Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano
1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 73-91, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984511

RESUMO

Resumen: Los pacientes con infección por VIH tienen una mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en comparación con la población general; los factores que contribuyen al incremento del riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares son la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales (FRCV), la infección por VIH que condiciona tanto un proceso de inflamación crónica como alteración de la función endotelial y la exposición a los antirretrovirales. Los factores que deben ser objeto de intervención son los FRCV tradicionales, en especial la alta tasa de fumadores entre este grupo de pacientes, la tamización y tratamiento de HTA, el síndrome metabólico y el acceso temprano a la terapia antirretroviral con medicamentos con mayor perfil de seguridad . Esta guía pretende proveer información y recomendaciones en el ámbito nacional acerca de la relación entre la infección por VIH/SIDA (Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida), uso de antirretrovirales y riesgo cardiovascular.


Abstract: Patients with VIH infection have greater risk for cardiovascular diseases compared to general population. Risk factors that increase the frequency of cardiovascular events are: presence of cardiovascular traditional risk factors, chronic inflammation by HIV that impairs endothelial function and the exposure to antiretrovirals. The factors that should be the target for intervention are the traditional know cardiovascular factors such, especially high rate of smokers, screening and treatment for hypertension, metabolic syndrome and early access to HAART. The present guidelines provides information about the use of antiretrovirals in patients with HIV and its relation with cardiovascular risk.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201876, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089161

RESUMO

Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus) are highly adapted to tropical regions. However, females reach puberty after taurine heifers, which affects the economic efficiency of beef cattle breeding in the tropical regions. The aims of this study were to establish associations between the haplotype alleles of the bovine genome and age at first calving (AFC) in the Nelore cattle, and to identify the genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to this phenotype. A total of 2,273 Nelore cattle (995 males and 1,278 females) genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip were used in the current study. The association analysis included females with valid first calving records as well as open heifers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis among the markers was performed using blocks of 5, 10, and 15 markers, which were determined by sliding windows shifting one marker at a time. Then, the haplotype block size to be used in the association study was chosen based on the highest r2 average among the SNPs in the block. The five HapAlleles most strongly associated with the trait (top five) were considered as significant associations. The results of the analysis revealed four genomic regions related to AFC, which overlapped with 20 QTL of the reproductive traits reported previously. Furthermore, there were 19 genes related to reproduction in those regions. In conclusion, the use of haplotypes allowed the detection of chromosomal regions associated with AFC in Nelore cattle, and provided the basis for elucidating the mechanisms underlying this trait.

4.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(3): 504-514, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975652

RESUMO

The mechanisms responsible for the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus are not well established. This study aimed to prove the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurring during infection by H. contortus varies according to breed, and that the parasite burden correlates with hypoalbuminaemia and anaemia. Thus, after deworming and confirming the absence of infection, two different sheep breeds, Suffolk (n = 15) and Santa Ines (n = 22), were orally inoculated with a single dose of 5,000 L3 of H. contortus. The egg counts per gram of faeces (EPG), packed cell volume (PCV) and concentrations of several plasma markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, albumin, uric acid, total bilirubin, total antioxidant capacity [TAC], total oxidant concentration [TOC] and the oxidative stress index [OSI]) were quantified before (control group) and during the experimental infection (28, 34 and 42 days post-inoculation). In both breeds, TOC increased at 28 days and TAC increased at 42 days. In Suffolk sheep, there was a positive correlation of EPG with oxidant components (28 days) and a negative correlation of EPG with PCV (42 days). In Santa Ines sheep, there was a positive correlation of EPG with bilirubin (r = 0.492; p = 0.020). H. contortus infection caused oxidative stress, which varied according to the breed. Parasite burden was not associated with hypoalbuminaemia, whereas there was a negative correlation with PCV. This research provides the first evidence that the antioxidant status contributes more to the resilience to H. contortus in Santa Ines sheep compared to Suffolk sheep.


