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1.
Appl Opt ; 58(19): 5179-5186, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503612

RESUMO

A comprehensive model for the optical transmission is constructed and used to investigate the requirements for fitting accurately the experimental data of the optical transmittance at normal incidence of transparent conducting coatings of ZnO:Al deposited on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The model takes into account the Urbach tail absorption edge at the low wavelength region, the contribution of free carrier concentration to the weak absorption in the visible and near-infrared ranges, and the effect of scattering of light originated by the surface roughness of the films. The carrier concentration of the ZnO:Al films was measured experimentally by the Hall effect and dc-electrical conductivity measurements in the Van der Paw configuration. It is shown that all mentioned physical effects must be included in order to fit accurately the transmittance spectrum in the VIS-NIR spectral window. The full expression for the optical transmittance was used for choosing the optimal thickness of these films as transparent conductive contacts and the calculation of the figure of merit.

2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(25): 6711-6722, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372702

RESUMO

The detection of organic residues that remain absorbed into the pores of ceramic artifacts constitutes a source of information regarding their management. Taking into account the poor conservation state of the potteries and the low amount of the organic tracers together with the main drawbacks to get the relevant information concerning different aspects of past societies, the detection of organic biomarkers is still an analytical challenge. In this work, an improved analytical methodology to maximize the recovery of organic markers related to wine in archeological ceramics is presented. The developed method consists on the extraction of wine-related organic compounds including tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, citric acid, and syringic acid by means of ultrasonic probe-assisted extraction (UPAE) followed by a preconcentration step by mixed-mode strong anion exchange and reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a derivatization step prior to analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Finally, the method was applied to real archeological ceramic fragments (two dolia), suspected to have been used to store wine, together with organic residues found inside two amphorae from Zaragoza (Spain). Graphical abstract.

3.
Fam Pract ; 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although both hospitalization and mortality due to heart failure (HF) have been widely studied, less is known about the impact of HF on disability and quality of life. AIM: To assess the degree of disability and quality of life in HF patients attended at family medicine centres. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of HF patients attended at family medicine centres. METHODS: Disability was assessed with the WHODAS 2 questionnaire, which provides a global and six domain scores that is understanding and communication, getting around, self-care, getting along with people, life activities and participation in society. Quality of life was assessed with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, which furnishes a global and two domain scores, physical and emotional. RESULTS: A breakdown of the results showed that 28% of patients had moderate disability and 16.7% had severe disability, with the most important areas affected being: life activities, 8.9% extreme disability and 30.3% severe disability; getting around, 34.6% severe disability and 2% extreme disability; and participation in society, 53.3% moderate-severe disability. Quality of life was mildly affected. New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification and sex were the major determinants of disability and quality of life. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists were associated with better scores in the "getting around" and "life activity" domains. CONCLUSION: HF patients in primary care show an important degree of disability and an acceptable quality of life.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561517

RESUMO

Objective: This study assessed the penetration and efficacy of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in the male genital tract (MGT) and semen quality in HIV-1 infected individuals treated with a TAF-containing regimen. Methods: Prospective, open-label, single-arm study including 14 virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected men on stable antiretroviral therapy with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) switched to E/C/F/TAF). At baseline (pre-switch) and 12 weeks post-switch, we measured HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma (SP) and blood plasma (BP), tenofovir (TFV) in SP and BP, and TFV-diphosphate (dp) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and seminal mononuclear cells (SMCs) at the end of the dosing interval (C24h). Semen quality was assessed before switching and after 12 weeks on TAF. Results: With TAF, TFV C24 was 11.9-fold higher in SP than in BP. This concentration was significantly lower than TFV C24 in SP with TDF but 9.6-fold higher than the IC50 (11.5 ng/mL). By contrast, the median TFV-dp concentration achieved with TAF in SMCs was 6% that of TFV-dp in PBMCs. The TFV-dp SMC:PBMC ratio was also significantly lower with TAF. Nonetheless, TFV-dp C24 in SMC was comparable with TAF and TDF. All the patients had HIV-1 RNA <40 copies/mL in BP and SP at baseline and 12 weeks post-switch. No significant differences were observed in semen quality between TAF and TDF. Conclusions: Extracellular and intracellular seminal TFV distribution differs between TAF and TDF. Nevertheless, both formulations combined with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine maintained HIV-1 RNA suppression in semen. Differences in MGT distribution were not associated with differences in semen quality.

5.
Chem Soc Rev ; 47(23): 8541-8571, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283961

RESUMO

Photovoltaic solar cells based on perovskites have come to the forefront in science by achieving exceptional power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in less than a decade of research. This "still young" generation of solar cells is currently rivalling, in PCEs, well-established technologies, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) and silicon. Further improvements in device stability by means of innovative materials are yet to come, with technology becoming closer to meeting the market requirements. Emerging from this groundbreaking discovery, a great number of charge transporting materials have flourished, which is particularly true for hole transporting materials (HTMs). The huge number of molecules prepared stem from design and engineering of a wide variety of new and also chemically modified old molecules where organic synthesis has played a fundamental role. In this review, the contribution of chemistry through those synthetic protocols used for producing new and innovative HTMs from relatively simple organic molecules is presented in a rational and systematic manner. The variety and impact of synthetic strategies followed, the structure-property relationship and stability, conductivity and device performance are highlighted from a chemical viewpoint.

6.
J Neurovirol ; 24(4): 391-397, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542028

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentrations and viral suppression in HIV-1-infected patients on ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) plus lamivudine (3TC) dual therapy. HIV-1-infected adults with suppressed plasma HIV-1 RNA who switched to ATV/r plus 3TC were studied. Total ATV and 3TC concentrations at the end of the dosing interval (C24h), using a validated LC-MS/MS method, and HIV-1 RNA were measured in paired CSF and plasma samples 12 weeks after switching. Ten individuals were included. Median (range) age was 42.5 (33-70) years, time on ART was 39.5 (11-197) months, and time with plasma HIV-1 RNA < 40 copies/mL was 15.5 (6-46) months. At baseline, CSF HIV-1 RNA was < 40 copies/mL in all patients. Twelve weeks after switching to ATV/r plus 3TC, HIV-1 RNA remained at < 40 copies/mL in both plasma and CSF in 9/10 patients. One patient with suboptimal adherence to ART had HIV-1 RNA rebound in both plasma and CSF. The median CSF-to-plasma concentration ratios of ATV and 3TC were 0.013 and 0.417, respectively. Median ATV C24h in CSF was 10.4 (3.7-33.4) ng/mL (in vitro ATV IC50 range, 1-11 ng/mL). Median 3TC C24h in CSF was 43.4 (16.2-99.3) ng/mL (in vitro 3TC IC50 range, 0.68-20.6 ng/mL). Most patients maintained HIV-1 RNA in CSF < 40 copies/mL despite CSF ATV C24h close to or within the IC50 range in the majority. ATV PK data in CSF should be considered and rigorous patient selection is advisable to assure effective CSF viral suppression with this two-drug simplification regimen.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893792

RESUMO

Pathophysiological changes involved in drug disposition in critically ill patients should be considered in order to optimize the dosing of vancomycin administered by continuous infusion, and certain strategies must be applied to reach therapeutic targets on the first day of treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin to determine clinical covariates, including mechanical ventilation, that influence the wide variability of this antimicrobial. Plasma vancomycin concentrations from 54 critically ill patients were analyzed simultaneously by a population pharmacokinetic approach. A nomogram for dosing recommendations was developed and was internally evaluated through stochastic simulations. The plasma vancomycin concentration-versus-time data were best described by a one-compartment open model with exponential interindividual variability associated with vancomycin clearance and the volume of distribution. Residual error followed a homoscedastic trend. Creatinine clearance and body weight significantly dropped the objective function value, showing their influence on vancomycin clearance and the volume of distribution, respectively. Characterization based on the presence of mechanical ventilation demonstrated a 20% decrease in vancomycin clearance. External validation (n = 18) was performed to evaluate the predictive ability of the model; median bias and precision values were 0.7 mg/liter (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.4, 1.7) and 5.9 mg/liter (95% CI, 5.4, 6.4), respectively. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for the administration of vancomycin by continuous infusion to critically ill patients, demonstrating the influence of creatinine clearance and mechanical ventilation on vancomycin clearance, as well as the implications for targeting dosing rates to reach the therapeutic range (20 to 30 mg/liter).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/metabolismo , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Vancomicina , Idoso , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Nomogramas , Vancomicina/sangue , Vancomicina/farmacocinética , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
8.
ChemSusChem ; 10(9): 2023-2029, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296265

