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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Discordant data have been reported on the prognosis of myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). Moreover, few data are available on the impact of angiographic subtypes. The objectives of this study were to assess the prognostic impact on the long-term follow-up of the diagnosis of MINOCA and its angiographic subtypes. METHODS: We included 591 consecutive patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) who underwent coronary angiography. MINOCA was classified according to angiographic findings as smooth coronary arteries, mild irregularities (< 30% stenosis), and moderate atherosclerosis (30%-49% stenosis). The primary endpoint was a composite of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization (MACE) at a median of 5 years of follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients (20.5%) showed no obstructive lesions. MINOCA was associated with a lower occurrence of MACE (P=.014; HR, 0.63; 95%CI, 0.44-0.91) and was confirmed as an independent factor in the multivariate analysis (P=.018; HR, 0.63; 95%CI, 0.43-0.92). On analysis of the separate components of the main endpoint, MINOCA was significantly associated with a lower rate of myocardial infarction and revascularization, but not with mortality. Analysis of angiographic subtypes among MINOCA patients showed that smooth coronary arteries were a statistically significant protective factor on both univariate and multivariate analysis, while mild irregularities and 30% to 49% plaques were associated with a higher risk of MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MINOCA is associated with a lower rate of MACE, driven by fewer reinfarctions and revascularizations. Within the angiographic subtypes of MINOCA, smooth arteries were independently associated with a lower number of MACE.

3.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(6): 338-342, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-6057

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVOS: La prevalencia de fibrilación auricular (FA) y cardiopatía isquémica (CI) aumenta con la edad. Coexisten en hasta un 20% de los pacientes octogenarios, situación que supone un desafío terapéutico. Los ensayos que han abordado este escenario, que incluyeron un porcentaje bajo de octogenarios, demostraron que la doble terapia (antiagregación simple + anticoagulación) en comparación con la triple terapia (doble antiagregación + anticoagulación) se asocia menos eventos hemorrágicos, especialmente con anticoagulantes orales de acción directa. Estos estudios no tenían potencia suficiente para detectar diferencias en eventos isquémicos. Por otro lado, aspectos prevalentes en la población mayor, como los síndromes geriátricos, no se valoraron en estos estudios, y tampoco en la práctica clínica habitual, desconociéndose su impacto pronóstico en este contexto clínico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, prospectivo y multicéntrico, que incluirá pacientes ≥ 80 años con FA y CI en España. Se valorarán las características basales y los síndromes geriátricos, así como la elección del tratamiento antitrombótico. El objetivo primario es conocer la mortalidad cardiovascular y por todas las causas a uno y tres años. RESULTADOS: Este estudio permitirá conocer las características y el pronóstico de pacientes octogenarios con FA y CI en nuestro medio, los factores implicados en la elección del tratamiento antitrombótico y la incidencia de eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos durante el seguimiento a corto y largo plazo. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestro trabajo contribuirá a mejorar el conocimiento en términos de seguridad y eficacia de las distintas opciones terapéuticas en pacientes mayores con FA y CI y su impacto pronóstico


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischaemic heart disease (IHC) increases with age. They coexist in up to 20% of octogenarian patients, a situation that poses a therapeutic challenge. Trials that have addressed this scenario, which included a low percentage of octogenarians, showed that double therapy (single antiplatelet + anticoagulation) compared to triple therapy (double antiplatelet + anticoagulation) was associated with less bleeding events, especially with direct oral anticoagulants. These studies did not have sufficient power to detect differences in ischaemic events. On the other hand, prevalent characteristics in the elderly, such as geriatric syndromes, were not assessed in these studies, and are not usually evaluated in clinical practice. Accordingly, their prognostic impact remains unknown in this clinical context. METHODS: Observational, prospective, and multicentre study that will include patients ≥ 80 years with AF and IHC in Spain. Baseline characteristics and geriatric syndromes will be assessed, as well as the choice of antithrombotic treatment. The primary endpoint is cardiovascular and overall mortality at one and three years follow-up. RESULTS: This study will assess both characteristics and prognosis of octogenarian patients with AF and IHC in Spain, the factors involved in the choice of antithrombotic treatment, and the incidence of ischaemic and haemorrhagic events during the short- and long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study will contribute to improve the knowledge in terms of safety and efficacy of the different therapeutic options in older patients with AF and IHC, as well as their prognostic impact

