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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMO

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e239642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133487

RESUMO

The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
5.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(6): 957-965, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364009

RESUMO

The pupal parasitoid Trichopria anastrephae Lima (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) shows potential to control Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and understanding the behavior of this parasitoid in challenging environments is important to obtain a higher efficiency in mass rearing and in biological control programs. This study aimed to verify the effects of extrinsic intraspecific competition and the absence of host on the parasitism of T. anastrephae in D. suzukii pupae. Therefore, to evaluate the parasitism of T. anastrephae under intraspecific competition, groups of 20 pupae (24 h old) of D. suzukii were offered for different densities of parasitoids (1, 3, 5, or 10 couples) during a 7-day period. Whereas to evaluate the effects of host deprivation on parasitism of T. anastrephae, we tested different treatments: T1-no deprivation, T2-complete deprivation, T3-deprivation every other day, T4-deprivation for 3 days, and T5-deprivation for 7 days. The increase of density of parasitoids resulted in an increase of oviposition scars on pupae and a longer biological cycle, suggesting the occurrence of superparasitism. Increased density also resulted in a higher percentage of attacked pupae, but did not affect parasitoids emergence nor sex ratio. Host deprivation affected number of parasitized pupae, number and sex ratio of offspring, and the longevity of females. Based on our findings, competition among females do not impair offspring viability, and host deprivation for a period up to 7 days do not influence parasitism capacity, indicating that it can be used as a pre-release strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Drosophila/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Oviposição , Densidade Demográfica , Pupa/parasitologia , Razão de Masculinidade
6.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(4): 699-705, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069663

RESUMO

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive species originating in Southeast Asia and considered a severe pest in berry crops in several countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Europe. In South America, the species was first detected in 2013. The objective of the study was to monitor the seasonal activity of D. suzukii in commercial crops of blackberry, strawberry guava, surinam cherry, blueberry, and strawberry during two consecutive harvests and in three properties in the Southern region of Brazil during the 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 harvests, with the aid of traps baited with apple cider vinegar. The highest population peaks were observed during late spring to mid-fall in all areas and plant species studied. It was verified that temperature is the factor that most influenced the seasonal activity of D. suzukii in the field, promoting low catches of the species during winter. However, even during periods of low temperatures (winter period), the presence of D. suzukii in the crops was verified, demonstrating the species' ability to stay in place from year to year, surviving in alternative hosts such as Eriobotrya japonica, a common species in the region. The information on the time of the highest occurrence of the pest in different hosts presented in this study provides the basis for decision-making in relation to the management of D. suzukii, to avoid further economic damage.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(2): 356-363, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519927

RESUMO

The development of appropriate methodologies for bioassays is of paramount importance to study the methodological factors that may interfere in the experimental design. Thus, laboratory bioassays have become increasingly important for the determination of data that are realistic and replicable. The objective of the study was to develop a bioassay methodology with the ready-to-use toxic bait Success™ 0.02CB, 96 mg L-1 of spinosad, in adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) as a study model. The insect origin (laboratory population, LT50 = 11.16 h), time of toxic bait supply (4 h, LT50 = 16.85 h), food deprivation (12 h, LT50 = 15.55 h), and the adult age (5 days, LT50 = 35.31 h) of C. capitata showed higher susceptibility and a shorter LT50 lethal time to the Success™ 0.02CB toxic bait. However, the absence or presence of a food source (LT50 ≈ 31.17 h) during the bioassay did not affect the susceptibility of C. capitata. Further, adults of C. capitata who were deprived and in the absence of a food source (artificial diet) had higher consumption of toxic baits (mg) during treatment exposure. The use of a 12-h deprivation period, toxic baits offered for 4 h, and absence of an artificial diet for adults of C. capitata at 5 days of age during the bioassay are considered adequate for evaluating formulations of toxic baits under laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Ceratitis capitata , Inseticidas , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Controle de Insetos , Macrolídeos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Neotrop Entomol ; 46(6): 591-605, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852987

