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1.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101766, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126057

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible disease characterized by an increase in differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in lung tissue. Pharmacological activation of NRF2 has proved to be a valuable antifibrotic approach, however the detailed mechanisms of how NRF2 mediates antifibrotic function remain unclear. In this study, we found that the antifibrotic function of sulforaphane (SFN), an NRF2 activator, was largely dependent on LOC344887, a long noncoding RNA. Two functional AREs were identified in both the promoter and intron 1 of LOC344887, which defines LOC344887 as a novel anti-fibrotic NRF2 target gene. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LOC344887 controls genes and signaling pathways associated with fibrogenesis. Deletion or downregulation of LOC344887 enhanced expression of CDH2/N-cadherin, as well as a number of other fibrotic genes and blunted the antifibrotic effects of SFN. Furthermore, LOC344887-mediated downregulation of fibrotic genes may involve the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K activity blocked the effects of LOC344887 knockdown. Our findings demonstrate that NRF2-mediated LOC344887 upregulation contributes to the antifibrotic potential of SFN by repressing the expression of CDH2 and other fibrotic genes, providing novel insight into how NRF2 controls the regulatory networks of IPF. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of NRF2 activators against pulmonary fibrosis and presents a novel therapeutic axis for prevention and intervention of fibrosis-related diseases.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 130(3): 1301-1314, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714898

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) is among the most common causes of pneumonia-related death worldwide. Pulmonary epithelial cells are the primary target for viral infection and replication and respond by releasing inflammatory mediators that recruit immune cells to mount the host response. Severe lung injury and death during IAV infection result from an exuberant host inflammatory response. The linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC), composed of SHARPIN, HOIL-1L, and HOIP, is a critical regulator of NF-κB-dependent inflammation. Using mice with lung epithelial-specific deletions of HOIL-1L or HOIP in a model of IAV infection, we provided evidence that, while a reduction in the inflammatory response was beneficial, ablation of the LUBAC-dependent lung epithelial-driven response worsened lung injury and increased mortality. Moreover, we described a mechanism for the upregulation of HOIL-1L in infected and noninfected cells triggered by the activation of type I IFN receptor and mediated by IRF1, which was maladaptive and contributed to hyperinflammation. Thus, we propose that lung epithelial LUBAC acts as a molecular rheostat that could be selectively targeted to modulate the immune response in patients with severe IAV-induced pneumonia.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Células A549 , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia
3.
Curr Pharmacogenomics Person Med ; 10(4): 314-321, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23185213

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exerts significant adverse health effects in global populations, particularly in developing countries with extensive air pollution. Understanding of the mechanisms of PM-induced health effects including the risk for cardiovascular diseases remains limited. In addition to the direct cellular physiological responses such as mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, PM mediates remarkable dysregulation of gene expression, especially in cardiovascular tissues. The PM-mediated gene dysregulation is likely to be a complex mechanism affected by various genetic and non-genetic factors. Notably, PM is known to alter epigenetic markers (e.g., DNA methylation and histone modifications), which may contribute to air pollution-mediated health consequences including the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Notably, epigenetic changes induced by ambient PM exposure have emerged to play a critical role in gene regulation. Though the underlying mechanism(s) are not completely clear, the available evidence suggests that the modulated activities of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone acetylase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) may contribute to the epigenetic changes induced by PM or PM-related chemicals. By employing genome-wide epigenomic and systems biology approaches, PM toxicogenomics could conceivably progress greatly with the potential identification of individual epigenetic loci associated with dysregulated gene expression after PM exposure, as well the interactions between epigenetic pathways and PM. Furthermore, novel therapeutic targets based on epigenetic markers could be identified through future epigenomic studies on PM-mediated cardiopulmonary toxicities. These considerations collectively inform the future population health applications of genomics in developing countries while benefiting global personalized medicine at the same time.

4.
J Angiogenes Res ; 2(1): 5, 2010 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20298531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent cancer therapies include drugs that target both tumor growth and angiogenesis including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Since mTOR inhibitor therapy is associated with significant side effects, we examined potential agents that can reduce the therapeutic dose. METHODS: Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripheral mu opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist, in combination with the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus and/or rapamycin, was evaluated for inhibition of VEGF-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration as well as in vivo angiogenesis (mouse Matrigel plug assay). RESULTS: MNTX inhibited VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration with an IC50 of approximately 100 nM. Adding 10 nM MNTX to EC shifted the IC50 of temsirolimus inhibition of VEGF-induced proliferation and migration from approximately 10 nM to approximately 1 nM and from approximately 50 to approximately 10 nM respectively. We observed similar effects with rapamycin. On a mechanistic level, we observed that MNTX increased EC plasma membrane-associated tyrosine phosphate activity. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity (3,4-dephostatin) blocked the synergy between MNTX and temsirolimus and increased VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Src with enhanced PI3 kinase and mTOR Complex 2-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and subsequent activation of mTOR Complex 1 (rapamycin and temsirolimus target), while silencing Src, Akt or mTOR complex 2 components blocked VEGF-induced angiogenic events. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that MNTX exerts a synergistic effect with rapamycin and temsirolimus on inhibition of VEGF-induced human EC proliferation and migration and in vivo angiogenesis. Therefore, addition of MNTX could potentially lower the dose of mTOR inhibitors which could improve therapeutic index.

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