Assuntos
Anemia/veterinária , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Hipoalbuminemia/veterinária , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Anemia/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hipoalbuminemia/parasitologia , Larva , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos
5.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 441, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the advancement in high throughput technology, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is routinely being incorporated along with phenotypic information into genetic evaluation. However, this approach often cannot achieve high accuracy for some complex traits. It is possible that SNP markers are not sufficient to predict these traits due to the missing heritability caused by other genetic variations such as microsatellite and copy number variation (CNV), which have been shown to affect disease and complex traits in humans and other species. RESULTS: In this study, CNVs were included in a SNP based genomic selection framework. A Nellore cattle dataset consisting of 2230 animals genotyped on BovineHD SNP array was used, and 9 weight and carcass traits were analyzed. A total of six models were implemented and compared based on their prediction accuracy. For comparison, three models including only SNPs were implemented: 1) BayesA model, 2) Bayesian mixture model (BayesB), and 3) a GBLUP model without polygenic effects. The other three models incorporating both SNP and CNV included 4) a Bayesian model similar to BayesA (BayesA+CNV), 5) a Bayesian mixture model (BayesB+CNV), and 6) GBLUP with CNVs modeled as a covariable (GBLUP+CNV). Prediction accuracies were assessed based on Pearson's correlation between de-regressed EBVs (dEBVs) and direct genomic values (DGVs) in the validation dataset. For BayesA, BayesB and GBLUP, accuracy ranged from 0.12 to 0.62 across the nine traits. A minimal increase in prediction accuracy for some traits was noticed when including CNVs in the model (BayesA+CNV, BayesB+CNV, GBLUP+CNV). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first genomic prediction study integrating CNVs and SNPs in livestock. Combining CNV and SNP marker information proved to be beneficial for genomic prediction of some traits in Nellore cattle.

6.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 35(2): 133-139, 2018 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912250

RESUMO

Background In 2016 tuberculosis (TB) was considered the ninth leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of a single infectious agent, with approximately 1.6 million deaths worldwide and a lethality of 15%. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries like Colombia. AIM: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who died during TB treatment in a high complexity hospital in Cali, Colombia. METHODS: We conducted an analytic retrospective cohort during 2007-2016 in Fundación Valle del Lili. We included patients with TB diagnosis, who died during TB treatment. RESULTS: From 787 patients with TB, 69 died (8.8%). Fifty nine percent were male, the average of age was 51.9 years. There was diagnosis delay in 51% of the patients and 74% presented pulmonary TB. Sixty four percent 64 died in the first 30 days of the TB diagnosis and 61% of the deaths were attributable to TB. Twenty five percent of patients had TB/HIV coinfection. Elderly patients (> 65 years old) were associated with death in the first 30 days of TB diagnosis (p < 0,001). DISCUSSION: The lethality found in this study was higher than expected (8.8%), the majority of patients had serious comorbidities. Elderly patients were associated with early death. The main pathophysiological mechanism of death was septic shock caused by severe tuberculous pneumonia.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/mortalidade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Coinfecção/classificação , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/classificação , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 133-139, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-959422

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: En el 2016 la tuberculosis (TBC) fue considerada la novena causa de muerte en el mundo y la primera por un único agente infeccioso, con aproximadamente 1,6 millones de muertes y una letalidad de 15%. Más de 95% de los casos de mortalidad mundial se presentan en países en vía de desarrollo como Colombia. Objetivo: Describir las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes que fallecieron durante el tratamiento antituberculoso en un centro de alta complejidad en Cali, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio analítico de cohorte retrospectiva, realizado entre 2007-2016 en la Fundación Valle del Lili. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de TBC con seguimiento clínico, que fallecirron por cualquier causa. Resultados: De 787 pacientes diagnosticados con TBC, murieron 69 (8,8%). La mayoría de los fallecidos (59%) fueron hombres, edad promedio de 51,9 años. Hubo retraso diagnóstico en 51% de los pacientes y 75% presentaron TBC pulmonar. El 64% murió en los primeros 30 días posteriores al diagnóstico de TBC y 61% de las muertes fueron atribuibles a TBC. Co-infección TBC e infección por VIH se presentó en 23% de los casos. La edad avanzada (> 65 años) se asoció a muerte en menos de 30 días desde el diagnóstico de TBC (p < 0,001). Discusión: La letalidad encontrada es superior a lo esperado (8,8%); la mayoría de los pacientes fallecidos presentó co-morbilidades graves. La edad avanzada se asoció a muerte temprana. El principal mecanismo fisiopatológico de muerte por TBC en este estudio fue el choque séptico secundario a neumonía grave tuberculosa.


Background In 2016 tuberculosis (TB) was considered the ninth leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of a single infectious agent, with approximately 1.6 million deaths worldwide and a lethality of 15%. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries like Colombia. Aim: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who died during TB treatment in a high complexity hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methods: We conducted an analytic retrospective cohort during 2007-2016 in Fundación Valle del Lili. We included patients with TB diagnosis, who died during TB treatment. Results: From 787 patients with TB, 69 died (8.8%). Fifty nine percent were male, the average of age was 51.9 years. There was diagnosis delay in 51% of the patients and 74% presented pulmonary TB. Sixty four percent 64 died in the first 30 days of the TB diagnosis and 61% of the deaths were attributable to TB. Twenty five percent of patients had TB/HIV coinfection. Elderly patients (> 65 years old) were associated with death in the first 30 days of TB diagnosis (p < 0,001). Discussion: The lethality found in this study was higher than expected (8.8%), the majority of patients had serious comorbidities. Elderly patients were associated with early death. The main pathophysiological mechanism of death was septic shock caused by severe tuberculous pneumonia.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17140, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215042

RESUMO

The recent evolution of cattle is marked by fluctuations in body size. Height in the Bos taurus lineage was reduced by a factor of ~1.5 from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages, and increased again only during the Early Modern Ages. Using haplotype analysis, we found evidence that the bovine PLAG1 mutation (Q) with major effects on body size, weight and reproduction is a >1,000 years old derived allele that increased rapidly in frequency in Northwestern European B. taurus between the 16th and 18th centuries. Towards the 19th and 20th centuries, Q was introgressed into non-European B. taurus and Bos indicus breeds. These data implicate a major role of Q in recent changes in body size in modern cattle, and represent one of the first examples of a genomic sweep in livestock that was driven by selection on a complex trait.

9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 151(3): 598-606, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257744

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonsyndromic primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of dental eruption with no obvious dental or soft tissue interference. The purposes of this study were to genetically and clinically characterize a family with many members affected by PFE and to describe the natural evolution of the disorder. METHODS: Three generations of a family with 18 members, 10 of them clinically affected by PFE, were evaluated periodically during 20 years of clinical follow-up. PFE was observed in varying degrees of severity in both sexes. Clinical presentation became more severe in adulthood. One patient had spontaneous reeruption of 2 posterior teeth. Cervical root resorptions were observed in 3 members. Genetic analysis showed a deleterious heterozygous mutation in intron 9 of the PTH1R gene (c.639-2A>G) and diagnosed an additional affected member. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term follow-up of PFE cases in this family permitted the following observations: (1) the onset occurred from the preemergence to the postemergence phases, (2) PFE appeared to be closely related to ankylosis, (3) affected teeth maintained the eruptive potential even in adulthood, (4) the earlier the onset the more severe the open bite, and (5) cervical root resorptions occurred in 3 affected members.


Assuntos
Anquilose Dental/genética , Erupção Dentária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Mutação , Extrusão Ortodôntica , Ortodontia Corretiva , Linhagem , Receptor Tipo 1 de Hormônio Paratireóideo
10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29219, 2016 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27381368

RESUMO

We compared CNV region (CNVR) results derived from 1,682 Nellore cattle with equivalent results derived from our previous analysis of Bovine HapMap samples. By comparing CNV segment frequencies between different genders and groups, we identified 9 frequent, false positive CNVRs with a total length of 0.8 Mbp that were likely caused by assembly errors. Although there was a paucity of lineage specific events, we did find one 54 kb deletion on chr5 significantly enriched in Nellore cattle. A few highly frequent CNVRs present in both datasets were detected within genomic regions containing olfactory receptor, ATP-binding cassette, and major histocompatibility complex genes. We further evaluated their impacts on downstream bioinformatics and CNV association analyses. Our results revealed pitfalls caused by false positive and lineage-differential copy number variations and will increase the accuracy of future CNV studies in both taurine and indicine cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Erros de Diagnóstico , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
11.
BMC Genomics ; 17: 419, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV) is another important type of genetic variation, which may affect growth traits and play key roles for the production of beef cattle. To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CNV and body traits in beef cattle has been reported, so the present study aimed to investigate this type of association in one of the most important cattle subspecies: Bos indicus (Nellore breed). RESULTS: We have used intensity data from over 700,000 SNP probes across the bovine genome to detect common CNVs in a sample of 2230 Nellore cattle, and performed GWAS between the detected CNVs and nine growth traits. After filtering for frequency and length, a total of 231 CNVs ranging from 894 bp to 4,855,088 bp were kept and tested as predictors for each growth trait using linear regression analysis with principal components correction. There were 49 significant associations identified among 17 CNVs and seven body traits after false discovery rate correction (P < 0.05). Among the 17 CNVs, three were significant or marginally significant for all the traits. We have compared the locations of associated CNVs with quantitative trait locus and the RefGene database, and found two sets of 9 CNVs overlapping with either known QTLs or genes, respectively. The gene overlapping with CNV100, KCNJ12, is a functional candidate for muscle development and plays critical roles in muscling traits. CONCLUSION: This study presents the first CNV-based GWAS of growth traits using high density SNP microarray data in cattle. We detected 17 CNVs significantly associated with seven growth traits and one of them (CNV100) may be involved in growth traits through KCNJ12.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
DNA Res ; 23(3): 253-62, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085184

