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1.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 67(6): 477-491, nov.-dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-701042

RESUMO

Introducción. Con el propósito de determinar la efectividad del surfactante bovino (SB) para el tratamiento del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) en recién nacidos prematuros (RNP), se realizó una revisión sistemática y meta-análisis. Métodos. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) donde se comparó SB con placebo. Las variables de desenlace fueron: mortalidad, morbilidad, días de ventilación mecánica (VM) y de estancia hospitalaria. Los ECA publicados hasta el 2010 se identificaron en Medline, EMBASE y la Colaboración Cochrane. La selección de los ECA fue por pares. En el meta-análisis se calculó riesgo relativo (RR) y diferencia de medias ponderada (DMP), con intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%). Resultados. De 865 títulos y resúmenes, se revisaron 89 artículos en extenso y se seleccionaron 12 ECA. El SB se mostró efectivo en cuatro variables: mortalidad (RR 0.73, IC95% 0.60-0.88, P =0.001), neumotórax (RR 0.41; IC95% 0.33-0.51, P <0.0001), enfisema intersticial pulmonar (RR 0.45; IC95% 0.36-0.56, P <0.0001) y días de VM (DMP -9.57; IC95% -16.58, -2.56, P =0.007). Para otras, como displasia broncopulmonar, enterocolitis necrosante, hemorragia intraventricular o alteración del desarrollo neurológico, no se determinó ventaja con SB. Conclusiones. En RNP, el uso de SB es efectivo al disminuir la mortalidad, la frecuencia de neumotórax y enfisema intersticial pulmonar, así como el tiempo de VM y, posiblemente, el de estancia hospitalaria.


Background. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the bovine surfactant (BS) for the treatment of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. Randomized-controlled trials (RCT) assessing the BS in comparison with placebo for the treatment of prematures with RDS were included. Outcome measures evaluated were: mortality, morbidity, days on mechanical ventilation (MV) and length of hospitalization. RCT published until 2010 were obtained from Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Collaboration. Selection of included studies was based on a peer-review process. For the meta-analyses, relative risk (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results. From 865 titles and abstracts obtained, 89 papers were reviewed and 12 RCT were selected. Among the outcome measures assessed, BS was shown to be effective in only in four: mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, p =0.001), pneumothorax (RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.33-0.51, p <0.0001), pulmonary interstitial emphysema (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.36-0.56, p <0.0001) and on days of MV (WMD -9.57; 95% CI -16.58 to -2.56, p =0.007). However, we did not find any positive effect on bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage or abnormal neurological development. Conclusions. In newborns with RDS, bovine surfactant is effective regarding mortality, pneumothorax, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema, as well as on decrease in the length of MV and possibly on length of hospitalization.

2.
Rev Invest Clin ; 57(3): 425-33, 2005 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16187703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated to surgical site infection (SSI) in newborns. DESIGN: Case-control study. Site. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Medico Nacional SXXI, IMSS. PATIENTS: 279 patients were included (125 cases and 154 controls). DATA: Gestational age, birth weight, previous infection, hospital stay, type of surgery, surgical drains, length of surgical procedure, bleeding during surgery, surgical site classification, serum albumin, classification of infection and surgeon performing the procedure. RESULTS: Five independent factors associated to SSI were identified: surgical reinterventions (OR = 13.6, CI 95% = 4.3-42.7); length of surgery > 60 minutes (OR = 3.0, CI 95% = 1.4-6.3); preoperative stay > 5 days (OR = 2.8, CI 95% = 1.3-5.6); consultant surgeon (OR = 2.7, CI 95% = 1.3-5.3), and previous systemic infection (OR = 2.1, CI 95% = 1.1-4.3). Lethality was 8.2% (n = 23), 74% in the group of cases (n = 17). CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated to SSI are mainly related to the characteristics of surgery and those of the patient. Lethality was low, but most of deaths were in the group of cases.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/cirurgia , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/cirurgia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Período Intraoperatório , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev. invest. clín ; 57(3): 425-433, may.-jun. 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-632463

RESUMO

Objective. To identify risk factors associated to surgical site infection (SSI) in newborns. Design. Case-control study. Site. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional SXXI, IMSS. Patients. 279 patients were included (125 cases and 154 controls). Data. Gestational age, birth weight, previous infection, hospital stay, type of surgery, surgical drains, length of surgical procedure, bleeding during surgery, surgical site classification, serum albumin, classification of infection and surgeon performing the procedure. Results. Five independent factors associated to SSI were identified: surgical reinterventions (OR = 13.6, CI 95% = 4.3-42.7); length of surgery > 60 minutes (OR = 3.0, CI 95% = 1.4-6.3); preoperative stay > 5 days (OR = 2.8, CI 95% = 1.3-5.6); consultant surgeon (OR = 2.7, CI 95% = 1.3-5.3), and previous systemic infection (OR = 2.1, CI 95% = 1.1-4.3). Lethality was 8.2% (n = 23), 74% in the group of cases (n = 17). Conclusions. Factors associated to SSI are mainly related to the characteristics of surgery and those of the patient. Lethality was low, but most of deaths were in the group of cases.


Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a infección del sitio quirúrgico (ISQ) en recién nacidos. Diseño. Casos y controles. Lugar. Unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional SXXI, IMSS. Pacientes. Se estudiaron 279 pacientes (125 casos y 154 controles). Mediciones. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad gestacional, peso al nacer, infección previa, estancia hospitalaria, cirugía realizada, colocación de canalizaciones, tiempo quirúrgico, sangrado transquirúrgico, tipo de herida, reintervenciones, albúmina sérica, tipo de infección, y cirujano que realizó la cirugía. Resultados. Se identificaron cinco factores independientes asociados a infección del sitio quirúrgico: reintervenciones quirúrgicas (RM = 13.6, IC 95% = 4.3-42.7); duración de la cirugía > 60 minutos (RM = 3.0, IC 95% = 1.4-6.3); estancia prequirúrgica > 5 días (RM = 2.8, IC 95% = 1.3-5.6); cirujano interconsultante (RM = 2.7, IC 95% =1.3-5.3), e infección sistémica previa (RM = 2.1, IC 95% = 1.1-4.3). La letalidad fue de 8.2% (n =23), 74% fueron del grupo de casos (n = 17). Conclusiones. Los factores asociados a ISQ encontrados se relacionan con factores inherentes al paciente y a la cirugía. La letalidad fue baja; sin embargo, la mayoría de los fallecimientos fueron en el grupo de casos.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/cirurgia , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Período Intraoperatório , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Análise Multivariada , México/epidemiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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