RESUMO

A variety of novel chemically modified fullerenes, showing different electron-accepting capabilities, has been synthesized and used to prepare electron transport layer (ETL)-free solar cells based on perovskite/fullerene blends. In particular, isoxazolino[60] fullerenes are proven to be a good candidate for processing blend films with CH3 NH3 PbI3 and obtaining enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) ETL-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs), improving the state-of-the-art PCE (i.e., 14.3 %) for this simplified device architecture. A beneficial effect for pyrazolino and methano[60]fullerene derivatives versus pristine [60]/fullerene is also shown. Furthermore, a clear correlation between the LUMO energy level of the fullerene component and the open circuit voltage of the solar cells is found. Apart from the new knowledge on innovative fullerene derivatives for PSCs, the universality and versatility of perovskite/fullerene blend films to obtain efficient ETL-free PSCs is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Elétrons , Fulerenos/química , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(22): 4622-4628, 2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797214

RESUMO

The use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of fullerene derivatives reduces the hysteresis of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We have investigated three different fullerene derivatives observing a decrease on hysteresis for all the cases. Several processes can contribute to the hysteresis behavior on PSCs. We have determined that the reduced hysteresis observed for devices with SAMs is produced by a decrease of the capacitive hysteresis. In addition, with an appropriated functionalization, SAMs can increase photocurrent even when no electron selective contact (ESC) is present and a SAM is deposited just on top of the transparent conductive oxide. Appropriated functionalization of the fullerene derivative, as introducing -CN groups, can enhance cell performance and reduce hysteresis. This work paves the way for a future enhancement of PSCs by a tailored design of the fullerene molecules that could actuate as an ESC by themselves.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(33): 6416-24, 2016 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27487046

RESUMO

The work described herein is a continuation of a previous study centered on the bioprospect of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) leaf extracts through the isolation of secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity. Chromatographic fractionations of the ethyl acetate extract and spectroscopic analysis showed that the majority of the components were sesquiterpene lactones. Of these compounds, aguerin B, grosheimin, and cynaropicrin were very active on etiolated wheat coleoptile, standard target species, and weed growth. The joint action of binary mixtures of these three active sesquiterpene lactones and one nonactive compound (11,13-dihydroxy-8-desoxygrosheimin) was studied. The activities of fixed-ratio mixtures were assessed on wheat coleoptile. The results can be interpreted with respect to a reference model by considering dose-response analyses and isobolograms with linear regression analyses. A total of 17 binary mixtures at different levels of inhibition (ED25, ED50, and ED75) were studied, and predominantly they responded additively (25). Deviations from additivity included seven synergistic responses and two antagonistic responses. The joint action of major sesquiterpene lactones isolated from C. cardunculus can explain the activities observed in extracts and fractions. The results reported here reiterate the utility of the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in binary mixtures.


Assuntos
Cynara/química , Lactonas/química , Extratos Vegetais , Sesquiterpenos/química , Cotilédone/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(21): 6270-4, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27061436

RESUMO

New star-shaped benzotrithiophene (BTT)-based hole-transporting materials (HTM) BTT-1, BTT-2 and BTT-3 have been obtained through a facile synthetic route by crosslinking triarylamine-based donor groups with a benzotrithiophene (BTT) core. The BTT HTMs were tested on solution-processed lead trihalide perovskite-based solar cells. Power conversion efficiencies in the range of 16 % to 18.2 % were achieved under AM 1.5 sun with the three derivatives. These values are comparable to those obtained with today's most commonly used HTM spiro-OMeTAD, which point them out as promising candidates to be used as readily available and cost-effective alternatives in perovskite solar cells (PSCs).

