minutum mortality, which suggested that the contribution of parasitism to bloom termination is similar to that of other biological factors, such as encystment and grazing.

5.
J Phycol ; 53(4): 833-847, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509342

RESUMO

Bysmatrum subsalsum is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate species that inhabits marine and transitional habitats. Despite its wide distribution, information on the morphological variability, phylogeny and ecology of B. subsalsum is scarce. In this study, we provide morphological and molecular data on B. subsalsum strains and wild cells from different locations in the Mediterranean Basin. The dynamics of cell abundances and the associated environmental conditions during a field bloom are also described. Genetic sequences of B. subsalsum obtained in this study showed large intraspecific differences, clustering in two well-differentiated clades. Despite a certain degree of variation with respect to cell size, apical pore complex (APC) morphology and size, and cingulum displacement, cells from the two clades showed similar morphological traits. These findings indicated the occurrence of cryptic species. Comparisons of the morphology of our B. subsalsum specimens with the few descriptions available in the literature revealed larger than previously known intraspecific morphological variability. Phylogenetic trees inferred from the concatenated SSU, 5.8S-ITS, and LSU rRNA and the individual 5.8S-ITS regions suggested the inclusion of Bysmatrum in the Peridiniales and a close phylogenetic relationship with Peridinium sensu stricto. However, the low statistical support prevented the assignment of Bysmatrum to a particular family of Peridiniales. Ecological data obtained from a bloom in La Pletera salt marshes (Catalan Coast, Spain) suggested the species reaches high cell abundances at water temperatures >20°C and salinity levels >30. Our results add new information regarding the morphology, phylogeny, and ecology of B. subsalsum.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Filogenia , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Eur J Protistol ; 58: 9-25, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28092806

RESUMO

Recent studies of marine protists have revealed parasites to be key components of marine communities. Here we describe a new species of the parasitoid genus Parvilucifera that was observed infecting the dinoflagellate Durinskia baltica in salt marshes of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). In parallel, the same species was detected after the incubation of seawater from the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, NE Atlantic). The successful isolation of strains from both localities allowed description of the life cycle, ultrastructure, and phylogeny of the species. Its infection mechanism consists of a free-living zoospore that penetrates a dinoflagellate cell. The resulting trophont gradually degrades the dinoflagellate cytoplasm while growing in size. Once the host is consumed, schizogony of the parasitoid yields a sporocyte. After cytokinesis is complete, the newly formed zoospores are released into the environment and are ready to infect new host cells. A distinguishing feature of the species is the radial arrangement of its zoospores around the central area of the sporocyte during their formation. The species shows a close morphological similarity with other species of the genus, including P. infectans, P. sinerae, and P. rostrata.


Assuntos
Alveolados , Dinoflagelados/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Filogenia , Alveolados/classificação , Alveolados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alveolados/fisiologia , Alveolados/ultraestrutura , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia Eletrônica , Água do Mar/parasitologia , Espanha
7.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 769, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27252688

RESUMO

Marine microbial interactions involving eukaryotes and their parasites play an important role in shaping the structure of phytoplankton communities. These interactions may alter population densities of the main host, which in turn may have consequences for the other concurrent species. The effect generalist parasitoids exert on a community is strongly dependent on the degree of host specificity. Parvilucifera sinerae is a generalist parasitoid able to infect a wide range of dinoflagellates, including toxic-bloom-forming species. A density-dependent chemical cue has been identified as the trigger for the activation of the infective stage. Together these traits make Parvilucifera-dinoflagellate hosts a good model to investigate the degree of specificity of a generalist parasitoid, and the potential effects that it could have at the community level. Here, we present for the first time, the strategy by which a generalist dinoflagellate parasitoid seeks out its host and determine whether it exhibits host preferences, highlighting key factors in determining infection. Our results demonstrate that in its infective stage, P. sinerae is able to sense potential hosts, but does not actively select among them. Instead, the parasitoids contact the host at random, governed by the encounter probability rate and once encountered, the chance to penetrate inside the host cell and develop the infection strongly depends on the degree of host susceptibility. As such, their strategy for persistence is more of a game of Russian roulette, where the chance of survival is dependent on the susceptibility of the host. Our study identifies P. sinerae as a potential key player in community ecology, where in mixed dinoflagellate communities consisting of hosts that are highly susceptible to infection, parasitoid preferences may mediate coexistence between host species, reducing the dominance of the superior competitor. Alternatively, it may increase competition, leading to species exclusion. If, however, highly susceptible hosts are absent from the community, the parasitoid population could suffer a dilution effect maintaining a lower parasitoid density. Therefore, both host community structure and host susceptibility will determine infectivity in the field.

8.
Protist ; 166(6): 677-99, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605683

RESUMO

Parvilucifera sinerae is a parasitoid of dinoflagellates, the major phytoplankton group responsible for harmful algal bloom events. Here we provide a detailed description of both the life cycle of P. sinerae, based on optical, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy observations, and its infection kinetics and dynamics. P. sinerae completes its life cycle in 3-4 days. The zoospore encounters and penetrates the host cell within 24h after its addition to the host culture. Inside the host, the parasitoid develops a trophocyte, which constitutes the longest stage of its life cycle. The trophocyte replicates and divides by schizogony to form hundreds of new zoospores contained within a sporangium. Under laboratory conditions, P. sinerae has a short generation time, a high rate of asexual reproduction, and is highly prevalent (up to 80%) in the Alexandrium minutum population. Prevalence was shown to depend on both the parasitoid inoculum size and host density, which increase the encounter probability rate. The parasitoid infection parameters described in this study are the first reported for the genus Parvilucifera. They show that P. sinerae is well-adapted to its dinoflagellate hosts and may be an important factor in the termination of A. minutum blooms in the natural environment.


Assuntos
Alveolados/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Alveolados/citologia , Alveolados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alveolados/ultraestrutura , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
9.
Protist ; 166(2): 234-63, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847865

RESUMO

The diversity and phylogeny of dinoflagellates belonging to the Gymnodiniales were studied during a 3-year period at several coastal stations along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) by combining analyses of their morphological features with rDNA sequencing. This approach resulted in the detection of 59 different morphospecies, 13 of which were observed for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Fifteen of the detected species were HAB producers; four represented novel detections on the Catalan coast and two in the Mediterranean Sea. Partial rDNA sequences were obtained for 50 different morphospecies, including novel LSU rDNA sequences for 27 species, highlighting the current scarcity of molecular information for this group of dinoflagellates. The combination of morphology and genetics allowed the first determinations of the phylogenetic position of several genera, i.e., Torodinium and many Gyrodinium and Warnowiacean species. The results also suggested that among the specimens belonging to the genera Gymnodinium, Apicoporus, and Cochlodinium were those representing as yet undescribed species. Furthermore, the phylogenetic data suggested taxonomic incongruences for some species, i.e., Gyrodinium undulans and Gymnodinium agaricoides. Although a species complex related to G. spirale was detected, the partial LSU rDNA sequences lacked sufficient resolution to discriminate between various other Gyrodinium morphospecies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Filogenia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Protist ; 165(2): 230-44, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24709472

RESUMO

Environmental 18S rRNA gene surveys of microbial eukaryotes have recently revealed the diversity of major parasitic agents in pelagic freshwater systems, consisting primarily of chytrid fungi. To date, only a few studies have reported the presence of chydrids in the marine environment and a limited number of marine chytrids have been properly identified and characterized. Here, we report the isolation and cultivation of a marine chytrid from samples taken during a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Arenys de Mar harbour (Mediterranean Sea, Spain). Cross-infections using cultures and natural phytoplankton communities revealed that this chytrid is only able to infect certain species of dinoflagellates, with a rather wide host range but with a relative preference for Alexandrium species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that it belongs to the order Rhizophydiales, but cannot be included in any of the existing families within this order. Several ultrastructural characters confirmed the placement of this taxon within the Rhizophydiales as well its novelty notably in terms of zoospore structure. This marine chytridial parasitoid is described as a new genus and species, Dinomyces arenysensis, within the Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/classificação , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/genética , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
11.
Protist ; 165(1): 81-92, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24441080

