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1.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637925

RESUMO

The current structure of the Spanish State of Autonomies is characterized by institutional pluralism and the autonomy of the different public administrations. In this context, the principle of coordination is fundamental for the cohesion of the system, but experience shows that its implementation is difficult. This paper examines the set of actions carried out by the administrations in relation to an occupational and public health problem raised in March 2016. The Public Health General Direction of Aragon's Government was informed of a possible use of brake linings with asbestos to manufacture axles for agricultural machinery by a Company from Zaragoza; the collaboration from Aragon's Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the Industry Department and the Labour and Social Security Inspectorate were asked; the joint action of these administrations detected the use of several models of brake linings with a content of 2-5% of Chrysotile. The brake linings came from a Chinese company. The axles nated are sold in several Spanish Autonomous Communities. A national alert was activated by the SIRIPQ (System of Rapid Exchange of Information on Chemical Products) which is coordinated by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Several measures were taken including: ceasing the work with the brake linings, the replacement of brake linings with asbestos, the immobilization of brake linings in the company by application of the REACH Reglament, etc. This case shows that the cooperation and co-responsibility of public administrations from different territorial, sectoral and competence areas allows improving the occupational risks prevention and the public health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Automóveis , Indústria Manufatureira , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Espanha
2.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(1): 261-267, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172613

RESUMO

Objetivo: En el ejercicio de su profesión los músicos pueden sufrir diferentes problemas de salud. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar si éstos están incluidos en el cuadro de enfermedades profesionales y, de ser así, cuantificar y describir las que hayan sido reconocidas en los últimos años. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de todas las enfermedades que podrían ser incluidas como enfermedades profesionales en la legislación vigente. Se realizó un estudio de incidencia de las enfermedades profesionales reconocidas bajo el código 29.32 Compositores, músicos y cantantes (CNO-2011) en los años 2007 a 2014. Se describieron y representaron los casos y tasas obtenidas por tipo de enfermedad, sexo y año de reconocimiento. Resultados: Se identificaron 10 entradas en el cuadro de enfermedades profesionales para las enfermedades de los músicos, principalmente trastornos músculo-esqueléticos (TME) e hipoacusia. Los trastornos mentales y la distonía focal no están incluidos. Se localizaron 213 enfermedades profesionales en 2007-2014, 120 en hombres y 93 en mujeres. El 81% fueron TME, el 11% hipoacusias y el 7% nódulos de las cuerdas vocales. La tasa de incidencia media para el periodo fue de 18,3 por cien mil, 19,1 en hombres y 17,3 en mujeres. Conclusiones: El Cuadro de enfermedades profesionales contiene epígrafes que permiten la declaración de diferentes problemas de salud que padecen los músicos, a excepción de la distonía focal y de los trastornos mentales. La mayor incidencia corresponde a los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos


Background: Musicians suffer from a wide range of health problems related to their profession. The aim of this paper was to assess whether work-related musician diseases are included into the Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases and, if so, to describe and quantify those recognized in recent years. Methods: The Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases was searched to identify occupational diseases affecting musicians. We then conducted an incidence study of those occupational diseases recognized under code 29.32 Composers, musicians and singers (CNO-2011) for the period 2007 to 2014. Cases and rates were described and represented by disease type, gender and year of recognition.Results:Ten entries were identified as musician diseases in the official occupational disease list; mostly involved musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and hearing loss. Mental health disorders and focal dystonia are not included in the list. In the period 2007-2014, 213 cases were identified, 120 for men and 93 for women. Of these, 81% were MSD, 11% hearing loss and 7% vocal cord nodules. The average incidence rate per 100,000 was 18.3 (19.1 in men and 17.3 in women). Conclusions: The official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases allows the recognition of most occupational diseases affecting musicians with the exception of focal dystonia and mental health disorders. Their inclusion should be evaluated. The highest incidence corresponds to musculoskeletal disorders


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Música , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Distonia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais , Previdência Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Previdência Social/normas
3.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 21(1): 11-17, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musicians suffer from a wide range of health problems related to their profession. The aim of this paper was to assess whether work-related musician diseases are included into the Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases and, if so, to describe and quantify those recognized in recent years. METHODS: The Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases was searched to identify occupational diseases affecting musicians. We then conducted an incidence study of those occupational diseases recognized under code 29.32 Composers, musicians and singers (CNO-2011) for the period 2007 to 2014. Cases and rates were described and represented by disease type, gender and year of recognition. RESULTS: Ten entries were identified as musician diseases in the official occupational disease list; mostly involved musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and hearing loss. Mental health disorders and focal dystonia are not included in the list. In the period 2007-2014, 213 cases were identified, 120 for men and 93 for women. Of these, 81% were MSD, 11% hearing loss and 7% vocal cord nodules. The average incidence rate per 100,000 was 18.3 (19.1 in men and 17.3 in women). CONCLUSIONS: The official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases allows the recognition of most occupational diseases affecting musicians with the exception of focal dystonia and mental health disorders. Their inclusion should be evaluated. The highest incidence corresponds to musculoskeletal disorders.

4.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: e1-e8, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173791

RESUMO

La actual estructura del Estado de las Autonomías se caracteriza por el pluralismo institucional y la autonomía de las diferentes administraciones públicas. En este contexto el principio de coordinación es fundamental para la cohesión del Estado, pero la experiencia muestra que es difícil su puesta en práctica. En este trabajo se examinó el conjunto de actuaciones realizado por las administraciones en relación a un problema de salud laboral y de salud pública planteado en marzo de 2016. La Dirección General de Salud Pública del Gobierno de Aragón tuvo conocimiento de la posible utilización por una empresa de Zaragoza de zapatas de freno con amianto para fabricar ejes de maquinaria agrícola. Se recabó la colaboración del Instituto Aragonés de Seguridad y Salud Laboral (ISSLA), del Departamento de Industria y de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, dichas administraciones detectaron la utilización de varios modelos de zapatas con un contenido de crisotilo del 2-5%. Las zapatas procedían de una empresa china. Los ejes eran comercializados en varias Comunidades Autónomas. Se activó una alerta nacional a través del SIRIPQ (Sistema de Intercambio Rápido de Información de Productos Químicos) coordinado por el Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Se tomaron medidas tales como el cese del trabajo con las zapatas, la sustitución de las ya instaladas mediante la aplicación de un Plan Único de Trabajo, la inmovilización de las zapatas presentes en la empresa, etc. Este caso muestra que la cooperación y la corresponsabilidad de administraciones públicas de diferentes ámbitos territoriales, sectoriales y competenciales permite mejorar la prevención de riesgos laborales


The current structure of the Spanish State of Autonomies is characterized by institutional pluralism and the autonomy of the different public administrations. In this context, the principle of coordination is fundamental for the cohesion of the system, but experience shows that its implementation is difficult. This paper examines the set of actions carried out by the administrations in relation to an occupational and public health problem raised in March 2016. The Public Health General Direction of Aragon’s Government was informed of a possible use of brake linings with asbestos to manufacture axles for agricultural machinery by a Company from Zaragoza; the ollaboration from Aragon’s Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the Industry Department and the Labour and Social Security Inspectorate were asked; the joint action of these administrations detected the use of several models of brake linings with a content of 2-5% of Chrysotile. The brake linings came from a Chinese company. The axles nated are sold in several Spanish Autonomous Communities. A national alert was activated by the SIRIPQ (System of Rapid Exchange of Information on Chemical Products) which is coordinated by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Several measures were taken including: ceasing the work with the brake linings, the replacement of brake linings with asbestos, the immobilization of brake linings in the company by application of the REACH Reglament, etc. This case shows that the cooperation and coresponsibility of public administrations from different territorial, sectoral and competence areas allows improving the occupational risks prevention and the public health


Assuntos
Humanos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Poluição Industrial/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 912017 03 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several initiatives to develop systems for the notification of suspected occupational disease (OD) in different autonomous communities. The objective was to describe the status of development and characteristics of these systems implemented by the health authorities. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on the existence of systems for the information and surveillance of suspected OD, their legal framework, responsible institution and availability of information. A specific meeting was held and a survey was designed and sent to all autonomous communities and autonomous cities (AACC). Information was collected on the existence of a regulatory standard, assigned human resources, notifiers, coverage and number of suspected OD received, processed and recognized. RESULTS: 18 of 19 AACC responded. 10 have developed a suspected OD notification system, 3 of them supported by specific autonomic law. The notifiers were physicians of the public health services, physicians of the occupational health services and, in 2 cases, medical inspectors. 7 AACC had specific software to support the system. The OD recognition rate of suspected cases was 53% in the Basque Country; 41% in Castilla-La Mancha; 36% in Murcia; 32.6% in the Valencian Community and 31% in La Rioja. CONCLUSIONS: The study has revealed an heterogeneous development of suspected OD reporting systems in Spain. Although the trend is positive, only 55% of the AACC have some type of development and 39% have specific software supporting it. Therefore unequal OD recognition rates have been obtained depending on the territory.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Notificação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 912017 Jan 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The purpose was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. METHODS: An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted. The variables included were: reporting year, sex, age, occupation and economic activity of the company. Rates and crude relative risks (cRR) by these variables were calculated. Adjusted RR were also computed by using multivariate Poisson regression. RESULTS: During the study period a total of 243,310 OD were reported in Spain, with a sex ratio of men to women of 1.07. Correlation existed between occupation and business activity, thus the OD rates and RR were computed by these variables separately. By occupation, men had a crude RR of 1.067 (95%CI:1.058 to 1.076) versus women, while wen the analysis was adjusted by all the variables, the RR was 0.507 (95%CI:0.502 to 0.512). By economic activity of the company, the sense of risk was reversed too in the adjusted analysis (cRR=1.065, 95%CI:1.056 to 1.074 versus 0.632, 95%CI:0.626 to 0.638). CONCLUSIONS: Although crude OD rates were lower in women than in men during the period 1999-2009 in Spain, when these rates were adjusted by company activity or worker occupation, age and year of OD declaration, RRs become almost 50% higher in women than in men for the majority of occupations and types of company activity.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Razão de Chances , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ind Health ; 55(1): 3-12, 2017 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334423

RESUMO

The objective of this article was to estimate the medical costs derived from malignant ARD treatment in the Spanish National Health System (NHS) between 2004 and 2011. Estimation of direct healthcare costs was based on national primary data on the cost of specialized care for inpatients and outpatients treated at NHS hospitals and on national and regional secondary data on costs of primary healthcare and pharmaceutical prescriptions. A prevalence approach was used to estimate the overall burden of ARDs. Direct medical costs of 37,557 ARDs attended in Spanish NHS facilities in 2004-2011 were estimated at 464 million euros; specialist care accounted for 50.9% of total costs, primary healthcare 10.15%, and drug prescription 38.9%. The cost was 27.8-fold higher in males than in females. Bronchopulmonary cancers represented the greatest healthcare cost, 281 million euros. The cost of delivering healthcare to ARDs victims in Spain has a negative economic impact on the NHS due to the gross under-recognition of occupational victims under the Spanish National Insurance System.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 91: 0-0, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161210

RESUMO

Fundamentos: En algunas comunidades autónomas (CCAA) existen diversas iniciativas para conocer la comunicación de las sospechas de enfermedades profesionales (EP) a las autoridades sanitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el grado de desarrollo y características de los sistemas puestos en marcha desde las administraciones sanitarias a nivel autonómico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal para conocer los sistemas de información y vigilancia de las enfermedades laborales, marco legal, institución responsable y disponibilidad de la información. Se celebró una reunión y se diseñó una encuesta que se remitió a todas las CCAA y ciudades autónomas. Se recogió información sobre si existían o no normas reguladoras, asignación de recursos humanos, los profesionales responsables de la notificación, la cobertura y el número de sospechas de EP recibidas, tramitadas y reconocidas. Resultados: Respondieron 17 CCAA y 1 ciudad autónoma. Tenían desarrollados sistemas de comunicación de sospecha de EP 10 de ellas, de los cuales 3 se apoyaban en una norma legal autonómica específica. Los profesionales responsables de la notificación fueron médicos/as de los servicios públicos de salud, de los servicios de prevención y 2 de las inspecciones sanitarias. 7 CCAA disponían de aplicación informática para dar soporte al sistema. La tasa de reconocimiento de EP de las sospechas tramitadas fue del 53% en el País Vasco, del 41% en Castilla-La Mancha, del 36% en Murcia, del 32,6% en la Comunidad Valenciana y 31 % en La Rioja. Conclusiones: El estudio pone de manifiesto un desarrollo desigual de los sistemas de declaración de sospecha de EP en España. Aunque la tendencia es positiva, so lo la mitad de las CCAA tienen algún sistema de comunicación aunque no todos disponen de una aplicación informática para gestionarlo, obteniéndose tasas de reconocimiento de EP desiguales entre las comunidades autónomas (AU)


Background: There are several initiatives to develop systems for the notification of suspected occupational disease (OD) in different autonomous communities in Spain. The objective was to describe the status of development and characteristics of these systems implemented by the health authorities. Methods: A cross - sectional descriptive study was carried out on the existence of systems for the information and surveillance of suspected OD, their legal framework, responsible institution and availability of information. A specific meeting was held and a survey was designed and sent to all autonomous communities and autonomous cities (AACC). Information was collected on the existence of a regulatory standard, assigned human resources, notifiers, coverage and number of suspected OD received, processed and recognized. Results: 18 of 19 AACC responded. 10 have developed a suspected OD notification system, 3 of them supported by specific autonomic law. The notifiers were physicians of the public health services, physicians of the occupational health services and, in 2 cases, medical inspectors. 7 AACC had specific software to support the system. The OD recognition rate of suspected cases was 53% in the Basque Country; 41% in Castilla-La Mancha; 36% in Murcia; 32.6% in the Valencian Community and 31% in La Rioja. Conclusions: The study has revealed an heterogeneous development of suspected OD reporting systems in Spain. Although the trend is positive, only 55% of the AACC have some type of development and 39% have specific software supporting it. Therefore unequal OD recognition rates have been obtained depending on the territory (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/normas , Estudos Transversais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Previdência Social/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 91: 0-0, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159019

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Según las estadísticas oficiales, los hombres sufren más enfermedades profesionales (EEPP) que las mujeres. No obstante, hay que tener presente su desigual distribución y participación en el mundo laboral. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar cómo afecta el sexo al reconocimiento de EEPP en España, identificando posibles factores de interacción/confusión. Métodos: Se estudió la incidencia de las EEPP declaradas a través del Parte Oficial durante el período de 1999 al 2009, proporcionados por la Subdirección General de Estadísticas Sociales y Laborales del Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social. Las variables incluidas fueron: año de declaración, sexo, edad, ocupación y actividad económica de la empresa. Se calcularon tasas y riesgos relativos (RR) crudos de EEPP por cada variable. Se estimaron los RR ajustados mediante análisis bivariable y multivariante de Poisson. Resultados: Durante 1999-2009 se notificaron en España 243.310 EEPP, con una razón de tasas hombres/mujeres de 1,07. Hubo correlación entre la ocupación y la actividad de la empresa, por lo que se analizaron las EEPP según estas variables por separado. Por ocupación, los hombres presentaron un RR crudo de 1,067 (IC95%:1,058-1,076) frente a las mujeres, mientras que al ajustar por todas las variables del modelo el RR fue de 0,507 (IC95%:0,502-0,512). Por actividad, el sentido del riesgo también se invirtió en el análisis ajustado para el sexo (RRc=1,065, IC95%:1,056-1,074 frente a 0,632, IC95%:0,626-0,638). Conclusiones: Aunque las tasas crudas de EEPP son inferiores en mujeres que en hombres durante el periodo 1999-2009 en España, al ajustar estas tasas por la actividad de la empresa o la ocupación del trabajador, la edad y el año de declaración, los RR pasan a ser casi un 50% superiores en mujeres que en hombres para la mayoría de ocupaciones y tipos de actividad de la empresa (AU)


