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Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1193-1197, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318590


Rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have increased fivefold in the past decade. To address this expanding and complex issue, state public health agencies have addressed the opioid crisis affecting newborns in diverse ways, leading to a variety of methods to quantify the burden of NAS.In an effort to understand this variability, we summarized clinical case and surveillance definitions used across jurisdictions in the United States. We confirmed that the rapid progression of the nation's opioid crisis resulted in heterogeneous processes for identifying NAS. Current clinical case definitions use different combinations of clinician-observed signs of withdrawal and evidence of perinatal substance exposure. Similarly, there is discordance in diagnosis codes used in surveillance definitions. This variability makes it difficult to produce comparable estimates across jurisdictions, which are needed to effectively guide public health strategies and interventions.Although standardization is complicated, consistent NAS definitions would increase comparability of NAS estimates across the nation and would better guide prevention and treatment efforts for women and their infants.

Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(7): 177-180, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789880


Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that can occur following prenatal exposure to opioids (1). NAS surveillance in the United States is based largely on diagnosis codes in hospital discharge data, without validation of these codes or case confirmation. During 2004-2014, reported NAS incidence increased from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 U.S. hospital births (2), based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes identified in hospital discharge data, without case confirmation. However, little is known about how well these codes identify NAS or how the October 1, 2015, transition from ICD-9-CM to the tenth revision of ICD-CM (ICD-10-CM) codes affected estimated NAS incidence. This report describes a pilot project in Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont to use birth defects surveillance infrastructure to obtain state-level, population-based estimates of NAS incidence among births in 2015 (all three states) and 2016 (Illinois) using hospital discharge records and other sources (varied by state) with case confirmation, and to evaluate the validity of NAS diagnosis codes used by each state. Wide variation in NAS incidence was observed across the three states. In 2015, NAS incidence for Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont was 3.0, 7.5, and 30.8 per 1,000 births, respectively. Among evaluated diagnosis codes, those with the highest positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying confirmed cases of NAS, based on a uniform case definition, were drug withdrawal syndrome in a newborn (ICD-9-CM code 779.5; state range = 58.6%-80.2%) and drug withdrawal, infant of dependent mother (ICD-10-CM code P96.1; state range = 58.5%-80.2%). The methods used to assess NAS incidence in this pilot project might help inform other states' NAS surveillance efforts.

Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Vermont/epidemiologia
Matern Child Health J ; 22(9): 1352-1359, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572587


Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and addiction. The growing opioid epidemic and rise in NAS cases in the Southwest border, as partially shown in this study, provides another opportunity to track health illnesses and outcomes in the Southwest border, especially because there are targeted resources through High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) funding.

Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Saúde da População , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos