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1.
J Virol ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375585

RESUMO

Early interactions of influenza A virus (IAV) with respiratory epithelium might determine the outcome of infection. The study of global cellular innate immune responses often masks multiple aspects of the mechanisms by which populations of cells work as organized and heterogeneous systems to defeat virus infection, and how the virus counteracts these systems. In this study, we experimentally dissected the dynamics of IAV and human epithelial respiratory cells interaction during early infection at the single-cell level. We found that the number of viruses infecting a cell (multiplicity of infection, MOI) influences the magnitude of virus antagonism of the host innate antiviral response. Infections performed at high MOI, resulted in increased viral gene expression per cell and stronger antagonist effect than infections at low MOI. In addition, single-cell patterns of expression of interferons (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) provided important insights into the contributions of the infected and bystander cells to the innate immune responses during infection. Specifically, the expression of multiple ISGs was lower in infected than in bystander cells. In contrast with other IFNs, IFN lambda 1 (IFNL1) showed a widespread pattern of expression, suggesting a different cell-to-cell propagation mechanism more reliant on paracrine signaling. Finally, we measured the dynamics of the antiviral response in primary human epithelial cells, which highlighted the importance of early innate immune responses at inhibiting virus spread.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory pathogen of high importance to public health. Annual epidemics by seasonal IAV infections in humans are a significant public health and economic burden. IAV also causes sporadic pandemics, which can have devastating effects. The main target cells for IAV replication are epithelial cells in the respiratory epithelium. The cellular innate immune responses induced in these cells upon infection are critical for the defense against the virus, and therefore it is important to understand the complex interactions between the virus and the host cells. In this study, we investigated the innate immune response to IAV in the respiratory epithelium at the single-cell level, providing a better understanding on how a population of epithelial cells function as a complex system to orchestrate the response to virus infection and how the virus counteracts this system.

2.
Nat Microbiol ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358982

RESUMO

The early phase of influenza infection occurs in the upper respiratory tract and the trachea, but little is known about the initial events of virus recognition and control of viral dissemination by the immune system. Here, we report that inflammatory dendritic cells (IDCs) are recruited to the trachea shortly after influenza infection through type I interferon-mediated production of the chemokine CCL2. We further show that recruited IDCs express the C-type lectin receptor SIGN-R1, which mediates direct recognition of the virus by interacting with N-linked glycans present in glycoproteins of the virion envelope. Activation of IDCs via SIGN-R1 triggers the production of the chemokines CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10, which initiate the recruitment of protective natural killer (NK) cells in the infected trachea. In the absence of SIGN-R1, the recruitment and activation of NK cells is impaired, leading to uncontrolled viral proliferation. In sum, our results provide insight into the orchestration of the early cellular and molecular events involved in immune protection against influenza.

3.
Nat Microbiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263181

RESUMO

Influenza viruses antagonize key immune defence mechanisms via the virulence factor non-structural protein 1 (NS1). A key mechanism of virulence by NS1 is blocking nuclear export of host messenger RNAs, including those encoding immune factors1-3; however, the direct cellular target of NS1 and the mechanism of host mRNA export inhibition are not known. Here, we identify the target of NS1 as the mRNA export receptor complex, nuclear RNA export factor 1-nuclear transport factor 2-related export protein 1 (NXF1-NXT1), which is the principal receptor mediating docking and translocation of mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex via interactions with nucleoporins4,5. We determined the crystal structure of NS1 in complex with NXF1-NXT1 at 3.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals that NS1 prevents binding of NXF1-NXT1 to nucleoporins, thereby inhibiting mRNA export through the nuclear pore complex into the cytoplasm for translation. We demonstrate that a mutant influenza virus deficient in binding NXF1-NXT1 does not block host mRNA export and is attenuated. This attenuation is marked by the release of mRNAs encoding immune factors from the nucleus. In sum, our study uncovers the molecular basis of a major nuclear function of influenza NS1 protein that causes potent blockage of host gene expression and contributes to inhibition of host immunity.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1017-1026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287780

