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1.
Cell Death Differ ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570853

RESUMO

Oncogene addiction postulates that the survival and growth of certain tumor cells is dependent upon the activity of one oncogene, despite their multiple genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. This phenomenon provides a foundation for molecular targeted therapy and a rationale for oncogene-based stratification. We have previously reported that the Promyelocytic Leukemia protein (PML) is upregulated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and it regulates cancer-initiating cell function, thus suggesting that this protein can be therapeutically targeted in combination with PML-based stratification. However, the effects of PML perturbation on the bulk of tumor cells remained poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that TNBC cells are addicted to the expression of this nuclear protein. PML inhibition led to a remarkable growth arrest combined with features of senescence in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the growth arrest and senescence were associated to a decrease in MYC and PIM1 kinase levels, with the subsequent accumulation of CDKN1B (p27), a trigger of senescence. In line with this notion, we found that PML is associated to the promoter regions of MYC and PIM1, consistent with their direct correlation in breast cancer specimens. Altogether, our results provide a feasible explanation for the functional similarities of MYC, PIM1, and PML in TNBC and encourage further study of PML targeting strategies for the treatment of this breast cancer subtype.

2.
Enferm Clin ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a nursing screening procedure for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in primary care. METHODS: The study was carried out in three phases. 1)Construction of an item bank to form the procedure with an exit score describing the patient's clinical situation. 2)Test and reduction of the initial tentative procedure on a sample of 50 patients using community nurse consultations, eliminating the components with low inter-intra nurse reliability. 3)Validation of the version of the procedure obtained in the previous step on a sample of 106 patients. Calculation of validity and reliability by eliminating components with low criterion validity with respect to the results of the diagnostic electromyography used as a reference standard. Cut-off points were estimated for the use of the procedure as a screening tool, predictive values, performance, internal consistency and inter-nurse reliability. RESULTS: The initial tentative procedure consisted of 12 components that were reduced to 10. In the process of validation of this second version the procedure was simplified again, eventually comprising 6 components, with a cut-off point of 2.5 in its output scale, the point at which it reaches adequate values of sensitivity and negative predictors to be used as a screening instrument. For this cut-off point the inter-intra nurse reliability, criterion validity and predictive validity reached acceptable values. CONCLUSIONS: NeuDiaCan as a nursing screening procedure for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in primary care is valid, reliable and easy to use.

3.
Vaccine ; 37(43): 6342-6347, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526619

RESUMO

This epidemiological survey estimates the burden of whooping cough in infants up to 12 months old in Spain during a twenty-one-year period (1997-2017). The survey was conducted by reviewing data from the Spanish Surveillance System for Hospital Data. All hospitalizations due to whooping cough for infants, reported during the 1997-2017 period, were analysed. Codes were selected from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes 033.0-033.9. To explore the latest national outbreak and the implementation of vaccination in pregnant women, analyses were stratified to compare the following periods: 1997-2010, 2011-2015 and 2016-2017. A total of 13,352 hospital discharges for whooping cough in infants up to 12 months old were reported. A total of 6850 discharges in the period 1997-2010, 5271 in the period 2011-2015 and 1231 in 2016-2017 were identified. The annual hospitalization rate prior to 2011 was 131.02 cases per 100,000 infants; in 2011-2015, the rate was significantly higher (250.13 cases per 100,000 infants) and in 2016-2017 it decreased (157.69 cases per 100,000 infants). Most of the cases (n = 11,446) occurred in infants under 4 months of age, with hospitalization rates of 328.80, 670.81 and 385.84 cases per 100,000 infants up to 4 months of age in the periods 1997-2010, 2011-2015 and 2016-17, respectively. Thirty-four deaths occurred in the period 1997-2010, 36 in the period 2011-2015 and 4 in 2016-2017. All of the deaths occurred in infants under 4 months old. The case fatality rate did not vary significantly across the study periods. Whooping cough infections concentrate in infants up to 4 months of age in Spain. Public health measures such as vaccination of pregnant women, caregivers, health care professionals and relatives, especially young parents, could reduce the hospitalization burden during the current outbreak.

4.
Enferm Clin ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the genotoxic risk of cytostatic drugs in health professionals after occupational exposure. METHOD: The literature was searched using the databases PubMed, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library and Scopus with free and controlled language (MeSH terms) using Boolean operators AND and OR. The research was limited to articles published between 2005-2016. RESULTS: 11 articles were selected depending on their relevancy to this review's aim. Nine of the 11 articles proved the existence of damage to genetic material (DNA) of health workers, who were exposed to cytostatics. Furthermore, current security practices do not fully eliminate the chance of exposure. Therefore, new clinical trials are required. CONCLUSIONS: Handling cytostatic drugs can cause a genotoxic risk to health workers who are exposed to these substances. This exposure may cause damage to the workers' DNA. There are not enough data to prove a cause-effect relationship between the genotoxic risk and adverse reactions in individuals. Health education will be the main way to raise awareness of and prevent this problem.

5.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(8): e14250, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care systems are rapidly deploying digital tools for disease management; however, few studies have evaluated their usability by vulnerable populations. To understand the barriers to app usage among vulnerable populations, we employed user-centered design (UCD) methods in the development of a new text messaging app. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe variations in patients' engagement in the app design process, focusing on limited health literacy (LHL), limited English proficiency (LEP), and limited digital literacy (LDL). METHODS: We conducted 20 in-depth semistructured interviews with primary care patients at a public health care system, used open-ended discussions and card sorting tasks to seek input about mobile phones and text messaging, and used open coding to categorize the patterns of mobile phone usage and to evaluate engagement in the card sorting process. We examined qualitative differences in engagement by examining the extensiveness of participant feedback on existing and novel text messaging content and calculated the proportion of patients providing extensive feedback on existing and novel content, overall and by health literacy, English proficiency, and digital literacy. RESULTS: The average age of the 20 participants was 59 (SD 8) years; 13 (65%) were female, 18 (90%) were nonwhite, 16 (80%) had LHL, and 13 (65%) had LEP. All had depression, and 14 (70%) had diabetes. Most participants had smartphones (18/20, 90%) and regularly used text messaging (15/20, 75%), but 14 (70%) of them reported having difficulty texting because of inability to type, physical disability, and low literacy. We identified 10 participants as specifically having LDL; 7 of these participants had LEP, and all 10 had LHL. Half of the participants required a modification of the card sorting activity owing to not understanding it or not being able to read the cards in the allotted time. The proportion of participants who gave extensive feedback on existing content was lower in participants with limited versus adequate English proficiency (4/13, 30% vs 5/7, 71%), limited versus adequate health literacy (7/16, 44% vs 3/4, 75%), and limited versus adequate digital literacy (4/10, 40% vs 6/10, 60%); none of these differences were statistically significant. When examining the proportion of patients who gave extensive feedback for novel messaging content, those with LHL were less engaged than those with adequate health literacy (8/16, 50% vs 4/4, 100%); there were no statistical differences by any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread mobile phone use, digital literacy barriers are common among vulnerable populations. Engagement in the card sorting activity varied among participants and appeared to be lower among those with LHL, LEP, and LDL. Researchers employing traditional UCD methods should routinely measure these communication domains among their end-user samples. Future work is needed to replicate our findings in larger samples, but augmentation of card sorting with direct observation and audiovisual cues may be more productive in eliciting feedback for those with communication barriers.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301037

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the inclusion of different concentrations of Lactobacillus plantarum in Nile tilapia diet and to verify histological effects on tissues of the animal organs, as well as to verify its effects on growth parameters and possible increase in the immune system. A total of 240 juveniles were distributed in 16 tanks arranged in a recirculation system. One control group and three treated groups (104, 106, and 108 colony-forming unit (CFU) g -1L. plantarum kg feed-1) were established in quadruplicate. After 35 days of supplementation, it was not possible to observe differences in growth rates and hematological parameters. However, in the kidney, there was a reduction in the presence of PAS-positive granular leukocytes (PAS-GL) between the collections (15 and 35 days). The liver had lower number of lesions related to loss of cordonal aspects of fish fed 108 CFU g-1 on day 15. Fish fed 104 and 108 CFU g-1 showed lower degree of congestion at day 35. The probiotic also provided a reduction in the number of melanomacrophage centers in the splenic tissue and an increase in the amount of goblet cells in the gut. The concentration 108 CFU g-1 of probiotic in diets increased the number of goblet cells, improved cordonal aspects, and reduced hepatic congestion, and indicated a possible improvement in the immunophysiological conditions of the fish.