12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 194(4): 476-85, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910598

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes that adversely impacts glycemic control. However, there is little evidence about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on glycemic control in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of CPAP on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes and OSA, and to identify its determinants. METHODS: In a 6-month, open-label, parallel, and randomized clinical trial, 50 patients with OSA and type 2 diabetes and two HbA1c levels equal to or exceeding 6.5% were randomized to CPAP (n = 26) or no CPAP (control; n = 24), while their usual medication for diabetes remained unchanged. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: HbA1c levels, Homeostasis Model Assessment and Qualitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index scores, systemic biomarkers, and health-related quality of life were measured at 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, the CPAP group achieved a greater decrease in HbA1c levels compared with the control group. Insulin resistance and sensitivity measurements (in noninsulin users) and serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and adiponectin also improved in the CPAP group compared with the control group after 6 months. In patients treated with CPAP, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation and baseline IL-1ß were independently related to the 6-month change in HbA1c levels (r(2) = 0.510, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes and OSA, CPAP treatment for 6 months resulted in improved glycemic control and insulin resistance compared with results for a control group. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01801150).


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Resistência à Insulina , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 71(2): 471-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26568565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in trauma patients and to propose dosing schemes to optimize therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trauma patients from Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa (Spain) receiving intravenous vancomycin and routine therapeutic drug monitoring were included. Concentrations and time data were retrospectively collected, and population modelling was performed with NONMEM 7.2; internal and external validations were performed to probe the final model. Finally, several simulations were executed to propose dosing guidelines to reach expected vancomycin concentrations. RESULTS: A total of 118 trauma patients were included; the population was 45% males, with a mean age of 77 years (range 37-100 years) and a mean total body weight (TBW) of 72 kg (range 38-110 kg). The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was best described by a two-compartment open model; creatinine clearance (CLCR) was related to vancomycin clearance (0.49 ± 0.04 L/h), being diminished by the presence of furosemide (0.34 ± 0.05 L/h). TBW influenced both the central volume of distribution (V1 = 0.74 ± 0.1 L/kg) and peripheral volume of distribution (V2 = 5.9 ± 2 L/kg), but patients with age >65 years showed a larger V1 (1.07 ± 0.1 L/kg). Bootstrapping was performed to internally validate the stability of the final model. External validation was developed using an alternate population of 40 patients with the same characteristics. The validated model was compared with population pharmacokinetic models previously published and showed better predictive performance for trauma patients than the current one. This final model allowed us to propose a new practical dose guideline to reach higher trough concentrations (15-20 mg/L) and AUC0-24/MIC ratios of more than 400 after 4 days of vancomycin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A new population model was described for trauma patients to optimize vancomycin therapy, showing precise predictive performance to be applied for therapeutic drug monitoring and providing a new practical dose guideline that considers CLCR and concomitant administration of furosemide for these patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/farmacocinética , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bioestatística , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
14.
Molecules ; 20(11): 20079-106, 2015 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561798

RESUMO

The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical) radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones) showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(73): 13980-2, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246213

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and characterisation of tetra{4-[N,N-(4,4'-dimethoxydiphenylamino)]phenyl}ethene () as an efficient and robust hole transport material for its application in methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells. The solar cells show light-to-energy conversion efficiencies as high as 11.0% under standard measurement conditions without the need of additional dopants.

17.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 50(3): 126-128, mayo-jun. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-139420

RESUMO

Objetivo: Las alteraciones tiroideas de origen inmune (ATI), y especialmente la anemia perniciosa (AP), son frecuentes en la población anciana y la asociación entre ambas está actualmente en debate. Nos proponemos comprobar la asociación entre las ATI y la AP en una población > 65 años y que factores condicionantes influyen en esta asociación. Material y métodos: Las variables estudiadas para analizar esta asociación fueron las variables sociosanitarias, la comorbilidad autoinmune (diabetes tipo 1 y otras enfermedades autoinmunes), el consumo de fármacos que alteran los niveles de vitamina B12 (metformina e inhibidores de la bomba de protones) y la forma cronológica en que aparecen ambas enfermedades en esta población se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para analizar que variable les de las descritas pueden influir en la asociación de ambas enfermedades. Resultados: La prevalencia de las ATI fue del 8,2% y de la AP del 3,3% con un progresivo incremento de su incidencia anual en los últimos 10 años desde 7,1 a 12,7 casos por cada 1.000 personas > 65 años en ATI y de 1,6 a 7,4 casos para AP. El 18,6% de las ATI desarrollaron una AP y el 45% de las AP tenían ATI, principalmente en las mujeres (RR = 6). El tiempo medio en diagnosticarse la segunda enfermedad era de unos 8 años. La presencia de una tercera comorbilidad autoinmune cuadriplicaba la probabilidad de tener ATI y AP. Los pacientes con ATI que consumían fármacos que afectaban a la absorción de vitamina B12 tenían el doble de probabilidades de desarrollar una AP que aquellos que no los tomaban. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio confirman la asociación entre ATI y AP en población de 65 años y más, constatando además un aumento progresivo de la incidencia de estas patologías (AU)