RESUMO

Host switch events of influenza A viruses (IAVs) continuously pose a zoonotic threat to humans. In 2013, swine-origin H1N1 IAVs emerged in dogs soon after they were detected in swine in the Guangxi province of China. This host switch was followed by multiple reassortment events between these H1N1 and previously circulating H3N2 canine IAVs (IAVs-C) in dogs. To evaluate the phenotype of these newly identified viruses, we characterized three swine-origin H1N1 IAVs-C and one reassortant H1N1 IAV-C. We found that H1N1 IAVs-C predominantly bound to human-type receptors, efficiently transmitted via direct contact in guinea pigs and replicated in human lung cells. Moreover, the swine-origin H1N1 IAVs-C were lethal in mice and were transmissible by respiratory droplets in guinea pigs. Importantly, sporadic human infections with these viruses have been detected, and preexisting immunity in humans might not be sufficient to prevent infections with these new viruses. Our results show the potential of H1N1 IAVs-C to infect and transmit in humans, suggesting that these viruses should be closely monitored in the future.

5.
Cell ; 177(6): 1367, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150614

RESUMO

Transcription of viral mRNA in cells infected with influenza viruses involves capturing and cleaving the first 10-20 nucleotides of 5' capped host mRNAs to be used as primers in viral RNA synthesis. A newly developed inhibitor of the viral endonuclease responsible for this cap-snatching shows therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of influenza. To view this Bench to Bedside, open or download the PDF.

6.
Cell Rep ; 27(11): 3284-3294.e6, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189111

RESUMO

A species barrier for the influenza A virus is the differential expression of sialic acid, which can either be α2,3-linked for avians or α2,6-linked for human viruses. The influenza A virus hosts also express other species-specific sialic acid derivatives. One major modification at C-5 is N-glycolyl (NeuGc), instead of N-acetyl (NeuAc). N-glycolyl is mammalian specific and expressed in pigs and horses, but not in humans, ferrets, seals, or dogs. Hemagglutinin (HA) adaptation to either N-acetyl or N-glycolyl is analyzed on a sialoside microarray containing both α2,3- and α2,6-linkage modifications on biologically relevant N-glycans. Binding studies reveal that avian, human, and equine HAs bind either N-glycolyl or N-acetyl. Structural data on N-glycolyl binding HA proteins of both H5 and H7 origin describe this specificity. Neuraminidases can cleave N-glycolyl efficiently, and tissue-binding studies reveal strict species specificity. The exclusive manner in which influenza A viruses differentiate between N-glycolyl and N-acetyl is indicative of selection.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-11, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158041

RESUMO

The Ninth Interactive Infectious Disease workshop TIPICO was held on November 22-23, 2018, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. This 2-day academic experience addressed current and topical issues in the field of infectious diseases and vaccination. Summary findings of the meeting include: cervical cancer elimination will be possible in the future, thanks to the implementation of global vaccination action plans in combination with appropriate screening interventions. The introduction of appropriate immunization programs is key to maintain the success of current effective vaccines such as those against meningococcal disease or rotavirus infection. Additionally, reduced dose schedules might improve the efficiency of some vaccines (i.e., PCV13). New vaccines to improve current preventive alternatives are under development (e.g., against tuberculosis or influenza virus), while others to protect against infectious diseases with no current available vaccines (e.g., enterovirus, parechovirus and flaviviruses) need to be developed. Vaccinomics will be fundamental in this process, while infectomics will allow the application of precision medicine. Further research is also required to understand the impact of heterologous vaccine effects. Finally, vaccination requires education at all levels (individuals, community, healthcare professionals) to ensure its success by helping to overcome major barriers such as vaccine hesitancy and false contraindications.

8.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2038-2056, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217193

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare TLR3 variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. TLR3-mutated leukocytes produce normal levels of IFNs in response to IAV. In contrast, TLR3-mutated fibroblasts produce lower levels of IFN-ß and -λ, and display enhanced viral susceptibility, upon IAV infection. Moreover, the patients' iPSC-derived pulmonary epithelial cells (PECs) are susceptible to IAV. Treatment with IFN-α2b or IFN-λ1 rescues this phenotype. AD TLR3 deficiency may thus underlie IAV-ARDS by impairing TLR3-dependent, type I and/or III IFN-mediated, PEC-intrinsic immunity. Its clinical penetrance is incomplete for both IAV-ARDS and HSE, consistent with their typically sporadic nature.

9.
J Virol ; 93(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043530

RESUMO

The recent yellow fever virus (YFV) epidemic in Brazil in 2017 and Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in 2015 serve to remind us of the importance of flaviviruses as emerging human pathogens. With the current global flavivirus threat, there is an urgent need for antivirals and vaccines to curb the spread of these viruses. However, the lack of suitable animal models limits the research questions that can be answered. A common trait of all flaviviruses studied thus far is their ability to antagonize interferon (IFN) signaling so as to enhance viral replication and dissemination. Previously, we reported that YFV NS5 requires the presence of type I IFN (IFN-α/ß) for its engagement with human signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (hSTAT2). In this manuscript, we report that like the NS5 proteins of ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV), YFV NS5 protein is able to bind hSTAT2 but not murine STAT2 (mSTAT2). Contrary to what has been demonstrated with ZIKV NS5 and DENV NS5, replacing mSTAT2 with hSTAT2 cannot rescue the YFV NS5-STAT2 interaction, as YFV NS5 is also unable to interact with hSTAT2 in murine cells. We show that the IFN-α/ß-dependent ubiquitination of YFV NS5 that is required for STAT2 binding in human cells is absent in murine cells. In addition, we demonstrate that mSTAT2 restricts YFV replication in vivo These data serve as further impetus for the development of an immunocompetent mouse model that can serve as a disease model for multiple flaviviruses.IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses such as yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) are important human pathogens. A common flavivirus trait is the antagonism of interferon (IFN) signaling to enhance viral replication and spread. We report that like ZIKV NS5 and DENV NS5, YFV NS5 binds human STAT2 (hSTAT2) but not mouse STAT2 (mSTAT2), a type I IFN (IFN-α/ß) pathway component. Additionally, we show that contrary to what has been demonstrated with ZIKV NS5 and DENV NS5, YFV NS5 is unable to interact with hSTAT2 in murine cells. We demonstrate that mSTAT2 restricts YFV replication in mice and that this correlates with a lack of IFN-α/ß-induced YFV NS5 ubiquitination in murine cells. The lack of suitable animal models limits flavivirus pathogenesis, vaccine, and drug research. These data serve as further impetus for the development of an immunocompetent mouse model that can serve as a disease model for multiple flaviviruses.

10.
J Virol ; 93(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043537

RESUMO

The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has been causing epidemic outbreaks on a global scale. Virus infection can result in severe disease in humans, including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Here, we characterized monoclonal antibodies isolated from a patient with an active Zika virus infection that potently neutralized virus infection in Vero cells at the nanogram-per-milliliter range. In addition, these antibodies enhanced internalization of virions into human leukemia K562 cells in vitro, indicating their possible ability to cause antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. Escape variants of the ZIKV MR766 strain to a potently neutralizing antibody, AC10, exhibited an amino acid substitution at residue S368 in the lateral ridge region of the envelope protein. Analysis of publicly availably ZIKV sequences revealed the S368 site to be conserved among the vast majority (97.6%) of circulating strains. We validated the importance of this residue by engineering a recombinant virus with an S368R point mutation that was unable to be fully neutralized by AC10. Four out of the 12 monoclonal antibodies tested were also unable to neutralize the virus with the S368R mutation, suggesting this region to be an important immunogenic epitope during human infection. Last, a time-of-addition infection assay further validated the escape variant and showed that all monoclonal antibodies inhibited virus binding to the cell surface. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the lateral ridge region of the envelope protein is likely an immunodominant, neutralizing epitope.IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a global health threat causing severe disease in humans, including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Here, we analyzed the human monoclonal antibody response to acute ZIKV infection and found that neutralizing antibodies could not elicit Fc-mediated immune effector functions but could potentiate antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. We further identified critical epitopes involved with neutralization by generating and characterizing escape variants by whole-genome sequencing. We demonstrate that the lateral ridge region, particularly the S368 amino acid site, is critical for neutralization by domain III-specific antibodies.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 756, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105689

RESUMO

Due to continuous antigenic drift and occasional antigenic shift, influenza viruses escape from human adaptive immunity resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Therefore, to avoid the need for annual reformulation and readministration of seasonal influenza virus vaccines, we are developing a novel chimeric hemagglutinin (cHA)-based universal influenza virus vaccine, which is comprised of sequential immunization with antigens containing a conserved stalk domain derived from a circulating pandemic H1N1 strain in combination with "exotic" head domains. Here, we show that this prime-boost sequential immunization strategy redirects antibody responses toward the conserved stalk region. We compared the vaccine efficacy elicited by distinct vaccination approaches in the preclinical ferret model of influenza. All ferrets immunized with cHA-based vaccines developed stalk-specific and broadly cross-reactive antibody responses. Two consecutive vaccinations with live-attenuated influenza viruses (LAIV-LAIV) conferred superior protection against pH1N1 and H6N1 challenge infection. Sequential immunization with LAIV followed by inactivated influenza vaccine (LAIV-IIV regimen) also induced robust antibody responses. Importantly, the LAIV-LAIV immunization regimen also induced HA stalk-specific CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD8+IFN-γ+ effector T cell responses in peripheral blood that were recalled by pH1N1 viral challenge. The findings from this preclinical study suggest that an LAIV-LAIV vaccination regimen would be more efficient in providing broadly protective immunity against influenza virus infection as compared to other approaches tested here.

12.
Cell ; 177(5): 1136-1152.e18, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100268

RESUMO

Here, we describe the discovery of a naturally occurring human antibody (Ab), FluA-20, that recognizes a new site of vulnerability on the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and reacts with most influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of FluA-20 with H1 and H3 head domains revealed a novel epitope in the HA trimer interface, suggesting previously unrecognized dynamic features of the trimeric HA protein. The critical HA residues recognized by FluA-20 remain conserved across most subtypes of influenza A viruses, which explains the Ab's extraordinary breadth. The Ab rapidly disrupted the integrity of HA protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and protected mice against challenge with viruses of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, or H7N9 subtypes when used as prophylaxis or therapy. The FluA-20 Ab has uncovered an exceedingly conserved protective determinant in the influenza HA head domain trimer interface that is an unexpected new target for anti-influenza therapeutics and vaccines.

13.
Immunohorizons ; 3(4): 133-148, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032479

RESUMO

The high variation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), particularly of its immunodominant head epitopes, makes it necessary to reformulate seasonal influenza virus vaccines every year. Novel influenza virus vaccines that redirect the immune response toward conserved epitopes of the HA stalk domain should afford broad and durable protection. Sequential immunization with chimeric HAs (cHAs) that express the same conserved HA stalk and distinct exotic HA heads has been shown to elicit high levels of broadly cross-reactive Abs. In the current mouse immunization studies, we tested this strategy using inactivated split virion cHA influenza virus vaccines (IIV) without adjuvant or adjuvanted with AS01 or AS03 to measure the impact of adjuvant on the Ab response. The vaccines elicited high levels of cross-reactive Abs that showed activity in an Ab-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity reporter assay and were protective in a mouse viral challenge model after serum transfer. In addition, T cell responses to adjuvanted IIV were compared with responses to a cHA-expressing live attenuated influenza virus vaccine (LAIV). A strong but transient induction of Ag-specific T cells was observed in the spleens of mice vaccinated with LAIV. Interestingly, IIV also induced T cells, which were successfully recalled upon viral challenge. Groups that received AS01-adjuvanted IIV or LAIV 4 wk before the challenge showed the lowest level of viral replication (i.e., the highest level of protection). These studies provide evidence that broadly cross-reactive Abs elicited by cHA vaccination demonstrate Fc-mediated activity. In addition, cHA vaccination induced Ag-specific cellular responses that can contribute to protection upon infection.

15.
Nature ; 567(7746): 109-112, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787439

RESUMO

Zoonotic influenza A viruses of avian origin can cause severe disease in individuals, or even global pandemics, and thus pose a threat to human populations. Waterfowl and shorebirds are believed to be the reservoir for all influenza A viruses, but this has recently been challenged by the identification of novel influenza A viruses in bats1,2. The major bat influenza A virus envelope glycoprotein, haemagglutinin, does not bind the canonical influenza A virus receptor, sialic acid or any other glycan1,3,4, despite its high sequence and structural homology with conventional haemagglutinins. This functionally uncharacterized plasticity of the bat influenza A virus haemagglutinin means the tropism and zoonotic potential of these viruses has not been fully determined. Here we show, using transcriptomic profiling of susceptible versus non-susceptible cells in combination with genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening, that the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) human leukocyte antigen DR isotype (HLA-DR) is an essential entry determinant for bat influenza A viruses. Genetic ablation of the HLA-DR α-chain rendered cells resistant to infection by bat influenza A virus, whereas ectopic expression of the HLA-DR complex in non-susceptible cells conferred susceptibility. Expression of MHC-II from different bat species, pigs, mice or chickens also conferred susceptibility to infection. Notably, the infection of mice with bat influenza A virus resulted in robust virus replication in the upper respiratory tract, whereas mice deficient for MHC-II were resistant. Collectively, our data identify MHC-II as a crucial entry mediator for bat influenza A viruses in multiple species, which permits a broad vertebrate tropism.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Zoonoses/imunologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/imunologia , Quirópteros/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Tropismo Viral/genética , Tropismo Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/metabolismo
16.
Immunity ; 50(3): 751-762.e5, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737148

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently been associated with birth defects and pregnancy loss after maternal infection. Because dengue virus (DENV) and ZIKV co-circulate, understanding the role of antibody-dependent enhancement in the context of pregnancy is critical. Here, we showed that the presence of DENV-specific antibodies in ZIKV-infected pregnant mice significantly increased placental damage, fetal growth restriction, and fetal resorption. This was associated with enhanced viral replication in the placenta that coincided with an increased frequency of infected trophoblasts. ZIKV-infected human placental tissues also showed increased replication in the presence of DENV antibodies, which was reversed by FcγR blocking antibodies. Furthermore, ZIKV-mediated fetal pathogenesis was enhanced in mice in the presence of a DENV-reactive monoclonal antibody, but not in the presence of the LALA variant, indicating a dependence on FcγR engagement. Our data suggest a possible mechanism for the recent increase in severe pregnancy outcomes after ZIKV infection in DENV-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cercopithecus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células K562 , Camundongos , Gravidez , Células Vero
17.
J Virol ; 93(6)2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626682

RESUMO

Protection from influenza virus infection is canonically associated with antibodies that neutralize the virus by blocking the interaction between the viral hemagglutinin and host cell receptors. However, protection can also be conferred by other mechanisms, including antibody-mediated effector functions. Here, we report the characterization of 22 broadly cross-reactive, nonneutralizing antibodies specific for influenza B virus hemagglutinin. The majority of these antibodies recognized influenza B viruses isolated over the period of 73 years and bind the conserved stalk domain of the hemagglutinin. A proportion of the characterized antibodies protected mice from both morbidity and mortality after challenge with a lethal dose of influenza B virus. Activity in an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity reporter assay correlated strongly with protection, suggesting that Fc-dependent effector function determines protective efficacy. The information regarding mechanism of action and epitope location stemming from our characterization of these antibodies will inform the design of urgently needed vaccines that could induce broad protection against influenza B viruses.IMPORTANCE While broadly protective antibodies against the influenza A virus hemagglutinin have been well studied, very limited information is available for antibodies that broadly recognize influenza B viruses. Similarly, the development of a universal or broadly protective influenza B virus vaccine lags behind the development of such a vaccine for influenza A virus. More information about epitope location and mechanism of action of broadly protective influenza B virus antibodies is required to inform vaccine development. In addition, protective antibodies could be a useful tool to treat or prevent influenza B virus infection in pediatric cohorts or in a therapeutic setting in immunocompromised individuals in conjugation with existing treatment avenues.

18.
Cell Rep ; 25(10): 2784-2796.e3, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517866

RESUMO

Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are critical for controlling viral infections. However, the precise dynamics of the IFN response have been difficult to define in vivo. Signaling through type I IFN receptors leads to interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-dependent gene expression and an antiviral state. As an alternative to tracking IFN, we used an ISRE-dependent reporter mouse to define the cell types, localization, and kinetics of IFN responding cells during influenza virus infection. We find that measurable IFN responses are largely limited to hematopoietic cells, which show a high sensitivity to IFN. Inflammatory monocytes display high basal IFN responses, which are enhanced upon infection and correlate with infection of these cells. We find that inflammatory monocyte development is independent of IFN signaling; however, IFN is critical for chemokine production and recruitment following infection. The data reveal a role for inflammatory monocytes in both basal IFN responses and responses to infection.

19.
Cell ; 175(7): 1931-1945.e18, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550790

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are a growing public health concern. Systems-level analysis of how flaviviruses hijack cellular processes through virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides information about their replication and pathogenic mechanisms. We used affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to compare flavivirus-host interactions for two viruses (DENV and ZIKV) in two hosts (human and mosquito). Conserved virus-host PPIs revealed that the flavivirus NS5 protein suppresses interferon stimulated genes by inhibiting recruitment of the transcription complex PAF1C and that chemical modulation of SEC61 inhibits DENV and ZIKV replication in human and mosquito cells. Finally, we identified a ZIKV-specific interaction between NS4A and ANKLE2, a gene linked to hereditary microcephaly, and showed that ZIKV NS4A causes microcephaly in Drosophila in an ANKLE2-dependent manner. Thus, comparative flavivirus-host PPI mapping provides biological insights and, when coupled with in vivo models, can be used to unravel pathogenic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas Nucleares , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Culicidae , Dengue/genética , Dengue/metabolismo , Dengue/patologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/metabolismo , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(52): E12218-E12227, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538201

RESUMO

The influenza virulence factor NS1 protein interacts with the cellular NS1-BP protein to promote splicing and nuclear export of the viral M mRNAs. The viral M1 mRNA encodes the M1 matrix protein and is alternatively spliced into the M2 mRNA, which is translated into the M2 ion channel. These proteins have key functions in viral trafficking and budding. To uncover the NS1-BP structural and functional activities in splicing and nuclear export, we performed proteomics analysis of nuclear NS1-BP binding partners and showed its interaction with constituents of the splicing and mRNA export machineries. NS1-BP BTB domains form dimers in the crystal. Full-length NS1-BP is a dimer in solution and forms at least a dimer in cells. Mutations suggest that dimerization is important for splicing. The central BACK domain of NS1-BP interacts directly with splicing factors such as hnRNP K and PTBP1 and with the viral NS1 protein. The BACK domain is also the site for interactions with mRNA export factor Aly/REF and is required for viral M mRNA nuclear export. The crystal structure of the C-terminal Kelch domain shows that it forms a ß-propeller fold, which is required for the splicing function of NS1-BP. This domain interacts with the polymerase II C-terminal domain and SART1, which are involved in recruitment of splicing factors and spliceosome assembly, respectively. NS1-BP functions are not only critical for processing a subset of viral mRNAs but also impact levels and nuclear export of a subset of cellular mRNAs encoding factors involved in metastasis and immunity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dimerização , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/química , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Processamento de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
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