RESUMO

Pigmented pseudocolonies initially identified as Polykrikos hartmannii Zimmermann were detected at several locations of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea) in April-June of 2012 and April-May of 2013. To further explore the several remarkable morphological discrepancies between these organisms and P. hartmannii, we carried out a detailed morphological study and used single-cell PCR to obtain partial LSU and SSU rDNA sequences. The resulting phylogenies showed that our isolates occupy a basal position within the Polykrikos clade, close to P. hartmannii, but do not correspond to any described polykrikoid species. P. barnegatensis Martin is controversially considered to be synonymous with P. hartmannii. The organisms studied in this work were similar to P. barnegatensis but showed significant morphological differences with its original description such as the torsion of the pseudocolony, more pronounced overhanging of the cingula, stepped fusion border of the zooids, and number and shape of nuclei. Consequently, we propose that the isolates constitute a new species, which we named Polykrikos tanit sp. nov. The observed characters, pigmented, same number of zooids and nuclei, sulci not fused, and its phylogeny suggest that the species is an early evolutionary Polykrikos species.


Assuntos
Alveolados/classificação , Alveolados/isolamento & purificação , Alveolados/citologia , Alveolados/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
12.
Ecol Evol ; 4(24): 4775-85, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25558368

RESUMO

The dynamics and consequences of host-parasite coevolution depend on the nature of host genotype-by-parasite genotype interactions (G × G) for host and parasite fitness. G × G with crossing reaction norms can yield cyclic dynamics of allele frequencies ("Red Queen" dynamics) while G × G where the variance among host genotypes differs between parasite genotypes results in selective sweeps ("arms race" dynamics). Here, we investigate the relative potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution in a protist host-parasite system, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and its parasite Parvilucifera sinerae. We challenged nine different clones of A. minutum with 10 clones of P. sinerae in a fully factorial design and measured infection success and host and parasite fitness. Each host genotype was successfully infected by four to ten of the parasite genotypes. There were strong G × Gs for infection success, as well as both host and parasite fitness. About three quarters of the G × G variance components for host and parasite fitness were due to crossing reaction norms. There were no general costs of resistance or infectivity. We conclude that there is high potential for Red Queen dynamics in this host-parasite system.

13.
Protist ; 164(5): 673-85, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23933594

RESUMO

The order Gymnodiniales comprises unarmoured dinoflagellates. However, the lack of sequences hindered determining the phylogenetic positions and systematic relationships of several gymnodinioid taxa. In this study, a monophyletic clade was defined for the species Ceratoperidinium margalefii Loeblich III, Gyrodinium falcatum Kofoid & Swezy, three Cochlodinium species, and two Gymnodinium-like dinoflagellates. Despite their substantial morphotypic differentiation, Cochlodinium cf. helix, G. falcatum and 'Gymnodinium' sp. 1 share a common shape of the acrobase. The phylogenetic data led to the following conclusions: (1) C. margalefii is closely related to several unarmoured dinoflagellates. Its sulcus shape has been observed for the first time. (2) G. falcatum was erroneously assigned to the genus Gyrodinium and is transferred to Ceratoperidinium (C. falcatum (Kofoid & Swezy) Reñé & de Salas comb. nov.). (3) The genus Cochlodinium is polyphyletic and thus artificial; our data support its separation into three different genera. (4) The two Gymnodinium-like species could not be morphologically or phylogenetically related to any other gymnodinioid species sequenced to date. While not all studied species have been definitively transferred to the correct genus, our study is a step forward in the classification of inconspicuous unarmoured dinoflagellates. The family Ceratoperidiniaeceae and the genus Ceratoperidinium are emended.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Bases , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Água do Mar/parasitologia
14.
ISME J ; 7(5): 1065-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23344241

