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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3276958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285784

RESUMO

Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been used as a dietary supplement at different doses in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. However, the reports on the effects of ALA are controversial. For this reason, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 600 mg/day of ALA on the markers of oxidative stress (OxS) and inflammation and RAGE in older adults with T2DM. A quasiexperimental study was carried out with a sample of 135 sedentary subjects (98 women and 37 men) with a mean age of 64 ± 1 years, who all had T2DM. The sample was divided into three groups: (i) experimental group (EG) with 50 subjects, (ii) placebo group (PG) with 50 subjects, and control group (CG) with 35 subjects. We obtained the following measurements in all subjects (pre- and posttreatment): glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), 8-isoprostane, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant status (TAS), and inflammatory (CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) markers. Regarding the effect of ALA on HbA1c, a decrease was observed in the EG (baseline 8.9 ± 0.2 vs. posttreatment 8.6 ± 0.3) and the PG (baseline 8.8 ± 0.2 vs. posttreatment 8.4 ± 0.3) compared to the CG (baseline 8.8 ± 0.3 vs. six months 9.1 ± 0.3) although the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the blood concentration of 8-isoprostane in the EG and PG with respect to the CG (EG: baseline 100 ± 3 vs. posttreatment 57 ± 3, PG: baseline 106 ± 7 vs. posttreatment 77 ± 5, and CG: baseline 94 ± 10 vs. six months 107 ± 11 pg/mL). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the concentration of the RAGE was found in the EG (baseline 1636 ± 88 vs. posttreatment 1144 ± 68) and the PG (baseline 1506 ± 97 vs. posttreatment 1016 ± 82) compared to CG (baseline 1407 ± 112 vs. six months 1506 ± 128). A statistically significant decrease was also observed in all markers of inflammation and in the activity of SOD and GPx in the CG with respect to the EG and PG. Our findings suggest that the administration of ALA at a dose of 600 mg/day for six months has a similar effect to that of placebo on oxidative stress, inflammation, and RAGE in older adults with T2DM. Therefore, higher doses of ALA should be tried to have this effect. This trial is registered with trial registration number ISRCTN13159380.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Ácido Tióctico/sangue
2.
Front Neuroinform ; 13: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214006

RESUMO

Distress is a critical problem in developed societies given its long-term negative effects on physical and mental health. The interest in studying this emotion has notably increased during last years, being electroencephalography (EEG) signals preferred over other physiological variables in this research field. In addition, the non-stationary nature of brain dynamics has impulsed the use of non-linear metrics, such as symbolic entropies in brain signal analysis. Thus, the influence of time-lag on brain patterns assessment has not been tested. Hence, in the present study two permutation entropies denominated Delayed Permutation Entropy and Permutation Min-Entropy have been computed for the first time at different time-lags to discern between emotional states of calmness and distress from EEG signals. Moreover, a number of curve-related features were also calculated to assess brain dynamics across different temporal intervals. Complementary information among these variables was studied through sequential forward selection and 10-fold cross-validation approaches. According to the results obtained, the multi-lag entropy analysis has been able to reveal new significant insights so far undiscovered, thus notably improving the process of distress recognition from EEG recordings.

3.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 31, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal convictions in referral to pain cause misbeliefs in health professionals, which can influence patients who suffer from non-specific chronic low back pain. Likewise, health professionals' beliefs affect their advice and attitudes towards patients' treatment, becoming a possible cause of greater disability. The development of educational interventions based on the best scientific evidence in neurophysiology of pain could be a way to provide information and advice to primary care health professionals to change their cognition towards chronic non-specific low back pain. The use of Information and Communication Technologies allows the development of web sites, which might be one of the effective resources to modify misbeliefs and attitudes, in relation to the origin and meaning of non-specific chronic low back pain, of primary care professionals and that may modify their attitudes in patients' treatment. METHODS: The aim of this project is to identify misbeliefs and attitudes of primary care physicians and nurses about chronic non-specific low back pain to develop a web-based educational tool using different educational formats and gamification techniques. This study has a mixed-method sequential exploratory design. The participants are medical and nursing staff working in primary care centers in the city of Lleida, Spain. For the qualitative phase of this study, the authors will use personal semi-structured interviews. For the quantitative phase the authors will use an experimental study design. Subjects will be randomly allocated using a simple random sample technique. The intervention group will have access to the web site where they will find information related to non-specific chronic low back pain, based on the information obtained in the qualitative phase. The control group will have access to a video explaining the clinical practice guidelines on low back pain. DISCUSSION: This study has been designed to explore and modify the beliefs and attitudes about chronic low back pain of physicians and nurses working in primary care settings, using a web-based educational tool with different educational formats and gamification techniques. The aim of the educational intervention is to change their knowledge about the origin and meaning of pain, with the result of reducing their misbeliefs and attitudes of fear avoidance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02962817 . Date of registration: 11/09/2016.

4.
Int J Neural Syst ; 29(2): 1850038, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375254

RESUMO

Automatic identification of negative stress is an unresolved challenge that has received great attention in the last few years. Many studies have analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to gain new insights about how the brain reacts to both short- and long-term stressful stimuli. Although most of them have only considered linear methods, the heterogeneity and complexity of the brain has recently motivated an increasing use of nonlinear metrics. Nonetheless, brain dynamics reflected in EEG recordings often exhibit a multiscale nature and no study dealing with this aspect has been developed yet. Hence, in this work two nonlinear indices for quantifying regularity and predictability of time series from several time scales are studied for the first time to discern between visually elicited emotional states of calmness and negative stress. The obtained results have revealed the maximum discriminant ability of 86.35% for the second time scale, thus suggesting that brain dynamics triggered by negative stress can be more clearly assessed after removal of some fast temporal oscillations. Moreover, both metrics have also been able to report complementary information for some brain areas.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Entropia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Percepção Social
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