RESUMO

The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1 Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genoma , Família Multigênica , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Cruzamento , Duplicação Gênica
13.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 52(1): 43-49, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-775605

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Studies conducted during the last years, using new technologies for viral detection, permit to consider human papillomavirus (HPV) an etiologic factor for cervical cancer. Besides the relation to genital regions, other anatomic sites have been associated with HPV, including head and neck regions. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in 35 samples from paraffin-embedded tissues using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification, and correlate it with demographic, clinical, and morphological factors and prognosis. Materials and methods: All samples were first amplified with human β-globin gene primers. Samples with positive amplification were subjected to HPV-DNA detection with general GP5 and GP6 primers. Results Only 30 samples were amplified for the β-globin gene. No floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma cases showed amplification of HPV DNA. Discussion: The absence of HPV-DNA amplification does not suggest that this virus is absent from the process of oral carcinogenesis, since the selected sample is not in the risk group for the development of oral cancer associated with HPV infection. Conclusions: No correlation was found between HPV infection and floor of mouth carcinogenesis, however further studies are necessary.


RESUMO Introdução: Estudos realizados durante os últimos anos permitem considerar a infecção pelopapilomavírus humano (HPV) um fator etiológico para o câncer cervical. Apesar da íntima relação desse vírus com as regiões genitais, outras localizações anatômicas têm sido associadas a tal infecção, inclusive as regiões de cabeça e pescoço. Objetivos: Investigar a prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em 35 amostras parafinadas de carcinoma espinocelular de assoalho de boca, utilizando a amplificação da reação em cadeia dapolimerase (PCR) como método de detecção do ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) viral, bem como correlacionar aspectos demográficos, clínicos e morfológicos com o prognóstico da doença. Materiais e métodos: Todas as amostras foram inicialmente amplificadas com o primerpara detecção do gene da β-globina humana. As que tiveram amplificação positiva para o gene da β-globina foram então submetidas à detecção do DNA viral com os primers GP5 e GP6. Resultados: Apenas 30 amostras foram amplificadas para o gene β-globin. Nenhuma das amostras de carcinoma de assoalho de boca demonstrou resultado positivo para amplificação do DNA viral. Discussão: Apesar de a influência do vírus na carcinogênese oral não ter sido comprovada devido à ausência de DNA viral nas amostras, a relação não pode ser descartada, uma vez que as amostras selecionadas não se encontravam em grupo de risco para o desenvolvimento de carcinoma espinocelular de boca associado à infecção pelo HPV. Conclusão: Não foi detectada relação entre a infecção pelo HPV e o carcinoma de assoalho de boca, no entanto mais estudos são necessários sobre o tema.

14.
Cir Cir ; 84(2): 164-8, 2016 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26272423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemangiolymphangiomas are extremely rare tumours arising from blood and lymphatic vessels. It is a benign disorder, and 95% are of the neck and axilla. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of hemangiolymphangioma of the spermatic cord with contralateral recurrence. CLINICAL CASE: A 17-year-old patient with a progressively growing tumour in the right inguinoscrotal region. Examination revealed a painless, movable and soft right inguinoscrotal tumour, mobile and soft. Surgical resection showed a 25×25cm tumour from spermatic cord, right testicle, and subcutaneous cellular tissue. Histopathological study reported a hemangiolymphangioma. CONCLUSIONS: The spermatic cord is an unusual location of hemangiolymphangiomas with contralateral recurrence. Surgical treatment, with histopathological diagnosis, is associated with good prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos , Hemangioma , Linfangioma , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas , Cordão Espermático , Adolescente , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/cirurgia , Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Hemangioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfangioma/diagnóstico , Linfangioma/cirurgia , Masculino , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia
15.
Psicol. Caribe ; 32(3): 393-409, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-773308

RESUMO

Esta investigación explora la relación entre la comprensión del valor de posición y el proceso de transcodificación numérica del formato verbal hablado al formato arábigo. Participaron 22 niños del grado primero de primaria de un colegio privado de Cali. Se presentó una tarea de dictado de numerales y tres tareas de comprensión del valor de posición. Se realizó un análisis del logro en función del acierto y el error y un análisis correlacional entre las tareas de valor de posición y la tarea de transcodificación numérica. Adicionalmente, se realizó un análisis de redes de vínculos. Se encontraron diferencias en el desempeño de los niños entre la tarea de dictado y las tareas de comprensión del valor de posición, señalando que no es necesaria la comprensión del valor de posición para la escritura de numerales a partir del dictado.


This research explores the relationship between the understanding of place value and the numeral transcoding process from verbal speech to Arabic format. The study involved 22 first grade children at a private school in downtown Cali, who performed one numeral dictation task and three understanding place value tasks. We performed an achievement analysis of tasks and a correlational analysis that values the relationship between the tasks of understanding place value and number transcoding. Additionally, we performed an analysis of the network of links. The performance of the children at completing tasks of dictation, and their performance at completing the tasks of understanding positive value yielded results that differed significantly from each other. It was found that the success in the number transcoding process did not necessarily reflect an equally successful outcome of the tasks of understanding place value.

16.
BMC Genet ; 16: 75, 2015 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26141727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peranakan Ongole (PO) is a major Indonesian Bos indicus breed that derives from animals imported from India in the late 19(th) century. Early imports were followed by hybridization with the Bos javanicus subspecies of cattle. Here, we used genomic data to partition the ancestry components of PO cattle and map loci implicated in birth weight. RESULTS: We found that B. javanicus contributes about 6-7% to the average breed composition of PO cattle. Only two nearly fixed B. javanicus haplotypes were identified, suggesting that most of the B. javanicus variants are segregating under drift or by the action of balancing selection. The zebu component of the PO genome was estimated to derive from at least two distinct ancestral pools. Additionally, well-known loci underlying body size in other beef cattle breeds, such as the PLAG1 region on chromosome 14, were found to also affect birth weight in PO cattle. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first attempt to characterize PO at the genome level, and contributes evidence of successful, stabilized B. indicus x B. javanicus hybridization. Additionally, previously described loci implicated in body size in worldwide beef cattle breeds also affect birth weight in PO cattle.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Hibridização Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 22(3): 205-214, 2015. Ilustraciones
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988076

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La carne es un alimento altamente nutritivo y un componente principal de la canasta básica familiar. Los consumidores seleccionan alimentos no solo por su gusto y satisfacción, sino por sus efectos en la nutrición y en la salud humana. Además se conoce muy poco sobre la calidad de carne producida en los sistemas colombianos y su contenido de ácidos grasos. Objetivo: Determinar el contenido y la composición de ácidos grasos en carne de bovinos cebados en distintos sistemas de producción colombianos. Métodos: Se obtuvieron lomos (Longissimus dorsi) de bovinos Cebú provenientes de cuatro sistemas de producción del trópico colombiano: Dos arreglos silvopastoriles (Centro Experimental Cotové, Universidad Nacional de Colombia y Montenegro, Quindío), una pradera mejorada (Montenegro, Quindío) y un sistema de pastoreo tradicional (Montería, Córdoba). Se extrajo grasa de 64 muestras de carne (dos por lomo) en el laboratorio de Química Analítica de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, en la que se realizó un análisis cuantitativo de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases en el laboratorio de Análisis Instrumental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín. Los resultados se evaluaron siguiendo un diseño completamente al azar y la separación de medias se realizó por Duncan. Resultados: Hubo diferencias significativas en el contenido de ácido mirístico y palmítico entre el sistema tradicional y la pastura mejorada, siendo ambos mayores en el sistema tradicional. Hubo diferencias significativas en el contenido de ácidos insaturados, siendo el sistema silvopastoril del Quindío y la pradera mejorada, los de mayor relación de ácidos grasos polisaturados: insaturados (0,19). En la relación linoleico: α-linolénico no hubo diferencias entre los sistemas. Conclusión: La composición y el contenido de ácidos grasos variaron en la carne de los sistemas evaluados. Los principales componentes de la grasa fueron el ácido palmítico y el ácido oleico (30,73 y 35, 62 g/100 g de ácidos grasos)