4.
Am J Med ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adult patients with frailty are rarely involved in rehabilitation programs after myocardial infarction. Our aim was to investigate the benefits of exercise intervention in these patients. METHODS: A total of 150 survivors after acute myocardial infarction, ≥70 years and with pre-frailty or frailty (Fried scale ≥1 points), were randomized to control (n = 77) or intervention (n = 73) groups. The intervention consisted of a 3-month exercise program, under physiotherapist supervision, followed by an independent home-based program. The main outcome was frailty (Fried scale) at 3 months and 1 year. Secondary endpoints were clinical events (mortality or any readmission) at 1 year. RESULTS: Mean age was 80 years (range = 70-96). In the intervention group, 44 (60%) out of 73 patients participated in the program and 23 (32%) completed it. Overall, there was a decrease in the Fried score in the intervention group at 3 months, with no effect at 1 year. However, in the intention-to-treat analysis, such change did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.110). Only treatment comparisons made among the subgroups that participated in (P = 0.033) and completed (P = 0.018) the program achieved statistical significance. There were no differences in clinical events. Worse Fried score trajectory along follow-up increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-4.55, P = 0.009) CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and retention for a physical program in older adult patients with frailty after myocardial infarction was challenging. Frailty status improved in the subgroup that participated in the program, although this benefit was attenuated after shifting to a home-based program. A better frailty trajectory might influence midterm prognosis. (ClinicalTrials.govNCT02715453).

5.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying patients at risk of poor diuretic response in acute heart failure (AHF) is critical to make prompt adjustments in therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of soluble ST2 predict the cumulative diuretic efficiency (DE) at 24 and 72 hours in patients with AHF and concomitant renal dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a post hoc analysis of the IMPROVE-HF trial, in which we enrolled 160 patients with AHF and renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtrate rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). DE was calculated as the net fluid output produced per 40 mg of furosemide equivalents. The association between sST2 and DE was evaluated by using multivariate linear regression analysis. The median cumulative DE at 24 and 72 hour was 747 mL (interquartile range 490-1167 mL) and 1844 mL (interquartile range 1142-2625 mL), respectively. The median sST2 and mean estimated glomerular filtrate rate were 72 ng/mL (interquartile range 47-117 ng/mL), and 34.0 ± 8.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. In a multivariable setting, higher sST2 were significant and nonlinearly related to lower DE both at 24 and 72 hours (P = .002 and P = .019, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and renal dysfunction at presentation, circulating levels of sST2 were independently and negatively associated with a poor diuretic response, both at 24 and 72 hours.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An ancillary advantage of bioresorbable scaffolds is the possibility of non-invasive imaging assessment of the treated coronary segment. Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) studies of resorbable magnesium scaffolds (RMS) are scarce. METHODS: In this collaborative, international study, nine patients who had an RMS implanted underwent CCTA as part of follow-up assessment. Core-lab blinded quantitative and qualitative assessment was performed by an independent CCTA investigator. RESULTS: Eight studies were amenable for quantitative analysis, and the blinded CT investigator successfully located and evaluated patency of RMS in all cases. The CCTA follow-up in-scaffold percentage diameter stenosis and area stenosis was 22.2% (12.4-30) and 39.1% (0.23-0.50), in keeping with mild in-scaffold late loss and underlying plaque growth. Moreover, a detailed coronary plaque characterization at treated segments was feasible (fibrous plaque in 69.9%, fibrofatty in 17.13%, necrotic in 4.78% and calcium in 5.72%). As in 6 out of 8 cases, the presentation was an acute coronary syndrome, these preliminary results could suggest plaque stabilization and a good coronary vessel healing with RMS. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive, follow-up assessment of RMS with CCTA is feasible. Further CCTA studies for either clinical or research purposes with the present and upcoming generation of resorbable magnesium scaffolds are warranted.

8.
Heart Lung ; 49(6): 783-787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This case illustrates the evaluation of a healthy young male with ECG anomalies in a perioperative electrocardiogram (ECG) that ended up with the diagnosis of a severe systemic disease. CASE: A 28-year-old man was attended at the outpatient cardiology department to perform a preoperative ECG for lacrimal duct obstruction surgery, which showed Q and T negative waves in inferior leads. Echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) displayed left ventricular (LV) aneurysm at basal segments of the inferior, posterior, and lateral wall with myocardial thinning and dyskinesia. CMR and thoracic computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral nodular images in parotid glands, cervical, and thoracic lymphadenopathies. All those findings suggested the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, which was supported by Gallium-67 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) results and finally confirmed by skin biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: The present case highlights the complexity of sarcoidosis diagnosis. This young male was apparently asymptomatic; however, at presentation, he actually had three manifestations of active sarcoidosis: lacrimal duct obstruction, skin lesions, and cervical lymphadenopathies. It is essential to have a low threshold for sarcoidosis suspicion in the setting of unexplained systemic signs and symptoms.

13.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(7): 915-918, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Initial data on COVID-19 infection has pointed out a special vulnerability of older adults. DESIGN: We performed a meta-analysis with available national reports on May 7, 2020 from China, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, and New York State. Analyses were performed by a random effects model, and sensitivity analyses were performed for the identification of potential sources of heterogeneity. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19-positive patients reported in literature and national reports. MEASURES: All-cause mortality by age. RESULTS: A total of 611,1583 subjects were analyzed and 141,745 (23.2%) were aged ≥80 years. The percentage of octogenarians was different in the 5 registries, the lowest being in China (3.2%) and the highest in the United Kingdom and New York State. The overall mortality rate was 12.10% and it varied widely between countries, the lowest being in China (3.1%) and the highest in the United Kingdom (20.8%) and New York State (20.99%). Mortality was <1.1% in patients aged <50 years and it increased exponentially after that age in the 5 national registries. As expected, the highest mortality rate was observed in patients aged ≥80 years. All age groups had significantly higher mortality compared with the immediately younger age group. The largest increase in mortality risk was observed in patients aged 60 to 69 years compared with those aged 50 to 59 years (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.61-3.76). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This meta-analysis with more than half million of COVID-19 patients from different countries highlights the determinant effect of age on mortality with the relevant thresholds on age >50 years and, especially, >60 years. Older adult patients should be prioritized in the implementation of preventive measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Urinary sodium (UNa+) has emerged as a useful biomarker of poor clinical outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Here, we sought to evaluate: a) the usefulness of a single early determination of UNa+ for predicting adverse outcomes in patients with AHF and renal dysfunction, and b) whether the change in UNa+ at 24hours (ΔUNa24h) adds any additional prognostic information over baseline values. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial (IMPROVE-HF) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02643147) that randomized 160 patients with AHF and renal dysfunction on admission to a) the standard diuretic strategy, or b) a carbohydrate antigen 125-guided diuretic strategy. The primary end point was all-cause mortality and total all-cause readmissions. RESULTS: The mean age was 78±8 years, and the mean glomerular filtration rate was 34.0±8.5mL/min/1.73 m2. The median UNa+ was 90 (65-111) mmol/L. At a median follow-up of 1.73 years [interquartile range, 0.48-2.35], 83 deaths (51.9%) were registered, as well as 263 all-cause readmissions in 110 patients. UNa+ was independently associated with mortality (HR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.65-0.87; P <.001) and all-cause readmissions (HR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.88-0.96; P <.001). The prognostic usefulness of the ΔUNa24h varied according to UNa+ at admission (P for interaction <.05). The ΔUNa24h was inversely associated with both end points only in the group with UNa+ ≤ 50 mmol/L. Conversely, no effect was found in the group with UNa+> 50 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and renal dysfunction, a single early determination of UNa+ ≤ 50 mmol/L identifies patients with a higher risk of all-cause mortality and readmission. The ΔUNa24h adds prognostic information over baseline values only when UNa+ at admission is ≤ 50 mmol/L.

15.
Cardiorenal Med ; 10(5): 362-372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In acute heart failure (AHF), early assessment of spot urinary sodium (UNa) has emerged as a useful biomarker for risk stratification and monitoring. The objective of this study was to investigate (a) whether early spot UNa predicts 24-h diuretic efficiency and (b) the clinical factors associated with early spot UNa in patients with AHF and concomitant renal dysfunction (RD). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the IMPROVE-HF trial, in which 160 patients with AHF and RD (estimated glomerular filtrate rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were included. Diuretic efficiency was calculated as the net fluid output produced per 40 mg of furosemide equivalents in 24 h. The association between early spot UNa and diuretic efficiency and clinical variables associated with UNa were evaluated using multivariate linear regression analysis. The contribution of the exposures in the predictability of the models was assessed with the coefficient of determination (R2). RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 78 ± 8 years. The median (interquartile range) diuretic efficiency, early spot UNa, aminoterminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and eGFR were 747 (490-1,167) mL, 90 mmol/L (65-111), 7,765 pg/mL (3,526-15,369), and 33.7 ± 11.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. In a multivariate setting, lower UNa was significantly and nonlinearly associated with lower diuretic efficiency (p = 0.001), explaining the 44.4% of the model predictability. Natremia and surrogates of congestion emerged as the main factors related to UNa. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and RD at presentation, early spot UNa was inversely related to 24-h diuretic efficiency.

16.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(7): 569-576, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187328

RESUMO

La infección por SARS-CoV-2, denominada COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease-19), es una enfermedad desconocida hasta diciembre de 2019 a la que nos enfrentamos en España desde el 31 de enero de 2020 -fecha del primer caso diagnosticado en nuestro país- y que ya ha causado la muerte de 7.340 personas (a 30 de marzo de 2020), sobre todo mayores. Es importante tener en cuenta que, dado que la información evoluciona con extremada rapidez en este campo, lo expuesto en el presente documento puede estar sujeto a modificaciones. La población de mayor edad es especialmente susceptible a la infección por COVID-19, así como a desarrollar criterios de gravedad. Este aumento de morbimortalidad en el paciente mayor se ha asociado tanto con las comorbilidades, especialmente la enfermedad cardiovascular, como con la situación de fragilidad, que conlleva una respuesta inmunológica más pobre. La situación actual, tanto por los países afectados como por el número de casos, constituye una pandemia y supone una emergencia sanitaria de primer nivel. Como España es uno de los países más envejecidos del mundo, la COVID-19 se ha convertido en una emergencia geriátrica. El presente documento se ha elaborado conjuntamente entre la Sección de Cardiología Geriátrica de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología y la Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología


SARS-CoV2 infection, also known as COVID-19 (coronavirus infectious disease-19), was first identified in December 2019. In Spain, the first case of this infection was diagnosed on 31 January, 2020 and, by 30 March 2020, has caused 7340 deaths, especially in the elderly. Due to the rapidly evolving situation regarding this disease, the data reported in this article may be subject to modifications. The older population are particularly susceptible to COVID-19 infection and to developing severe disease. The higher morbidity and mortality rates in older people have been associated with comorbidity, especially cardiovascular disease, and frailty, which weakens the immune response. Due to both the number of affected countries and the number of cases, the current situation constitutes an ongoing pandemic and a major health emergency. Because Spain has one of the largest older populations in the world, COVID-19 has emerged as a geriatric emergency. This document has been prepared jointly between the Geriatric Cardiology Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Estratégias Mundiais , Cuidados Críticos/métodos
17.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(7): 569-576, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446793

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection, also known as COVID-19 (coronavirus infectious disease-19), was first identified in December 2019. In Spain, the first case of this infection was diagnosed on 31 January, 2020 and, by 15 April 2020, has caused 18 579 deaths, especially in the elderly. Due to the rapidly evolving situation regarding this disease, the data reported in this article may be subject to modifications. The older population are particularly susceptible to COVID-19 infection and to developing severe disease. The higher morbidity and mortality rates in older people have been associated with comorbidity, especially cardiovascular disease, and frailty, which weakens the immune response. Due to both the number of affected countries and the number of cases, the current situation constitutes an ongoing pandemic and a major health emergency. Because Spain has one of the largest older populations in the world, COVID-19 has emerged as a geriatric emergency. This document has been prepared jointly between the Section on Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Geriatria , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 73(7): 569-576, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292226

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection, also known as COVID-19 (coronavirus infectious disease-19), was first identified in December 2019. In Spain, the first case of this infection was diagnosed on 31 January, 2020 and, by 15 April 2020, has caused 18 579 deaths, especially in the elderly. Due to the rapidly evolving situation regarding this disease, the data reported in this article may be subject to modifications. The older population are particularly susceptible to COVID-19 infection and to developing severe disease. The higher morbidity and mortality rates in older people have been associated with comorbidity, especially cardiovascular disease, and frailty, which weakens the immune response. Due to both the number of affected countries and the number of cases, the current situation constitutes an ongoing pandemic and a major health emergency. Because Spain has one of the largest older populations in the world, COVID-19 has emerged as a geriatric emergency. This document has been prepared jointly between the Section on Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5373, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214121

RESUMO

Despite the promising value of miRNAs in the diagnostic and prognostic of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent meta-analyses did not support their potential. Methodological variances in studies may interfere with miRNA profile and affect their results. This study determines if the blood starting material is a source of variance in miRNA profile by performing a paired comparison in plasma and serum of the expression of primary miRNAs associated with CVD. Circulating miRNA yield was similar in both plasma and serum, although a significant increase was observed in patients with Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) compared to control volunteers. When normalized by the expression of miR-484, different patterns of miRNA expression between serum and plasma. Although NSTEMI modified the expression of miR-1 and miR-208 in both serum and plasma, plasma displayed a higher variance than serum (Levene's test p < 0.01). For miR-133a and miR-26a, differences were only detected in serum (p = 0.0240), and conversely, miR-499a showed differences only in plasma of NSTEMI (p = 0.001). Interestingly, miR-21 showed an opposite pattern of expression, being increased in serum (2-ΔΔCt: 5.7, p = 0.0221) and decreased in plasma (2-ΔΔCt: 0.5, p = 0.0107). Plasma and serum exhibit different patterns of circulating miRNA expression in NSTEMI and suggest that results from studies with different starting material could not be comparable.

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