Background: According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The aim was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. Methods: An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted. The variables included were: reporting year, sex, age, occupation and economic activity of the company. Rates and crude relative risks (cRR) by these variables were calculated. Adjusted RR were also computed by using multivariate Poisson regression. Results: During the study period a total of 243,310 OD were reported in Spain, with a sex ratio of men to women of 1.07. Correlation existed between occupation and business activity, thus the OD rates and RR were computed by these variables separately. By occupation, men had a crude RR of 1.067 (95%CI:1.058 to 1.076) versus women, while wen the analysis was adjusted by all the variables, the RR was 0.507 (95%CI:0.502 to 0.512). By economic activity of the company, the sense of risk was reversed too in the adjusted analysis (cRR=1.065, 95%CI:1.056 to 1.074 versus 0.632, 95%CI:0.626 to 0.638). Conclusions: Although crude OD rates are lower in women than in men during the period 1999-2009 in Spain, when these rates are adjusted by company activity or worker occupation, age and year of OD declaration, RRs become almost 50% higher in women than in men for the majority of occupations and types of company activity (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , Espanha , Ocupações , Incidência , Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Int J Occup Environ Health ; 21(1): 31-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25335827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. METHODS: Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. RESULTS: Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 10(5) employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 10(5) employees in Spain to 7·32 per 10(5) employees in Norway. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Brônquicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Brônquicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Brônquicas/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Med. segur. trab ; 60(supl.1): 157-163, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-134195

RESUMO

El desconocimiento de la realidad de las enfermedades profesionales (EP) supone uno de los principales déficits de la prevención de riesgos laborales. El conocimiento del número de las enfermedades profesionales que realmente sufren los trabajadores, así como en qué actividades y lugares de trabajo ocurren, permitiría elaborar acciones preventivas más eficaces y promover el diagnóstico precoz para favorecer su tratamiento en el momento más efectivo, esto es, cuando se manifiestan los primeros síntomas, fase en la que, con frecuencia, un buen número de las afecciones todavía son reversibles. Tras la aprobación de la Ley de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, han tenido lugar iniciativas relevantes de las administraciones y los agentes sociales con la finalidad de hacer aflorar enfermedades profesionales ocultas y evitar la infradeclaración de tales enfermedades. La más reciente, el Real Decreto 1299/2006, por el que se establecía un nuevo procedimiento de notificación y registro, que incorporó la comunicación de sospecha de enfermedad profesional por parte de los facultativos del SNS y de los servicios de prevención de riesgos laborales. Son ya 9 las Comunidades Autónomas que han desarrollado el procedimiento e iniciado los trabajos de declaración de la sospecha de EP. Se describen las iniciativas correspondientes a Navarra, Comunidad Valenciana y Asturias


The lack of knowledge of occupational diseases (OD) represents one of the main shortcomings of the occupational risk prevention. Knowing the number and types of occupational diseases suffered by workers and in what activities and workplaces occur, should allow the development of more effective prevention policies, and promote early actions to facilitate their treatment in the most effective diagnostic time, that is, when the first symptoms appear, phase in which often a number of diseases are manifested still reversible. Following the adoption of the Law on Prevention of Occupational Risks, relevant initiatives of administrations and social partners have occurred, in order to bring out hidden occupational diseases and prevent underreporting of such diseases. The latest, the Royal Decree 1299/2006, that establish a new procedure for reporting and recording, which includes the communication of suspected occupational disease by the doctors of the National health System and by the doctors of the occupational risk prevention system. There are 9 Autonomous Communities that have developed the procedure for the declaration of suspected OD. Corresponding initiatives to Navarra, Valencia and Asturias are described


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Previdência Social , Seguro por Invalidez , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Acidentes de Trabalho , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Cancer ; 13: 528, 2013 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24195451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011-2015 and 2016-2020 in Spain. METHODS: Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions. RESULTS: Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976-1980 to 1,249 in 2006-2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016-2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/história , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 27(4): 310-317, jul.-ago. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-115269

RESUMO

Objetives: Underreporting of work-related cancer in the Basque Country (Spain) is massive. The aim of our study is to estimate the job-related cancer in the Basque Country in 2008 treated by the Basque Public Health System-Osakidetza, as well as the medical costs derived from its treatment in the same year. Methods: Scientific evidence from industrialised countries is used to estimate the number of processes of cancer attributable to work. Medical costs for specialised care (outpatient and hospital admissions) are derived from the National Health System cost accounts. Costs due to primary health care and pharmaceutical benefits are obtained from Spanish secondary sources. Figures were computed according to disease and sex. Results: We estimate 1,331 work-attributable cancers hospitalizations and 229 work-attributable cancers specialized ambulatory cases. Medical costs borne by public health care system exceed 10 million euros. Specialized care accounts for 64.2% of the total cost. Bronchus and lung cancer represents the largest percentage of total expenditure (27%), followed by the bladder cancer (12.6%), mesothelioma (8.6%), the colon cancer (7.3%), and stomach (6.7%). Conclusions: The magnitude of cancer attributable to work in the Basque Country is much higher than reflected in the official Registry of Occupational Diseases. Underreporting of work-related cancers hampers prevention and shifts funding of medical costs from social security to the tax-financed public health system (AU)


Objetivo: La falta de reconocimiento del cáncer como enfermedad profesional en el País Vasco es enorme. Nuestro objetivo es estimar el número de procesos atendidos por cáncer atribuibles al trabajo en el País Vasco en 2008, así como los gastos médicos derivados de su atención en el Servicio Público Vasco de Salud-Osakidetza ese mismo año. Métodos: El número de procesos se estimó aplicando las fracciones atribuibles al trabajo obtenidas en la literatura científica. Para el cálculo de los costes se utilizaron datos primarios de contabilidad analítica del Sistema Nacional de Salud relativos a la atención especializada (ambulatoria e ingresos hospitalarios), y fuentes secundarias españolas para calcular el coste de la atención primaria de salud y la atención farmacéutica. Los cálculos se realizaron por enfermedad y sexo. Resultados: En Osakidetza, en 2008, hubo 1331 hospitalizaciones y 229 consultas a atención ambulatoria especializada debidas a cánceres atribuibles al trabajo. El tratamiento de estos procesos supuso más de 10 millones de euros, de los cuales el 64,2% corresponden a la atención especializada. Por tipo de cáncer, el de bronquio y pulmón, fundamentalmente en hombres, es el que implica mayor gasto sanitario (27%), seguido del de vejiga (12,6%), el mesotelioma (8,6%), el de colon (7,3%) y el de estómago (6,7%). Conclusiones: La magnitud del cáncer derivado del trabajo en el País Vasco es muy superior a la que refleja el registro de enfermedades profesionales, lo que obstaculiza su prevención y desplaza el correspondiente gasto sanitario del sistema de seguridad social al sistema público de salud (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Risco Atribuível à População , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Gac Sanit ; 27(4): 310-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: [corrected] Underreporting of work-related cancer in the Basque Country (Spain) is massive. The aim of our study is to estimate the job-related cancer in the Basque Country in 2008 treated by the Basque Public Health System-Osakidetza, as well as the medical costs derived from its treatment in the same year. METHODS: Scientific evidence from industrialised countries is used to estimate the number of processes of cancer attributable to work. Medical costs for specialised care (outpatient and hospital admissions) are derived from the National Health System cost accounts. Costs due to primary health care and pharmaceutical benefits are obtained from Spanish secondary sources. Figures were computed according to disease and sex. RESULTS: We estimate 1,331 work-attributable cancers hospitalizations and 229 work-attributable cancers specialized ambulatory cases. Medical costs borne by public health care system exceed 10 million euros. Specialized care accounts for 64.2% of the total cost. Bronchus and lung cancer represents the largest percentage of total expenditure (27%), followed by the bladder cancer (12.6%), mesothelioma (8.6%), the colon cancer (7.3%), and stomach (6.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of cancer attributable to work in the Basque Country is much higher than reflected in the official Registry of Occupational Diseases. Underreporting of work-related cancers hampers prevention and shifts funding of medical costs from social security to the tax-financed public health system.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias/economia , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Ind Med ; 56(3): 326-34, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23299989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spain, and some of its regions in particular, report higher rates of occupational diseases than many other countries in Europe. We describe the distribution and temporal trend of compensated occupational diseases among the working population of the Basque Country, a heavy industrialized Spanish region, from 1990 to 2008. METHODS: Employment data and occupational disease data were obtained from the Spanish Institute of Statistics and the Basque and Spanish Social Security Departments, respectively. Annual incidence of occupational diseases and temporal trends were computed. RESULTS: Occupational diseases (33,547) were reported among workers in the Basque Country between 1990 and 2008. The occupational disease incidence increased sixfold during the study period, mainly due to less severe cases. The most frequent occupational diseases were caused by physical agents (85%), principally musculoskeletal disorders. The occupational disease incidence in Basque Country was two to six times higher than in most other regions of Spain and Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The rise in compensated occupational illnesses in the Basque Country is likely due to a mixture of better recognition of such illnesses and changes in laws, regulations, and administrative procedures. Chronic occupational diseases such as cancer and chronic respiratory diseases, however, remain under-reported, and care for people with such illnesses represents an undue financial burden on the public health care system and on their families.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Vigilância da População , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 86(6): 613-625, nov.-dic. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-107932

RESUMO

Fundamentos: En España carecemos de una descripción completa de las enfermedades profesionales causadas por el amianto. El objetivo del presente trabajo esconocer la incidencia durante el período 19622010 de las asbestosis y otras enfermedades pulmonares benignas por amianto reconocidas como profesionales y su distribución por sectores, ocupación, sexo y ámbito geográfico. Métodos: El número de casos se obtuvo de las Memorias del INP (años 1962 a 1975), de la Estadística del Ministerio de Trabajo y las Memorias del Servicio de Higiene y Seguridad en el Trabajo (1976 a 1981) y de los Anuarios de Estadísticas Laborales a partir de 1982. Se obtuvieron tasas de incidencia específicas por actividad económica y ocupación. Se estudió la tendencia temporal del número de enfermedades a estudio, así como su distribución geográfica por Comunidad Autónoma y provincia. Resultados: Desde 1963 hasta 2010 se reconocieron 815 asbestosis y 46 afecciones fibrosantes de pleura y pericardio. La incidencia media anual de asbestosis fue 0,20 por 100.000 personas asalariadas (0,31 en el año 1990 y 0,40 en 2010). De 1990 a 2001 el sector del fibrocemento acumuló 189 casos de asbestosis, el naval 173, la construcción 49 y la metalurgia 35. Por ocupación, los operadores de maquinas fijas presentaron 114 casos, los moldeadores, soldadores, chapistas y montado-res de estructuras metálicas 88 casos y los pintores, fontaneros e instaladores de tuberías 59. Las Comunidades Autónomas con más casos fueron la Valenciana (106), Galicia (86), Andalucía (82), Cataluña (75), Madrid (58) y País Vasco (41). Conclusiones: Las tasas de incidencia y la tendencia de asbestosis profesionales en España pueden estar evidenciando el infrareconocimiento del origen profesional de estas enfermedades en nuestro país. Los sectores más afectados fueron el del fibrocemento y el naval y la incidencia más alta se dió en la Comunidad Valenciana(AU)