Background: Meat is a highly nutritious food and a major component of the basic food basket. Consumers select foods not only for taste and satisfaction, but also for their effects on human nutrition and health. In addition there is very little knowledge about the quality of meat produced in the Colombian systems and their fatty acid content which undoubtedly affect human health. Objetive: To determine the content and composition of fatty acids in meat from steers managed in different Colombian systems. Methods: Meat (Longissimus dorsi) samples were obtained from Zebu cattle from four production systems inthe Colombian tropics: Two silvopastoral arrangements (Cotové Research Center, National University of Colombia and Montenegro, Quindío), improved pastures (Montenegro, Quindío) and a traditional grazing system (Monteria, Cordoba). Fat was extracted from 64 meat samples in the laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the National University of Colombia, and a quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography in the laboratory of Instrumental Analysis of the National University of Colombia in Medellin. The results were evaluated following a complete randomized design and means were separated by the Duncan test. Results: There were significant differences in the content of myristic and palmitic acids between meat from the traditional and improved pasture system, with both acids being higher in the traditional system. There were also differences in the content of linoleic and linolenic acid, being lower in the Cotové silvopastoral system. There were significant differences in the content of unsaturated acids, with the meat from silvopastoral system Quindío and the improved pastures showing the highest fatty acid saturated: polyunsaturated ratio (0.19). In the linoleic: α-linolenic ratio there were no differences. Conclusions: Although the composition and the fatty acid content in beef varied between systems evaluated, the main components of such systems fat were palmitic acid and oleic acid (30.73 and 35.62 g/100 g fatty acid).


Assuntos
Humanos , Ácidos Graxos , Bovinos , Ácido Linoleico , Gorduras Insaturadas , Carne
18.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113284, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25419663

RESUMO

Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Bovinos/genética , Mudança Climática , Clima Tropical , Algoritmos , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genoma/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética
19.
Genet Sel Evol ; 46: 27, 2014 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24742145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iran is an area of particular interest for investigating goat diversity. Archaeological remains indicate early goat domestication (about 10,000 years ago) in the Iranian Zagros Mountains as well as in the high Euphrates valley and southeastern Anatolia. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data of domestic goats and wild ancestors (C. aegagrusor bezoar) suggest a pre-domestication management of wild populations in southern Zagros and central Iranian Plateau. In this study genetic diversity was assessed in seven Iranian native goat breeds, namely Markhoz, Najdi, Taleshi, Khalkhali, Naini, native Abadeh and Turki-Ghashghaei. A total of 317 animals were characterized using 14 microsatellite loci. Two Pakistani goat populations, Pahari and Teddy, were genotyped for comparison. RESULTS: Iranian goats possess a remarkable genetic diversity (average expected heterozygosity of 0.671 across loci, 10.7 alleles per locus) mainly accounted for by the within-breed component (GST = 5.9%). Positive and highly significant FIS values in the Naini, Turki-Ghashghaei, Abadeh and Markhoz breeds indicate some level of inbreeding in these populations. Multivariate analyses cluster Iranian goats into northern, central and western groups, with the western breeds relatively distinct from the others. Pakistani breeds show some relationship with Iranian populations, even if their position is not consistent across analyses. Gene flow was higher within regions (west, north, central) compared to between regions but particularly low between the western and the other two regions, probably due to the isolating topography of the Zagros mountain range. The Turki-Ghashghaei, Najdi and Abadeh breeds are reared in geographic areas where mtDNA provided evidence of early domestication. These breeds are highly variable, located on basal short branches in the neighbor-joining tree, close to the origin of the principal component analysis plot and, although highly admixed, they are quite distinct from those reared on the western side of the Zagros mountain range. CONCLUSIONS: These observations call for further investigation of the nuclear DNA diversity of these breeds within a much wider geographic context to confirm or re-discuss the current hypothesis (based on maternal lineage data) of an almost exclusive contribution of the eastern Anatolian bezoar to the domestic goat gene pool.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Cabras/genética , Endogamia , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Irã (Geográfico) , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
BMC Genet ; 15: 47, 2014 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24739206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. RESULTS: We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle populations, which is essential for an effective conservation of the bovine genetic resources.


Assuntos
Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Cruzamento , Análise por Conglomerados , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA