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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589405

RESUMO

Metal oxyfluorides are currently attracting much attention for next-generation rechargeable batteries because of their high theoretical capacity and resulting high energy density. Rhombohedral VO2F is promising because it allows two-electron transfer during electrochemical lithium cycling, with a theoretical capacity of 526 mAh g-1. However, the chemical changes it undergoes during operation are not clearly understood. In this work, a combination of synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction was employed to accurately describe the crystal structure of both pristine and lithiated VO2F, using samples with high crystallinity to overcome challenges in previous studies. The mechanism and reversibility of the lithium insertion was monitored in real time by high angular synchrotron diffraction measurements, performed in operando on a lithium battery in the high-voltage range: 3.9-2.3 V vs Li+/Li. Insertion of up to one lithium ion proceeds through a solid-solution reaction, while Rietveld refinements of neutron powder diffraction data revealed that the lithiated states adopt the noncentrosymmetric R3c framework, uncovering an octahedral Li-(O/F)6 coordination with reasonable Li-O/F bond lengths. This work further evaluates the redox changes of VO2F upon Li intercalation. By a comparison of changes in electronic states of all the elements in the compound, it clarifies the critical role of both anions, O and F, in the charge compensation through their covalent interactions with the 3d states of V. The clear evidence of participation of F challenges existing assumptions that its high electronegativity renders this anion largely a spectator in the redox reaction.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 48(36): 13651-13661, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465070

RESUMO

The partial substitution of up to 5% Nd+3 by Ca+2 results in the oxide Nd1.90Ca0.10MgTiO5.94 that presents some remarkable structural features with a noticeable influence on its properties. In this oxide with a monoclinic perovskite-like structure and an octahedral tilting scheme (a-a-b+), both A- and B-ions are arranged in a rock-salt like manner, representing therefore the first example of a type of perovskite theoretically predicted. Besides this unprecedented arrangement of A- and B-ions, the oxygen vacancies created through doping with acceptor ions are trapped by association with the acceptor defects and hence the mobility of these vacancies is strongly limited. The oxygen conductivity of the substituted material is lower and the activation energy for oxygen motion is higher than those of the parent oxide, in which the concentration of anion vacancies is only due to intrinsic defects.

3.
ChemSusChem ; 12(17): 4029-4037, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282611

RESUMO

Materials with the formula Sr2 CoNb1-x Tix O6-δ (x=1.00, 0.70; δ=number of oxygen vacancies) present a cubic perovskite-like structure. They are easily and reversibly reduced in N2 or Ar and re-oxidized in air upon heating. Oxidation by water (wet N2 ), involving splitting of water at a temperature as low as 700 °C, produces hydrogen. Both compounds displayed outstanding H2 production in the first thermochemical cycle, the Sr2 CoNb0.30 Ti0.70 O6-δ material retaining its outstanding performance upon cycling, whereas the hydrogen yield of the x=1 oxide showed a continuous decay. The retention of the materials' ability to promote water splitting correlated with their structural, chemical, and redox reversibility upon cycling. On reduction/oxidation, Co ions reversibly changed their oxidation state to compensate the release/recovery of oxygen in both compounds. However, in Sr2 CoTiO6-δ , two phases with different oxygen contents segregated, whereas in Sr2 CoNb0.30 Ti0.70 O6-δ this effect was not evident. Therefore, this latter material displayed a hydrogen production as high as 410 µmol H 2 g-1 perovskite after eight thermochemical cycles at 700 °C, which is among the highest ever reported, making this perovskite a promising candidate for thermosolar water splitting in real devices.

4.
ChemSusChem ; 10(14): 2978-2989, 2017 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594114

RESUMO

The perovskite series Sr2 CoNb1-x Tix O6-δ (0≤x≤1) was investigated in the full compositional range to assess its potential as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The variation of transport properties and thus, the area specific resistances (ASR) are explained by a detailed investigation of the defect chemistry. Increasing the titanium content from x=0-1 produces both oxidation of Co3+ to Co4+ (from 0 up to 40 %) and oxygen vacancies (from 6.0 to 5.7 oxygen atom/formula unit), although each charge compensation mechanism predominates in different compositional ranges. Neutron diffraction reveals that samples with high Ti-contents lose a significant amount of oxygen upon heating above 600 K. Oxygen is partially recovered upon cooling as the oxygen release and uptake show noticeably different kinetics. The complex defect chemistry of these compounds, together with the compositional changes upon heating/cooling cycles and atmospheres, produce a complicated behavior of electrical conductivity. Cathodes containing Sr2 CoTiO6-δ display low ASR values, 0,13â€…Ω cm2 at 973 K, comparable to those of the best compounds reported so far, being a very promising cathode material for SOFC.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Óxidos/química , Eletrodos , Oxigênio/química , Pressão , Temperatura
5.
Inorg Chem ; 55(24): 12766-12774, 2016 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989167

RESUMO

The symmetry of the room-temperature (RT) structure of title compounds La2-xSrxCoTiO6-δ changes with x, from P21/n (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) to Pnma (0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) and to R3̅c (0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1). For x = 1 the three pseudocubic cell parameters become very close suggesting a transition to a cubic structure for higher Sr contents. Similar phase transitions were expected to occur on heating, paralleling the effect of internal pressure induced by substitution of La3+ by Sr2+. However, only some of these aforementioned transitions have been thermally induced. The symmetry-adapted modes formalism is used in the structural refinements and fitting of neutron diffraction data recorded from RT to 1273 K. Thus, for x = 1, the out-of-phase tilting of the BO6 octahedra vanishes progressively on heating, and a cubic structure with Pm3̅m symmetry is found at 1073 K. For lower Sr contents this transition is predicted to occur far above the temperature limit of common experimental setups. The analysis of the evolution of the perovskite tolerance factor, t-factor, with both Sr content and temperature indicates that temperature has a limited ability to release structural stress and thus to enable transitions to more symmetric phases. This is particularly true when compared to the effect of internal pressure induced by substitution of La by Sr. The existence of phase transitions in materials for solid oxide fuel cells that are usually exposed to heating-cooling cycles may have a detrimental effect. This work suggests strategies to stabilize the high-symmetry high-temperature phase of perovskite oxides through internal-pressure chemically induced.

6.
Chemphyschem ; 17(7): 1062-9, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805439

RESUMO

Titanium-oxide-based materials are considered attractive and safe alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. In particular, the ramsdellite form TiO2 (R) is known for its superior lithium-storage ability as the bulk material when compared with other titanates. In this work, we prepared V-doped lithium titanate ramsdellites with the formula Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 (0≤x≤0.5) by a conventional solid-state reaction. The lithium-free Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds, in which the ramsdellite framework remains virtually unaltered, are easily obtained by a simple aqueous oxidation/ion-extraction process. Neutron powder diffraction is used to locate the Li channel site in Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds and to follow the lithium extraction by difference-Fourier maps. Previously delithiated Ti1-x Vx O2 ramsdellites are able to insert up to 0.8 Li(+) per transition-metal atom. The initial gravimetric capacities of 270 mAh g(-1) with good cycle stability under constant current discharge conditions are among the highest reported for bulk TiO2 -related intercalation compounds for the threshold of one e(-) per formula unit.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 54(7): 3172-82, 2015 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790238

RESUMO

A new hydrated sodium nickel fluoride with nominal composition NaNiF3·3H2O was synthesized using an aqueous solution route. Its structure was solved by means of ab initio methods from powder X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction data. NaNiF3·3H2O crystallizes in the cubic crystal system, space group Pn3̅ with a = 7.91968(4) Å. The framework, derived from the ReO3 structure type, is built from NaX6 and NiX6 (X = O, F) corner-shared octahedra, in which F and O atoms are randomly distributed on a single anion site. The 2a × 2a × 2a superstructure arises from the strict alternate three-dimensional linking of NaX6 and NiX6 octahedra together with the simultaneous tilts of the octahedra from the cube axis (φ = 31.1°), with a significant participation of hydrogen bonding. NaNiF3·3H2O corresponds to a fully cation-ordered variant of the In(OH)3 structure, easily recognizable when formulated as NaNi(XH)6 (X = O, F). It constitutes one of the rare examples for the a(+)a(+)a(+) tilting scheme with 1:1 cation ordering in perovskite-related compounds. The Curie-like magnetic behavior well-reflects the isolated paramagnetic Ni(2+) centers without worth mentioning interactions. While X-ray and neutron diffraction data evidence Na/Ni order in combination with O/F disorder as a main feature of this fluoride, results from Raman and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopies support the existence of specific anion arrangements in isolated square windows identified in structural refinements. In particular, formation of water molecules derives from unfavorable FH bond formation.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 44(8): 3801-10, 2015 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609145

RESUMO

We report the rich magnetic behaviour of Sr2CoNb1-xTixO6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) oxides as a result of their complex microstructure. Although these oxides show an average simple-cubic perovskite structure, they present a flexible microstructure due to short-range ordering between Co/Ti and Nb cations in the perovskite B-sites. The microstructure consists of double-cubic perovskite domains grown in a simple-cubic perovskite matrix. The size and number of the double-cubic perovskite domains decrease as the Ti content increases. As a result of aliovalent substitution of Nb(5+) by Ti(4+) in the parent Sr2CoNbO6 mixed-valence Co(3+)/Co(4+) oxides are obtained. A spin glass-like state has been observed at low temperatures for all the series, with freezing temperatures increasing with the Ti-content in the range 22 to 33 K. Furthermore, the x = 0.3 and x = 0.5 samples show non-interacting superparamagnetic particle-like dynamics associated with relatively high amounts of Co(4+), with "blocking temperatures" of 13 and ∼16 K, respectively. The complex magnetic behaviour of the title oxides seems to be connected with the clustering of magnetic Co(3+) and the distribution of Co(4+) as a result of the microstructure.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 41(48): 14633-42, 2012 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23108296

RESUMO

Li(2)Ti(6)O(13) and H(2)Ti(6)O(13) were easily synthesized from Na(2)Ti(6)O(13) by successive Na(+)-Li(+)-H(+) ion exchange. The crystal structures of Na(2)Ti(6)O(13), Li(2)Ti(6)O(13) and H(2)Ti(6)O(13) were investigated using neutron powder diffraction. Monovalent A(+) cations (Na, Li and H) have been located using difference Fourier analysis. Although monoclinic lattice parameters (space group C2/m) of the three titanates remain almost unchanged with retention of the basic [Ti(6)O(13)(2-)] network, monovalent Na, Li and H cations occupy different sites in the tunnel space. By comparing the structural details concerning the A(+) oxygen coordination, i.e. NaO(8) square prismatic coordination, LiO(4) square planar coordination and covalently bond H atoms, with results from (23)Na, (7)Li and (1)H NMR spectroscopy we were able to obtain a more detailed insight into the respective local distortions and anharmonic motions. We were able to show that the site that the A(+) cation occupies in the hexatitanate channel structure strongly influences the lithium insertion properties of these compounds and therefore their usefulness as electrode materials for energy storage.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 40(31): 7908-15, 2011 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21743906

RESUMO

Substitution of La(3+) by Sr(2+) in the double perovskite La(2)CoTiO(6) yields materials of the La(2-x)Sr(x)CoTiO(6) series showing a significant amount of trivalent cobalt ions when prepared at ambient atmosphere. The as-prepared compounds can be reduced in severe conditions retaining the perovskite structure while inducing the formation of a large amount of oxygen vacancies. The limit of aliovalent substitution in this series was found to extend up to x = 1. For substitution of La(3+) up to 15% cobalt and titanium are ordered, though the order is progressively lost as x increases; for x≥ 0.30 no ordering is observed as evidenced by magnetic measurements. The ability of these materials to present either cobalt ions in a mixed oxidation state or large amounts of anion vacancies depending on the atmosphere makes them interesting to be further investigated regarding their electrical and electrochemical properties, and hence, their usefulness in some electrochemical devices.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 48(16): 7659-66, 2009 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19591438

RESUMO

Despite being proven to be a good lithium-ion conductor 30 years ago, the crystal structure of the ramsdellite-like Li(2)Ti(3)O(7) has remained uncertain, with two potential models for locating the lithium ions in the structure. Although the model presently accepted states that both lithium and titanium occupy the octahedral sites in the framework, evidence against this model are provided by (6)Li and (7)Li MAS NMR spectroscopy. Thus, about 14% of these octahedral positions are empty since no lithium in octahedral coordination is present in the material. When Li(2)Ti(3)O(7)-ramsdellite is treated with nitric acid a complete exchange of lithium by protons is produced to yield H(2)Ti(3)O(7). The crystal structure of this proton-exchanged ramsdellite has been re-examined combining X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and spectroscopic ((1)H and (7)Li MAS NMR) techniques. Two kinds of protons are present in this material with different acidity because of the local environments of oxygen atoms to which protons are bonded, namely, low acidic protons strongly bonded to highly charged oxygen atoms (coordinated to two Ti(4+) and a vacancy); and protons linked to low charged oxygen atoms (bonded to three Ti(4+) ions) which will display a more acidic behavior. H(2)Ti(3)O(7) absorbs water; proton mobility is enhanced by the presence of absorbed water, giving rise to a large improvement of its electrical conductivity in wet atmospheres. Thus, it seems that water molecules enter the tunnels in the structure providing a vehicle mechanism for proton diffusion.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 46(13): 5390-7, 2007 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17539630

RESUMO

The structural characterization of NaNbWO(6), prepared by the ceramic route, has been performed. Electron diffraction has shown the presence of two related phases in a 1:1 ratio, whose lattice parameters correspond to those of the well-known tetragonal tungsten bronzes (TTB) and those of a monoclinically distorted phase. In addition to basic unit cells, the morphology of the two phases has been found to be similar, but they present a slight difference in the W/Nb ratio. (1)H and (23)Na magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectra of NaNbWO(6) and its proton-exchanged derivatives have been interpreted on the basis of the ideal TTB structure. The average structure and the morphology remain unchanged in Na(1-x)H(x)NbWO(6) derivatives. (1)H and (23)Na MAS-NMR spectroscopies have been used to monitor changes produced during exchange processes. It has been shown that the exchange of Na ions is mainly produced, but not exclusively, at tetragonal channels. However, a large amount of Na ions at the pentagonal channels do not exchange with protons, suggesting that these ions are needed to stabilize the TTB-like structure. A tentative distribution of sodium ions in the most-exchanged oxide, deduced from NMR results, approximately (Na(0.46))(p)(Na(0.08))(s)H(0.46)NbWO(6), has been proposed. NMR spectra of Na(1-x)H(x)NbWO(6) indicate that two different OH groups are formed upon exchanging. The study of samples hydrated with D(2)O allowed us to conclude that deuterons of adsorbed water exchange with protons of the two OH groups. The proton-deuteron exchange is slow at room temperature but is strongly enhanced at 90 degrees C. This observation relates to the proton conductivity displayed by exchanged products under a humid atmosphere.

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