7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100319, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303230

RESUMO

Fasciolosis, caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, is considered one of the most important parasitosis in dairy cattle due to significant economic losses. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in dairy cattle slaughtered at São Miguel Island (SMI) slaughterhouse and to ascertain areas (parishes and dairy herds), within the island, with highest risk for fasciolosis. The association among cattle age and weight with the occurrence of fasciolosis was also determined. From a sample of 24,389 cattle slaughtered in two years (2015-2016), a total of 1134 dairy cattle livers were inspected and, during this period, 531 were positive to fasciolosis and 603 presented no typical fasciolosis lesions. This study showed that fasciolosis has a broad geographical distribution on SMI and that is also found in cattle from other islands of the Azores archipelago, namely Flores Island. Although there were no significant differences in weight between healthy animals and parasitized ones, we observed that the older animals present a greater level of liver lesions and a higher level of parasitization, reflecting their longer period of exposure to the risk factor (ingestion of metacercariae in pastures infested by Galba truncatula).

8.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(8): 1183-1192, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that the incidence of IgA nephropathy is increasing in older adults, but there is a lack of information about the epidemiology and behavior of the disease in that age group. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this retrospective multicentric study, we analyzed the incidence, forms of presentation, clinical and histologic characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes in a cohort of 151 patients ≥65 years old with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. The main outcome was a composite end point of kidney replacement therapy or death before kidney replacement therapy. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy over time from six patients in 1990-1995 to 62 in 2011-2015 (P value for trend =0.03). After asymptomatic urinary abnormalities (84 patients; 55%), AKI was the most common form of presentation (61 patients; 40%). Within the latter, 53 (86%) patients presented with hematuria-related AKI (gross hematuria and tubular necrosis associated with erythrocyte casts as the most important lesions in kidney biopsy), and eight patients presented with crescentic IgA nephropathy. Six (4%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Among hematuria-related AKI, 18 (34%) patients were receiving oral anticoagulants, and this proportion rose to 42% among the 34 patients older than 72 years old who presented with hematuria-related AKI. For the whole cohort, survival rates without the composite end point were 74%, 48%, and 26% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Age, serum creatinine at presentation, and the degree of interstitial fibrosis in kidney biopsy were risk factors significantly associated with the outcome, whereas treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers was associated with a lower risk. Immunosuppressive treatments were not significantly associated with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of IgA nephropathy among older adults in Spain has progressively increased in recent years, and anticoagulant therapy may be partially responsible for this trend. Prognosis was poor. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2019_07_16_CJASNPodcast_19_08_.mp3.

9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007483, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Peru, the past three decades have witnessed impressive growth in biomedical research catalyzed from a single research university and its investigators who secured international partnerships and funding. We conducted a bibliometric analysis of publications by Peruvian authors to understand the roots of this growth and the spread of research networks within the country. METHODS: For 1997-2016, publications from Web of Science with at least one author affiliated with a Peruvian institution were examined by year, author affiliations, funding agencies, co-authorship linkages, and research topics. RESULTS: From 1997-2016, the annual number of publications from Peru increased 9-fold from 75 to 672 totaling 6032. Of these, 56% of the articles had co-authors from the US, 13% from the UK, 12% from Brazil, and 10% from Spain. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH) was clearly the lead research institution noted on one-third of publications. Of the 20 most published authors, 15 were Peruvians, 14 trained at some point at UPCH, and 13 received advanced training abroad. Plotting co-authorships documented the growth of institutional collaborations, the robust links between investigators and some lineages of mentorship. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that international training of Peruvian physician-scientists who built and sustained longstanding international partnerships with funding accelerated quality research on diseases of local importance. The role of a single research university, UPCH, was critical to advance a culture of biomedical research. Increased funding from the Peruvian Government and its Council for Science, Technology and Innovation will be needed to sustain this growth in the future. Middle-income countries might consider the Peruvian experience where long-term research and training partnerships yielded impressive advances to address key health priorities of the country.

10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(9)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315958

RESUMO

Ceftaroline (CPT) is a broad-spectrum agent with potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The sequence type 5 (ST5) Chilean-Cordobés clone, associated with CPT nonsusceptibility, is dominant in Chile, a region with high rates of MRSA infections. Here, we assessed the in vitro activity of CPT against a collection of MRSA isolates collected between 1999 and 2018 from nine hospitals (n = 320) and community settings (n = 41) in Santiago, Chile, and evaluated performance across testing methodologies. We found that our hospital-associated isolates exhibited higher CPT MIC distributions (MIC50 and MIC90 of 2 mg/liter) than the community isolates (MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter), a finding that was consistent across time and independent of the culture source. High proportions (64%) of isolates were CPT nonsusceptible despite the absence of CPT use in Chile. Across methodologies, the Etest underestimated the MIC relative to the gold standard broth microdilution (BMD) test (MIC50 and MIC90 of 1 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively). There was low (∼51%) categorical agreement (CA) between Etest and BMD results across CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints. The recent revision of CLSI guidelines abolished "very major error" (VME) from the previous guidelines (81%), which perform similarly to the EUCAST guidelines. The level of concordance between CLSI and EUCAST for BMD testing and Etest was >95%. Disk diffusion performed poorly relative to BMD under CLSI (CA, 55%) and EUCAST (CA, 36%) guidelines. Comparison of EUCAST to CLSI for disk diffusion (with EUCAST used as the reference) showed low agreement (CA, 25%; VME, 70%). In summary, CPT-nonsusceptible MRSA are dominant in clinical settings in Chile. Our results provide data to support the reevaluation of CPT breakpoints and to improve agreement across methodologies and agencies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288493

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG-6) addresses poor water quality, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene, all of which negatively impact health and disproportionately impact Indigenous Peoples' health. Understanding and responding to local contexts is critical to effectively improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); however, in-depth understanding of local knowledge, practices, and perceptions are often overlooked. As such, this study described the knowledge, practices, and perceptions of WASH held by residents of two Indigenous Shawi communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Quantitative data were collected via a cross-sectional survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected via interviews, PhotoVoice, focus group discussions, and participatory transect walks, and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to thematic analysis. Emergent themes included characterizing water sources, collection methods, and consumption patterns; knowledge, perceptions, and practices related to WASH; and knowledge and perceptions of health issues related to WASH. This study provides insight into the ongoing challenges related to WASH in Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon and highlights the need to prioritize interventions that will advance WASH-related SDGs.

12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(21): 2581-2590, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210711

RESUMO

Gastroparesis, or symptomatic delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, is a challenging and increasingly identified syndrome. Medical options are limited and the only medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of gastroparesis is metoclopramide, although other agents are frequently used off label. With this caveat, first-line treatments for gastroparesis include dietary modifications, antiemetics and promotility agents, although these therapies are limited by suboptimal efficacy and significant medication side effects. Treatment of patients that fail first-line treatments represents a significant therapeutic challenge. Recent advances in endoscopic techniques have led to the development of a promising novel endoscopic therapy for gastroparesis via endoscopic pyloromyotomy, also referred to as gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy or per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. The aim of this article is to review the technical aspects of the per-oral endoscopic myotomy procedure for the treatment of gastroparesis, provide an overview of the currently published literature, and outline potential next directions for the field.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 715-721, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174099

RESUMO

Volcanic soils cover only approximately 1% of the Earth's surface, yet they support 10% of the world's population due to their inherent fertility. However, deep magmatic processes may lead to depletion of certain elements in volcanic rocks. The imbalance of essential elements, such as cobalt, in soil parent materials can affect the health of plants and grazing animals and, thus, humans. Within the particular geological context of the Azores, the present study aims to assess cobalt concentration in volcanic soils to predict the risk of cobalt deficiency in animals and humans. Samples from agricultural topsoils and pasture grass were collected in six volcanic regions of São Miguel Island, and their physicochemical properties were measured, including selected transition metal element contents, such as iron, manganese and cobalt. The soil cobalt concentration was below 5 mg/kg in Povoação< Furnas/Congro< Sete Cidades< Fogo and was higher than 10 mg/kg in Picos< Nordeste. Cobalt concentrations were very low in pasture grass. Values below 0.1 mg/kg were observed in Furnas/Congro

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 223-235, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176821

RESUMO

Hydrological connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic systems is influenced by landscape features. Topography, vegetation cover and type, lake morphometry and climate (seasonality, precipitation) drive the timing, concentration and quality of allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs to lakes, influencing lake metabolism. The impact of climate changes on terrestrial-aquatic linkages depends on regional trends and ecosystems properties. We examined how landscape heterogeneity affects lake DOM in pristine temperate headwater lakes located in sharp bioclimatic gradients at the leeward side of the southern Andes (Patagonia, Argentina), and predicted their potential responses to forecasted changes in regional climate. We assessed DOM properties of deep and shallow lakes spotted along precipitation and altitudinal gradients which reflect on vegetation heterogeneity. Lake DOM (concentration, and chromophoric and fluorescent properties) was related to terrestrial bioclimatic conditions, addressing also DOM bio- and photodegradation processes. Co-effects of climate and vegetation determined the quantity and quality of allochthonous DOM inputs. Higher terrestrial signs showed up at the wettest extreme of the gradient and during the rainy season, being attributable to higher hydrological land-water connectivity, and dense vegetation cover. Under drier conditions, DOM displayed higher photobleaching signs at spatial and temporal scales. The ratio between non-humic and terrestrial humic substances indicated that DOM biodegradation dominates in shallow forested lakes and photodegradation prevails in deep ones, whereas coupled photo- and biological processing shaped the DOM pool of high altitude lakes. Overall, DOM optical metrics captured landscape heterogeneity. Under the forecasted climate changes for Patagonia (decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature), piedmont lakes may experience lower hydrological connectivity, lower terrestrial inputs and, enhanced photobleaching usually associated with longer water residence time. In high altitude lakes, terrestrial DOM inputs are expected to increase due to the upward expansion of native deciduous forests, thus becoming more similar to lakes located lower in the landscape.

16.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(3): 203-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228460

RESUMO

Global dissemination of mcr-like genes represents a serious threat to public health since it jeopardizes the effectiveness of colistin, an antibiotic used as a last-resort treatment against highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In 2017, a mcr-1-positive isolate of Escherichia coli was found in Chile for the first time. Herein we report the genetic features of this strain (UCO-457) by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and conjugation experiments. The UCO-457 strain belonged to ST4204 and carried a 285 kb IncI2-type plasmid containing the mcr-1 gene. Moreover, this plasmid was transferred by conjugation to an E. coli J53 strain at high frequency. The isolate harbored the cma, iroN, and iss virulence genes and did carry resistance genes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones. Other antibiotic resistance determinants such as ß-lactamases-encoding genes were not detected, making the isolate highly susceptible to these antibiotics. Our results revealed that such susceptible isolates could be acting as platforms to disseminate plasmid-mediated colistin resistance. Based on this evidence, we consider that mcr-like prevalence deserves urgent attention and should be examined not only in highly resistant bacteria but also in susceptible isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chile , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
17.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(12): 493-502, 16 jun., 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180476

RESUMO

Objetivo. Realizar un metaanálisis de estudios de cohortes prospectivos, con base poblacional, que investiguen el riesgo de demencia y enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) según la depresión clínicamente relevante, diagnosticada con criterios del Geriatric Mental State (GMS). Pacientes y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de los estudios publicados en PubMed y Web of Science hasta enero de 2018 para identificar todos los estudios longitudinales sobre la asociación entre la depresión clínicamente relevante (diagnosticada con criterios del GMS) y el riesgo de demencia y EA en los ancianos. Se calculó el riesgo relativo agrupado para examinar la depresión como un posible factor de riesgo para la demencia en estudios comunitarios, así como la fracción poblacional de demencia y EA atribuible a la depresión. Resultados. Seis estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para la revisión sistemática. Todos ellos proporcionaron suficiente información para realizar un metaanálisis. Los participantes con depresión clínicamente relevante tuvieron un riesgo un 54% más elevado de demencia (p = 0,026) y una fracción atribuible poblacional del 8,6%. Los pacientes con EA tuvieron un riesgo un 50% más alto (p = 0,038) y una fracción atribuible poblacional del 10,8%. Conclusión. La depresión clínicamente relevante se asocia con un mayor riesgo de demencia y EA en la comunidad, con un impacto potencial mayor que otros factores de riesgo conocidos. Los estudios futuros deben explorar los mecanismos que vinculan la depresión con la demencia y la EA, así como si un tratamiento eficaz de la depresión clínicamente relevante podría prevenir la demencia y el desarrollo de la EA