RESUMO

Non-native insect pests are often responsible for important damage to native and agricultural plant hosts. Since Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become an important pest in North America and Europe (i.e., in 2008), the global production of soft thin-skinned fruits has faced severe production losses. In the southern Neotropical region, however, the first record of D. suzukii occurred in 2013 in the south of Brazil. It has also been recorded in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Despite its recent occurrence in the southern Neotropical region, the fast dispersion of D. suzukii has inspired local research efforts in an attempt to mitigate the consequences of this insect pest invasion. In this forum, we explore the current status of D. suzukii in southern Neotropical regions, discussing its future perspectives. Additionally, we attempt to draft activities and a research agenda that may help to mitigate the losses caused by D. suzukii in native and commercial soft-skinned fruits produced in this region. Currently, D. suzukii appears to be well established in the south of Brazil, but considering the entire southern Neotropical region, the invasion panorama is still underinvestigated. The lack of studies and regulatory actions against D. suzukii has contributed to the invasion success of this species in this region. Considering several peculiarities of both the pest biology and the environmental of this region, the authors advocate for the need of intensive and integrative studies toward the development and implementation of area-wide integrated pest management programs against D. suzukii in the southern Neotropical region.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Drosophila/classificação , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 176-184, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839165

RESUMO

Abstract The transformation of natural habitats into areas destined to agriculture or projects of energy production has generated a growing concern about the impact on biological diversity. Thus, this study evaluated the diversity of ants in agroecosystems in the area of direct influence of three wind farms in the municipality of Marmeleiro, State of Paraná and examined the association of occurrences with sampling periods. To this end, four samplings were conducted in 2013, one per season. Pitfalls, Malaise trap and Net sweep were used. The assemblages were characterized and compared using richness and number of occurrences of ants. Chao 2 estimates were calculated and a comparison (rarefaction analysis) of the assemblages was performed. The association of the species with the samples was evaluated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Altogether, there were 1,576 occurrences of ants, totaling 55 species. The obtained estimate indicated that richness may be up to 35% higher. Our study adds important information about richness and occurrence of ants in a region poorly analyzed for this group. Most of all, it presents a survey of species occurring in agricultural ecosystems that may serve as a parameter for future evaluations when wind farms are installed.


Resumo A transformação de ambientes naturais em áreas agrícolas ou ocupadas por empreendimentos voltados à produção de energia tem gerado uma crescente preocupação com o impacto causado por estas atividades sobre a diversidade biológica. Por isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a diversidade de formigas em agroecosistemas, na área de influência direta de três parques eólicos no município de Marmeleiro, Paraná e analisou a associação das ocorrências com os períodos das amostras. Para tanto, foram realizadas quatro amostragens durante o ano de 2013, uma por estação. Foram empregados pitfall, armadilha Malaise e rede de varredura. As assembleias foram caracterizadas e comparadas através da riqueza e do número de ocorrências das formigas. Foram construídas estimativas (Chao 2) e um comparativo (análise de rarefação) para as assembleias. A associação das espécies com as amostras foi avaliada através de uma Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA). Ao todo foram registradas 1.576 ocorrências de formigas, totalizando 55 espécies. A estimativa obtida indica que a riqueza pode ser até 35% maior. O estudo acrescenta informações importantes sobre a riqueza e ocorrências de formigas para uma região com poucos estudos deste grupo. Apresenta, sobretudo, um inventário de espécies presentes em agroecossistemas que poderá servir de parâmetro para avaliações futuras quando os parques eólicos estiverem instalados.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Vento , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Energia Renovável , Fazendas
10.
Braz J Biol ; 77(1): 176-184, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382991

RESUMO

The transformation of natural habitats into areas destined to agriculture or projects of energy production has generated a growing concern about the impact on biological diversity. Thus, this study evaluated the diversity of ants in agroecosystems in the area of direct influence of three wind farms in the municipality of Marmeleiro, State of Paraná and examined the association of occurrences with sampling periods. To this end, four samplings were conducted in 2013, one per season. Pitfalls, Malaise trap and Net sweep were used. The assemblages were characterized and compared using richness and number of occurrences of ants. Chao 2 estimates were calculated and a comparison (rarefaction analysis) of the assemblages was performed. The association of the species with the samples was evaluated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Altogether, there were 1,576 occurrences of ants, totaling 55 species. The obtained estimate indicated that richness may be up to 35% higher. Our study adds important information about richness and occurrence of ants in a region poorly analyzed for this group. Most of all, it presents a survey of species occurring in agricultural ecosystems that may serve as a parameter for future evaluations when wind farms are installed.


Assuntos
Formigas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Florestas , Energia Renovável , Estações do Ano , Vento
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