RESUMO

Parasitoids are a major top-down cause of mortality of coastal harmful algae, but the mechanisms and strategies they have evolved to efficiently infect ephemeral blooms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the generalist dinoflagellate parasitoid Parvilucifera sinerae (Perkinsozoa, Alveolata) is activated from dormancy, not only by Alexandrium minutum cells but also by culture filtrates. We unequivocally identified the algal metabolite dimethylsulphide (DMS) as the density-dependent cue of the presence of potential host. This allows the parasitoid to alternate between a sporangium-hosted dormant stage and a chemically-activated, free-living virulent stage. DMS-rich exudates of resistant dinoflagellates also induced parasitoid activation, which we interpret as an example of coevolutionary arms race between parasitoid and host. These results further expand the involvement of dimethylated sulphur compounds in marine chemical ecology, where they have been described as foraging cues and chemoattractants for mammals, turtles, birds, fish, invertebrates and plankton microbes.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Biologia Marinha , Plantas/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Sulfetos/metabolismo
15.
Protist ; 164(2): 245-60, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23266142

RESUMO

This study begins with a description of the infective process in the dinoflagellate type host Alexandrium minutum by a strain of the parasitoid, Parvilucifera sinerae, including the morphologies of the various dinoflagellate and parasitoid stages during the infection. Then, the susceptibility of 433 microalgal strains to P. sinerae infection was studied. The parasitoid was found to be capable of infecting several dinoflagellate species of the genera Alexandrium, Coolia, Dinophysis, Fragilidium, Gambierdiscus, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Kryptoperidinium, Lepidodinium, Ostreopsis, Pentapharsodinium, Protoceratium, Scrippsiella, and Woloszynskia. Intra-strain variability was observed as well, such that within the same dinoflagellate species some strains were infected whereas others were not. Likewise, species of other dinoflagellate genera were not infected, such as Akashiwo, Amphidinium, Barrufeta, Bysmatrum, Karenia, Karlodinium, Prorocentrum, and Takayama. Moreover, P. sinerae was not able to infect any of the tested haptophyte, diatom, and chlorophyte species. In natural samples screened for P. sinerae infectivity, several dinoflagellate species of the genera Alexandrium, Coolia, Gonyaulax, Gymnodinium, Phalacroma, Protoperidinium, and Scrippsiella were identified as susceptible. Sporangia size was found to be proportional to the size of the host, and variations in the sporangia size were observed to influence their maturation time.


Assuntos
Alveolados/fisiologia , Alveolados/parasitologia , Microalgas/parasitologia , Alveolados/citologia , Microscopia , Esporos de Protozoários/citologia
16.
Rev Biol Trop ; 60(1): 173-86, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22458217

RESUMO

Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88 microM DIN, 0.78 microM PO4 and 24.34 microM SiO2) were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x 10(7) cells/L). Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC) in local oysters (1525.8 microg STXeq/100g), and in phytoplankton (10.9 pg STXeq/cells) samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells), most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Baías , Dinoflagelados/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Densidade Demográfica , Água do Mar
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(1): 173-186, Mar. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-657771

RESUMO

Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88μM DIN, 0.78μM PO4 and 24.34μM SiO2) were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x10(7)cells/L). Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC) in local oysters (1525.8μg STXeq/100g), and in phytoplankton (10.9pg STXeq/cells) samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells), most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.


La proliferación de Gymnodinium son motivo de preocupación, debido a que en algunas circunstancias producen toxinas, que tienen consecuencias desfavorables para los ecosistemas marinos, la salud humana y la economía. Este trabajo describe las condiciones fisicoquímicas presentes durante una proliferación algal detectado en mayo de 2010 en la Bahía de Santiago y Bahía Manzanillo (Colima, México). La proliferación algal inició poco tiempo después de registrarse las temperaturas oceánicas superficiales más bajas del año, las cuales permitieron un aumento de las concentraciones de nutrientes (8.88μM DIN, 0.78μM PO4 and 24.34μM SiO2) que favorecieron el desarrollo de G. catenatum (hasta 1.02 x10(7)cel/L). Esta proliferación se detectó en las bahías durante dos semanas y fue relacionada con toxicidad en ostiones de la localidad (1525.8μg STXeq/100g) y en muestras de fitoplancton (10.9pg STXeq/cel). Fuertes variaciones en la toxicidad de G. catenatum (1.4 a 10.9pg STXeq/cel) pudieron reflejar la disponibilidad de nutrientes inorgánicos. El perfil de toxinas de las muestras del fitoplancton consistieron en 11 toxinas semejantes a las de varias cepas de G. catenatum aisladas de otras áreas de las costas de México.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Baías , Dinoflagelados/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Densidade Demográfica , Água do Mar
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 77(5): 1651-9, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21193668

RESUMO

The frequency and intensity of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the coast of Catalonia have been increasing over the past 20 years. As species from this genus that are documented as toxigenic have been found in local waters, with both toxic and nontoxic species cooccurring in the same bloom, there is a need to develop management tools for discriminating the difference. Currently, differentiation of toxic and nontoxic species requires time-consuming electron microscopy to distinguish taxonomic features that would allow identification as to species, and cryptic species can still remain misidentified. In this study, cells of Pseudo-nitzschia from clonal cultures isolated from seawater were characterized to their species identity using scanning electron microscopy, and subsamples of each culture were used to create an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA database for development of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Once developed, these qPCR assays were applied to field samples collected over a 2-year period in Alfaques Bay in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea to evaluate the possibility of a comprehensive surveillance for all Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using molecular methods to supplement optical microscopy, which can discern taxonomy only to the genus level within this taxon. Total Pseudo-nitzschia cell density was determined by optical microscopy from water samples collected weekly and compared to results obtained from the sum of eight Pseudo-nitzschia species-specific qPCR assays using duplicate samples. Species-specific qPCR followed by melt curve analysis allowed differentiation of amplicons and identification of false positives, and results correlated well with the total Pseudo-nitzschia cell counts from optical microscopy.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Genes de RNAr , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
19.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(9): 1215-24, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19536573

RESUMO

Microalgae are microscopic heterotrophic-autotrophic photosynthesizing organisms with enormous potential as a source of biofuel. Dinoflagellates, a class of microalgae, contain large amounts of high-quality lipids, the principal component of fatty acid methyl esters. The biotic characteristics of the dinoflagellate species Karlodinium veneficum include a growth rate of 0.14 day(-1), a wet biomass of 16.4 g/L, a growth period of approximately 30 days, and an approximate 97% increase in fatty acid content during the transition from exponential phase to stationary phase. These parameters make K. veneficum a suitable choice as a bioresource for biodiesel production. Similarly, two other species were also determined to be appropriate for biodiesel production: the Dinophyceae Alexandrium andersoni and the Raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Biotecnologia/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Animais , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura , Dinoflagelados/química , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eucariotos/química , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Protist ; 160(2): 285-300, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19231282

RESUMO

Kryptoperidinium foliaceum is a binucleate dinoflagellate that contains an endosymbiont nucleus of diatom origin. However, it is unknown whether the binucleate condition is permanent or not and how the diatom nucleus behaves during the life history processes. In this sense, it is also unknown if there is a sexual cycle or a resting stage during the life history of this species, two key aspects necessary to understand the life history strategy of this dinoflagellate. To answer these questions, life history and cell cycle studies were performed with the following results: (i) Kryptoperidinium foliaceum has a sexual cycle and in the dinoflagellate strains studied, the binucleate condition is permanent. Sexuality in the host was confirmed by the presence of fusing gamete pairs and planozygotes in clonal cultures (revealing homothallism), but signs of meiosis in the endosymbiont were not observed. The endosymbiont nucleus likely fuses first, because fusing gamete pairs were found to have two dinoflagellate nuclei but only one endosymbiont nucleus. After complete gamete fusion, the planozygotes had apparently normal endosymbiont and dinoflagellate nuclei. (ii) Asexual division studies using flow cytometry showed that the S phase in the endosymbiont (diatom) nucleus starts 6-8h later than in the host nucleus, but there was no evidence of mitosis in the former. (iii) Sexual and asexual cysts were formed in culture. Neither cysts from natural samples nor those formed in culture exhibited a dormancy period before germination.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Núcleo Celular/química , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Animais , Tamanho Celular , Dinoflagelados/química , Dinoflagelados/citologia
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