Objective: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), and pernicious anemia (PA) in particular, are common in elderly people. The relationship between both of these is currently being discussed. The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between ATD and PA in elderly people, and if there are other associated factors affecting this relationship. Material and methods: The factors studied to analyse this association were social-health variables, autoimmune comorbidity (type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases), the taking of drugs that alter vitamin B12 levels (Metformin and protein bomb inhibitors), and the chronological order in which both diseases appear in this population. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which of the described variables could have an on both diseases. Results: The prevalence was 8.2% for ATD and 3.3% for PA, with a progressive increase in the annual incidence in the past 10 years from 7.1 to 12.7 cases per 1,000 persons > 65 years for ATI, and from 1.6 to 7.4 cases for PA. PA was found in 18.6% of the patients with ATD, and the 45% of PA presented with ATD, mainly in women (RR = 6.0). The average time in diagnosing the second disease was about 8 years. When there was a third autoimmune disease the likelihood of ATD and PA increased fourfold. Patients with ATD and consuming drugs which were affecting the absorption of vitamin B12 had double the probability of developing a PA compared with those who were not taking medications. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the association between ATI and AP among people 65 or older, also a progressive increase in the incidence of these diseases (AU)


Assuntos
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Humanos , Anemia Perniciosa/epidemiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia
19.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 50(3): 126-8, 2015 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25579235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), and pernicious anemia (PA) in particular, are common in elderly people. The relationship between both of these is currently being discussed. The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between ATD and PA in elderly people, and if there are other associated factors affecting this relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The factors studied to analyse this association were social-health variables, autoimmune comorbidity (type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases), the taking of drugs that alter vitamin B12 levels (Metformin and protein bomb inhibitors), and the chronological order in which both diseases appear in this population. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which of the described variables could have an on both diseases. RESULTS: The prevalence was 8.2% for ATD and 3.3% for PA, with a progressive increase in the annual incidence in the past 10 years from 7.1 to 12.7 cases per 1,000 persons>65 years for ATI, and from 1.6 to 7.4 cases for PA. PA was found in 18.6% of the patients with ATD, and the 45% of PA presented with ATD, mainly in women (RR=6.0). The average time in diagnosing the second disease was about 8 years. When there was a third autoimmune disease the likelihood of ATD and PA increased fourfold. Patients with ATD and consuming drugs which were affecting the absorption of vitamin B12 had double the probability of developing a PA compared with those who were not taking medications. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm the association between ATI and AP among people 65 or older, also a progressive increase in the incidence of these diseases.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Perniciosa/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
20.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 59(1): 482-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25385111

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize and validate the population pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in infants and to determine the influences of clinically relevant covariates to explain the inter- and intraindividual variabilities associated with this drug. Infants receiving intravenous gentamicin and with routine therapeutic drug monitoring were consecutively enrolled in the study. Plasma concentration and time data were retrospectively collected from 208 infants (1 to 24 months old) of the Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa (Spain), of whom 44% were males (mean age [± standard deviation], 5.8 ± 4.8 months; mean body weight, 6.4 ± 2.2 kg). Data analysis was performed with NONMEM 7.2. One- and two-compartment open models were analyzed to estimate the gentamicin population parameters and the influences of several covariates. External validation was carried out in another population of 55 infants. The behavior of gentamicin in infants exhibits two-compartment pharmacokinetics, with total body weight being the covariate that mainly influences central volume (Vc) and clearance (CL); this parameter was also related to creatinine clearance. Both parameters are age related and different from those reported for neonatal populations. On the basis of clinical presentation and diagnosis, a once-daily dosage regimen of 7 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h is proposed for intravenous gentamicin, followed by therapeutic drug monitoring in order to avoid toxicity and ensure efficacy with minimal blood sampling. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics and disposition were accurately characterized in this pediatric population (infants), with the parameters obtained being different from those reported for neonates and children. These differences should be considered in the dosing and therapeutic monitoring of this antibiotic.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Gentamicinas/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Creatinina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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