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2.
J Neurosci ; 38(19): 4598-4609, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661967

RESUMO

In the rodent olfactory system, neuroblasts produced in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the postnatal brain migrate tangentially in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). After reaching the OB, the chains are dissociated and the neuroblasts migrate individually and radially toward their final destination. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling cell-cell adhesion during this detachment remain unclear. Here we report that Fyn, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, regulates the detachment of neuroblasts from chains in the male and female mouse OB. By performing chemical screening and in vivo loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, we found that Fyn promotes somal disengagement from the chains and is involved in neuronal migration from the RMS into the granule cell layer of the OB. Fyn knockdown or Dab1 (disabled-1) deficiency caused p120-catenin to accumulate and adherens junction-like structures to be sustained at the contact sites between neuroblasts. Moreover, a Fyn and N-cadherin double-knockdown experiment indicated that Fyn regulates the N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion between neuroblasts. These results suggest that the Fyn-mediated control of cell-cell adhesion is critical for the detachment of chain-forming neuroblasts in the postnatal OB.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the postnatal brain, newly born neurons (neuroblasts) migrate in chain-like cell aggregates toward their destination, where they are dissociated into individual cells and mature. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the detachment of neuroblasts from chains are not understood. Here we show that Fyn, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, promotes the somal detachment of neuroblasts from chains, and that this regulation is critical for the efficient migration of neuroblasts to their destination. We further show that Fyn and Dab1 (disabled-1) decrease the cell-cell adhesion between chain-forming neuroblasts, which involves adherens junction-like structures. Our results suggest that Fyn-mediated regulation of the cell-cell adhesion of neuroblasts is critical for their detachment from chains in the postnatal brain.

3.
J Comp Neurol ; 526(10): 1712-1732, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603210

RESUMO

Studying the cellular composition and morphological changes of cells lining the central canal during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis could contribute to understand postnatal development and spinal cord regeneration. Here we report the analysis of central canal cells at different stages during metamorphosis using immunofluorescence for protein markers expression, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and cell proliferation assays. The central canal was regionalized according to expression of glial markers, ultrastructure, and proliferation in dorsal, lateral, and ventral domains with differences between larvae and froglets. In regenerative larvae, all cell types were uniciliated, have a radial morphology, and elongated nuclei with lax chromatin, resembling radial glial cells. Important differences in cells of nonregenerative froglets were observed, although uniciliated cells were found, the most abundant cells had multicilia and revealed extensive changes in the maturation and differentiation state. The majority of dividing cells in larvae corresponded to uniciliated cells at dorsal and lateral domains in a cervical-lumbar gradient, correlating with undifferentiated features. Neurons contacting the lumen of the central canal were detected in both stages and revealed extensive changes in the maturation and differentiation state. However, in froglets a very low proportion of cells incorporate 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), associated with the differentiated profile and with the increase of multiciliated cells. Our work showed progressive changes in the cell types lining the central canal of Xenopus laevis spinal cord which are correlated with the regenerative capacities.

4.
Nature ; 555(7696): 377-381, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513649

RESUMO

New neurons continue to be generated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus. This process has been linked to learning and memory, stress and exercise, and is thought to be altered in neurological disease. In humans, some studies have suggested that hundreds of new neurons are added to the adult dentate gyrus every day, whereas other studies find many fewer putative new neurons. Despite these discrepancies, it is generally believed that the adult human hippocampus continues to generate new neurons. Here we show that a defined population of progenitor cells does not coalesce in the subgranular zone during human fetal or postnatal development. We also find that the number of proliferating progenitors and young neurons in the dentate gyrus declines sharply during the first year of life and only a few isolated young neurons are observed by 7 and 13 years of age. In adult patients with epilepsy and healthy adults (18-77 years; n = 17 post-mortem samples from controls; n = 12 surgical resection samples from patients with epilepsy), young neurons were not detected in the dentate gyrus. In the monkey (Macaca mulatta) hippocampus, proliferation of neurons in the subgranular zone was found in early postnatal life, but this diminished during juvenile development as neurogenesis decreased. We conclude that recruitment of young neurons to the primate hippocampus decreases rapidly during the first years of life, and that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus does not continue, or is extremely rare, in adult humans. The early decline in hippocampal neurogenesis raises questions about how the function of the dentate gyrus differs between humans and other species in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis is preserved.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/citologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Giro Denteado/citologia , Giro Denteado/embriologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/embriologia , Humanos , Lactente , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 22(2): 221-234.e8, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395056

RESUMO

Somatic stem cells have been identified in multiple adult tissues. Whether self-renewal occurs symmetrically or asymmetrically is key to understanding long-term stem cell maintenance and generation of progeny for cell replacement. In the adult mouse brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) (B1 cells) are retained in the walls of the lateral ventricles (ventricular-subventricular zone [V-SVZ]). The mechanism of B1 cell retention into adulthood for lifelong neurogenesis is unknown. Using multiple clonal labeling techniques, we show that the vast majority of B1 cells divide symmetrically. Whereas 20%-30% symmetrically self-renew and can remain in the niche for several months before generating neurons, 70%-80% undergo consuming divisions generating progeny, resulting in the depletion of B1 cells over time. This cellular mechanism decouples self-renewal from the generation of progeny. Limited rounds of symmetric self-renewal and consuming symmetric differentiation divisions can explain the levels of neurogenesis observed throughout life.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1381, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358640

RESUMO

The development and maturation of cortical circuits relies on the coordinated actions of long and short range axonal guidance cues. In this regard, the class 3 semaphorins and their receptors have been seen to be involved in the development and maturation of the hippocampal connections. However, although the role of most of their family members have been described, very few data about the participation of Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) and its receptor PlexinD1 during the development and maturation of the entorhino-hippocampal (EH) connection are available. In the present study, we focused on determining their roles both during development and in adulthood. We determined a relevant role for Sema3E/PlexinD1 in the layer-specific development of the EH connection. Indeed, mice lacking Sema3E/PlexinD1 signalling showed aberrant layering of entorhinal axons in the hippocampus during embryonic and perinatal stages. In addition, absence of Sema3E/PlexinD1 signalling results in further changes in postnatal and adult hippocampal formation, such as numerous misrouted ectopic mossy fibers. More relevantly, we describe how subgranular cells express PlexinD1 and how the absence of Sema3E induces a dysregulation of the proliferation of dentate gyrus progenitors leading to the presence of ectopic cells in the molecular layer. Lastly, Sema3E mutant mice displayed increased network excitability both in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper.

7.
J Comp Neurol ; 526(4): 721-741, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205371

RESUMO

The mammalian ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) presents the highest neurogenic potential in the brain of the adult individual. In rodents, it is mainly composed of chains of neuroblasts. In humans, it is organized in layers where neuroblasts do not form chains. The aim of this study is to describe the cytoarchitecture of canine V-SVZ (cV-SVZ), to assess its neurogenic potential, and to compare our results with those previously described in other species. We have studied by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and neurosphere assay the morphology, cytoarchitecture and neurogenic potential of cV-SVZ. Age groups of animals were performed. Histological and ultrastructural studies indicated that the cV-SVZ is organized in layers as in humans, but including migratory chains as in rodents. Neural progenitors were organized in niches in the subependymal area and a decline in their number was observed with age. Adult-young dogs contained migratory cells capable to expand and differentiate in vitro according with previous results obtained in rodents, primates, humans, pigs, and dogs. Some adult animals presented perivascular niches outside the V-SVZ. Our observations evidence a great similarity between canine and human V-SVZ indicating that the dog may be better representative of neurogenic events in humans, compared with rodents. Accordingly with our results, we conclude that dogs are a valuable animal model of adult neurogenesis in comparative and preclinical studies.

8.
Cell Stem Cell ; 22(1): 128-137.e9, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276142

RESUMO

Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.

9.
BMC Neurol ; 17(1): 173, 2017 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult neurogenesis persists through life at least in classic neurogenic niches. Neurogenesis has been previously described as reduced in neurodegenerative diseases. There is not much knowledge about is adult neurogenesis is or not modified in amyotrophy lateral sclerosis (ALS). All previous publications has studied the ALS SOD1 (superoxide dismutase) transgenic mouse model. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of adult neurogenesis in classic niches (subventricular zone [SVZ] and subgranular zone [SGZ] of the dentate gyrus) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both with (ALS-FTD) and without associated frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: We studied 9 autopsies of patients with ALS (including 2 with ALS-FTD) and 4 controls. ALS was confirmed histologically. Studies of the SVZ and SGZ were conducted using markers of proliferation (Ki-67, PCNA), of pluripotent neural progenitor cells (GFAPδ), neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM, DCX, TUJ1), and an astrocyte marker (GFAP). Results were analyzed with non-parametric tests. We then studied correlations between the different markers and the percentage of phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43). RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant increase in proliferation in the SVZ in all patients with ALS. While this increase was more marked in ALS forms associated with dementia, the small sample size does not permit a statistical subgroup analysis. In contrast, proliferation in the SGZ was decreased in all patients. These alterations showed a positive and direct correlation with the percentage of pTDP-43 in the SVZ, and a negative, exponential correlation with that percentage in the SGZ. CONCLUSIONS: We observed alterations of the proliferation of neural progenitor in classic adult neurogenic niches in patients with ALS. The 2 neurogenic niches exhibited opposite changes such that proliferation increased in the SVZ and decreased in the SGZ.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10085, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855626

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a major neurodegenerative disorder that leads to severe cognitive deficits in the elderly population. Over the past two decades, multiple studies have focused on elucidating the causative factors underlying memory defects in Alzheimer's patients. In this regard, new evidence linking Alzheimer's disease-related pathology and neuronal stem cells suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis impairment is an important factor underlying these cognitive deficits. However, because of conflicting results, the impact of Aß pathology on neurogenesis/gliogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of Aß on neuronal and glial proliferation by using an APP/PS1 transgenic model and in vitro assays. Specifically, we showed that neurogenesis is affected early in the APP/PS1 hippocampus, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the proliferative activity due to a reduced number of both radial glia-like neural stem cells (type-1 cells) and intermediate progenitor cells (type-2 cells). Moreover, we demonstrated that soluble Aß from APP/PS1 mice impairs neuronal cell proliferation using neurosphere cultures. On the other hand, we showed that oligomeric Aß stimulates microglial proliferation, whereas no effect was observed on astrocytes. These findings indicate that Aß has a differential effect on hippocampal proliferative cells by inhibiting neuronal proliferation and triggering the formation of microglial cells.

11.
Brain Res ; 1673: 11-22, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797690

RESUMO

Our previous studies demonstrated that Austrolebias charrua annual fish is an excellent model to study adult brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis due to the presence of active and fast neurogenesis in several regions during its short lifespan. Our main goal was to identify and localize the cells that compose the neurogenic areas throughout the Austrolebias brain. To do this, we used two thymidine halogenated analogs to detect cell proliferation at different survival times: 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) at 1day and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) at 30days. Three types of proliferating cells were identified: I - transient amplifying or fast cycling cells that uptake CldU; II - stem cells or slow cycling cells, that were labeled with both CldU and IdU and did not migrate; and III - migrant cells that uptake IdU. Mapping and 3D-reconstruction of labeled nuclei showed that type I and type II cells were preferentially found close to ventricle walls. Type III cells appeared widespread and migrating in tangential and radial routes. Use of proliferation markers together with Vimentin or Nestin evidenced that type II cells are the putative stem cells that are located at the ventricular lumen. Double label cells with IdU+ and NeuN or HuC/D allowed us identify migrant neurons. Quantitation of labeled nuclei indicates that the proportion of putative stem cells is around 10% in all regions of the brain. This percentage of stem cells suggests the existence of a constant brain cell population in Austrolebias charrua that seems functional to the maintainance of adult neurogenesis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ciprinodontiformes/anatomia & histologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Contagem de Células , Corantes , Imagem Tridimensional , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Azul de Metileno , Nicho de Células-Tronco
12.
Front Neurol ; 8: 255, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease. Transfection produces cells that differentiate into new cells marked simultaneously by GFAP and NG2 and whose percentage increased over days of differentiation. Increased expression of GFAP is due to a protein with an anomalous structure that forms aggregates throughout the cytoplasm of new cells. These cells display down-expression of vimentin and nestin. Up-expression of cathepsin D and caspase-3 in the first days of differentiation suggest that apoptosis as a lysosomal response may be at work. HSP27, a protein found in Rosenthal bodies, is expressed less at the beginning of the process although its presence increases in later stages. CONCLUSION: Our findings seem to suggest that the mechanism of development of AxD may not be due to a function gain due to increase of GFAP, but to failure in the differentiation process may occur at the stage in which precursor cells transform into oligodendrocytes, and that possibility may provide the best explanation for the clinical and radiological images described in AxD.

13.
Stem Cell Reports ; 9(1): 203-216, 2017 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648897

RESUMO

Neural stem cells (B1 astrocytes; NSCs) in the adult ventricular-subventricular-zone (V-SVZ) originate in the embryo. Surprisingly, recent work has shown that B1 cells remain largely quiescent. They are reactivated postnatally to function as primary progenitors for neurons destined for the olfactory bulb and some corpus callosum oligodendrocytes. The cellular and molecular properties of quiescent B1 cells remain unknown. Here we found that a subpopulation of B1 cells has a unique nuclear envelope invagination specialization similar to envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS), reported in certain lymphocytes and some cancer cells. Using molecular markers, [3H]thymidine birth-dating, and Ara-C, we found that B1 cells with ELCS correspond to quiescent NSCs. ELCS begin forming in embryonic radial glia cells and represent a specific nuclear compartment containing particular epigenetic modifications and telomeres. These results reveal a unique nuclear compartment in quiescent NSCs, which is useful for identifying these primary progenitors and study their gene regulation.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Membrana Nuclear/ultraestrutura , Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/química , Camundongos
15.
Neurology ; 88(13): 1235-1242, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify cell-surface antibodies in patients with neuromyotonia and to describe the main clinical implications. METHODS: Sera of 3 patients with thymoma-associated neuromyotonia and myasthenia gravis were used to immunoprecipitate and characterize neuronal cell-surface antigens using reported techniques. The clinical significance of antibodies against precipitated proteins was assessed with sera of 98 patients (neuromyotonia 46, myasthenia gravis 52, thymoma 42; 33 of them with overlapping syndromes) and 219 controls (other neurologic diseases, cancer, and healthy volunteers). RESULTS: Immunoprecipitation studies identified 3 targets, including the Netrin-1 receptors DCC (deleted in colorectal carcinoma) and UNC5A (uncoordinated-5A) as well as Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). Cell-based assays with these antigens showed that among the indicated patients, 9 had antibodies against Netrin-1 receptors (7 with additional Caspr2 antibodies) and 5 had isolated Caspr2 antibodies. Only one of the 219 controls had isolated Caspr2 antibodies with relapsing myelitis episodes. Among patients with neuromyotonia and/or myasthenia gravis, the presence of Netrin-1 receptor or Caspr2 antibodies predicted thymoma (p < 0.05). Coexisting Caspr2 and Netrin-1 receptor antibodies were associated with concurrent thymoma, myasthenia gravis, and neuromyotonia, often with Morvan syndrome (p = 0.009). Expression of DCC, UNC5A, and Caspr2 proteins was demonstrated in paraffin-embedded thymoma samples (3) and normal thymus. CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies against Netrin-1 receptors (DCC and UNC5a) and Caspr2 often coexist and associate with thymoma in patients with neuromyotonia and myasthenia gravis. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that antibodies against Netrin-1 receptors can identify patients with thymoma (sensitivity 21.4%, specificity 100%).


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Miastenia Gravis/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/imunologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Timoma/sangue , Neoplasias do Timo/sangue , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Receptor DCC , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miastenia Gravis/complicações , Miastenia Gravis/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Netrina-1 , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Timoma/complicações , Timoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/complicações , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transfecção , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
16.
Exp Neurol ; 293: 43-52, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351750

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. It is generally accepted that ALS is caused by death of motor neurons, however the exact temporal cascade of degenerative processes is not yet completely known. To identify the early pathological changes in spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 ALS mice we performed a comprehensive longitudinal analysis employing diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging alongside histology and electron microscopy, in parallel with peripheral nerve histology. We showed the gradient of degeneration appearance in spinal cord white and gray matter, starting earliest in the ventral white matter, due to a cascade of pathological events including axon dysfunction and mitochondrial changes. Notably, we found that even the main sensory regions are affected by the neurodegenerative process at symptomatic disease phase. Overall our results attest the applicability of DTI in determining disease progression in ALS mice. These findings suggest that DTI could be potentially adapted in humans to aid the assessment of ALS progression and eventually the evaluation of treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Animais , Antracenos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/ultraestrutura , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Tempo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/ultraestrutura
17.
EBioMedicine ; 16: 195-203, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153772

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration. To move toward the lesion, neuroblasts form chain-like aggregates and migrate along blood vessels, which are thought to increase their migration efficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these migration processes are largely unknown. Here we studied the role of ß1-class integrins, transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, in these migrating neuroblasts. We found that the neuroblast chain formation and blood vessel-guided migration critically depend on ß1 integrin signaling. ß1 integrin facilitated the adhesion of neuroblasts to laminin and the efficient translocation of their soma during migration. Moreover, artificial laminin-containing scaffolds promoted neuroblast chain formation and migration toward the injured area. These data suggest that laminin signaling via ß1 integrin supports vasculature-guided neuronal migration to efficiently supply neuroblasts to injured areas. This study also highlights the importance of vascular scaffolds for cell migration in development and regeneration.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Integrina beta1/genética , Laminina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Tecidos Suporte
18.
Nat Commun ; 8: 13759, 2017 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067220

RESUMO

Multiciliated ependymal (E1) cells line the brain ventricles and are essential for brain homeostasis. We previously identified in the lateral ventricles a rare ependymal subpopulation (E2) with only two cilia and unique basal bodies. Here we show that E2 cells form a distinct biciliated epithelium extending along the ventral third into the fourth ventricle. In the third ventricle floor, apical profiles with only primary cilia define an additional uniciliated (E3) epithelium. E2 and E3 cells' ultrastructure, marker expression and basal processes indicate that they correspond to subtypes of tanycytes. Using sonic hedgehog lineage tracing, we show that the third and fourth ventricle E2 and E3 epithelia originate from the anterior floor plate. E2 and E3 cells complete their differentiation 2-3 weeks after birth, suggesting a link to postnatal maturation. These data reveal discrete bands of E2 and E3 cells that may relay information from the CSF to underlying neural circuits along the ventral midline.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Epêndima/ultraestrutura , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Rede Nervosa/ultraestrutura , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Antígeno CD24/genética , Antígeno CD24/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Cílios/metabolismo , Epêndima/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Nestina/genética , Nestina/metabolismo , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/genética , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/metabolismo , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo
19.
Cell ; 168(1-2): 252-263.e14, 2017 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017328

RESUMO

Signaling receptors dynamically exit cilia upon activation of signaling pathways such as Hedgehog. Here, we find that when activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) fail to undergo BBSome-mediated retrieval from cilia back into the cell, these GPCRs concentrate into membranous buds at the tips of cilia before release into extracellular vesicles named ectosomes. Unexpectedly, actin and the actin regulators drebrin and myosin 6 mediate ectosome release from the tip of cilia. Mirroring signal-dependent retrieval, signal-dependent ectocytosis is a selective and effective process that removes activated signaling molecules from cilia. Congruently, ectocytosis compensates for BBSome defects as ectocytic removal of GPR161, a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling, permits the appropriate transduction of Hedgehog signals in Bbs mutants. Finally, ciliary receptors that lack retrieval determinants such as the anorexigenic GPCR NPY2R undergo signal-dependent ectocytosis in wild-type cells. Our data show that signal-dependent ectocytosis regulates ciliary signaling in physiological and pathological contexts.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Rim/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 9: 106, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27853420

RESUMO

Inflammation contributes to cognitive impairment in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the process by which peripheral inflammation results in cognitive impairment remains unclear. In animal models, neuroinflammation and altered neurotransmission mediate cognitive impairment. Taking into account these data, we hypothesized that in rats with HE: (1) peripheral inflammation is a main contributor to neuroinflammation; (2) neuroinflammation in hippocampus impairs spatial learning by altering AMPA and/or NMDA receptors membrane expression; (3) reducing peripheral inflammation with infliximab (anti-TNF-a) would improve spatial learning; (4) this would be associated with reduced neuroinflammation and normalization of the membrane expression of glutamate receptors. The aims of this work were to assess these hypotheses. We analyzed in rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) and control rats, treated or not with infliximab: (a) peripheral inflammation by measuring prostaglandin E2, IL10, IL-17, and IL-6; (b) neuroinflammation in hippocampus by analyzing microglial activation and the content of TNF-a and IL-1b; (c) AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus; and (d) spatial learning in the Radial and Morris water mazes. We assessed the effects of treatment with infliximab on peripheral inflammation, on neuroinflammation and AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and on spatial learning and memory. PCS rats show increased serum prostaglandin E2, IL-17, and IL-6 and reduced IL-10 levels, indicating increased peripheral inflammation. PCS rats also show microglial activation and increased nuclear NF-kB and expression of TNF-a and IL-1b in hippocampus. This was associated with altered AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and impaired spatial learning and memory in the radial and Morris water maze. Treatment with infliximab reduces peripheral inflammation in PCS rats, normalizing prostaglandin E2, IL-17, IL-6, and IL-10 levels in serum. Infliximab also prevents neuroinflammation, reduces microglial activation, translocates NF-kB into nucleoli and normalizes TNF-a and IL-1b content in hippocampus. This was associated with normalization of AMPA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and of spatial learning and memory. The results suggest that peripheral inflammation contributes to spatial learning impairment in PCS rats. Treatment with anti-TNF-a could be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with HE.

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