Background: We lack in Spain of a full description of the diseases caused by asbestos since its inclusion in the list of occupational diseases 1961. The aim of this study is to know the incidence of asbestosis and other asbestos-related benign lung diseases, which were recognized as occupational diseases by the Spanish Social Security system between 1962 and 2010. Methods: Cases were obtained from Reports of the National Insurance Institute (1962 to 1975), from Employment Ministry Statistics and Reports of the Work Health and Safety Department (1976 to 1981), and from the Employment Statistics Yearbooks (from 1982). Specific rates were obtained by economic activity and occupation. We represent temporal trends in the number of the diseases under study and described their geographic distribution by provinces. Results: Between 1963 and 2010, 815 cases of asbestosis and 46 cases of fibrous pleural or pericardial disease were recognized. Since 1990 until 2001 Fiber-cement sector accumulated 189 cases of asbestosis, Shipbuilding sector 173, Construction sector 49 and Metallurgy 35. By occupation, fixed machinery operators had 114 cases; inmolders, welders, sheet metal workers and fitters 88 cases; and painters, plumbers and pipe fitters 59 cases. The autonomous communities with the highest number of cases were Valencia (106), Galicia (86), Andalusia (82), Catalonia (75), Madrid (58), and the Basque Country (41). Conclusions: Incidence rates and the time trend of professional asbestosis in Spain may be demonstrating the underreporting of the occupational origin of these diseases in our country. The most affected sectors were that of the fiber-cement and the naval one and the highest incidence was given in the Valencian Community(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/tendências , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Medicina do Trabalho/métodos , Medicina do Trabalho/organização & administração , Medicina do Trabalho/normas , Previdência Social/economia , Previdência Social/organização & administração
19.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 86(2): 127-38, 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22991056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of recognition of the occupational etiology of some malignant tumors implies that the cost of their health care rests in the National Health System. The aim of our study is to estimate the job-related lung and bladder cancer in Spain in 2008 treated by the National Health System (NHS), as well as the medical costs derived from its treatment in the same year. METHODS: Literature estimates of Attributable Fractions due to work were used to estimate the job-related cases treated. Medical costs for specialised care (outpatient and hospital admissions) are derived from the NHS cost accounts. Costs due to primary health care and pharmaceutical benefits are obtained from secondary sources. Figures were computed according to disease and sex. RESULTS: A total of 10,652 NHS hospital discharges in 2008 were due to lung cancer and bladder cancer attributable to work (only 16 were recognized as professional the same year). The treatment of these cases cost to the NHS in 2008 almost 88 million euros, of which 61.2 million belong to lung cancer and 26.5 to the bladder. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of lung and bladder cancer attributable to work in Spain is much higher than reflected in the official Registry of Occupational Diseases. It should be recognized as professional to activate appropriate prevention policies. The related health care expenditure, which is financed by the NHS, is quite significant.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/economia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
20.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 48(10): 355-61, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22705259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) is the most common work-related disease in industrialized countries. In 2008, only 556 cases of OA had been diagnosed in Spain, which is quite far from even the most conservative estimates. In this context, the aim of this paper is to estimate the number of asthma cases attributable to the work setting in Spain in 2008 as well as the related health care costs for the same year. METHODS: The number of cases of OA was calculated from estimates of attributable risk given by previous studies. The cost estimation focused on direct health-care costs and it was based both on data from the National Health System's (NHS) analytical accounting and from secondary sources. RESULTS: The number of prevalent cases of work-related asthma in Spain during 2008 ranges between 168 713 and 204 705 cases based on symptomatic diagnosis, entailing an associated cost from 318.1 to 355.8 million Euros. These figures fall to a range between 82 635 and 100 264 cases when bronchial hyperreactivity is included as a diagnostic criterion, at a cost of 155.8-174.3 million Euros. Slightly more than 18 million Euros represent the health-care costs of those cases requiring specialized care. CONCLUSIONS: Estimations of OA are very relevant to adequately prevent this disease. The treatment of OA, which involves a significant cost, is being financed by the NHS, although it should be covered by Social Security.


Assuntos
Asma/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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