Aim. To carry out a meta-analysis of population-based prospective cohort studies to investigate the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to clinically relevant depression, assessed with Geriatric Mental State (GMS) criteria. Patients and methods. A systematic literature search of the studies published in PubMed and Web of Science up to January 2018 was performed to identify all longitudinal studies on the association between clinically relevant depression (diagnosed with GMS criteria) and risk of dementia in the elderly. We calculated pooled relative risks to examine depression as a possible risk factor for dementia in community studies, as well as to compute population attributable fraction (PAF). Results. Six studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. All of them provided enough information to perform a meta-analysis. Participants with clinically relevant depression had a 54% higher risk of dementia (p = 0.026) with a PAF attributable to clinically relevant depression of 8.6%. The numbers for AD were 50% higher risk (p = 0.038) and a PAF of 10.8%. Conclusion. Clinically relevant depression is associated with an increased risk for dementia and AD in the community, with a potential impact higher than other known/recognized risk factors. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking depression and dementia and AD as well as whether an effective treatment of clinically significant depression could prevent dementia and AD development


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão/complicações , Demência/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 95(2): 131-133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208819

RESUMO

The KPC K-SeT immunochromatographic test (Coris BioConcept®, Gembloux, Belgium) has been widely used for detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae with reported sensitivities and specificities of 100%. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports of its use in KPC-positive Pseudomonas species. We evaluated the KPC K-SeT test in 36 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (21 KPC-positive and 15 KPC-negative) and 20 Pseudomonas species (5 KPC-positive and 15 KPC-negative) using conventional PCR for carbapenemase genes as the reference method. The KPC K-SeT test detected 25 out of 26 KPC-positive isolates (96.1%). The undetected isolate was 1 P. aeruginosa bearing the mutation D179Y in the omega loop region of KPC-2 carbapenemase. This mutation was already reported in Enterobacteriaceae as conferring resistance to ceftazidime-avibactam. To our knowledge, this is the first report of evaluation of KPC K-SeT test in KPC-positive P. aeruginosa isolates.

19.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4328, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the enzyme activity of different presentations of papain solution to validate in-house preparations. METHODS: Two papain solutions were prepared, and the third presentation was a commercial solution. Tests were carried out with samples of red cells typed as weak RhD. RESULTS: In-house prepared papain solutions showed similar enzyme reactivity, and statistically no differences compared to the enzyme activity of the commercial solution. CONCLUSION: Evaluating the cost-benefit ratio, the in-house prepared papain solutions present more economic advantages, and can be incorporated into immunohematological routines as a way to cope with periods of financial crisis and cost-containment policies.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Papaína/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Soluções/normas , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Testes Hematológicos/economia , Humanos , Papaína/economia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/economia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/química , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/economia , Soluções/economia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 23(3): 373-377, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine any correlations between difficulty in performing restorative procedures and the adoption of ergonomic posture by dental students in a preclinical course. METHODS: The sample was composed of second-year undergraduate students enrolled in the School of Dentistry of São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara (n = 56). The data were collected from weekly records in which students who had participated in training in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory registered the difficulty they experienced performing given proposed preclinical procedures and adopting ergonomic posture (positioning of students' legs, thighs, spine, arms, and forearms, as well as the positioning of both the dental light and the dental mannequin's head, the distance between the operating field and the operator's eyes, and the location of the instruments used in the procedures). Answers were provided on a scale of zero to ten points (zero = no difficulty; 10 = maximum difficulty). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The correlation between the level of difficulty in performing the restorative procedures and in the adoption of ergonomic posture was estimated using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), and its significance was tested using Student's t test. To evaluate the effect of time on students' perceived difficulties in implementing ergonomic posture, the first 2 weeks of training was defined as the initial time, whilst the last 2 weeks was defined as final time (scores from these periods were averaged). After the normality assumptions were verified, Student's t test for paired samples was performed. The significance level adopted was <5%. RESULTS: A correlation was found between the difficulty students experienced performing the preclinical procedures and their difficulties implementing ergonomic posture; the correlation was significant, though the correlation ranged from slight to moderate (P < 0.001; r = 0.38-0.63). In addition, the data also showed that the students' perceptions of how difficult it was to implement these posture items decreased significantly over time (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The correlation between perceived difficulty in performing the preclinical restorative dentistry procedures and the application of ergonomic posture was slight to moderate, and the students' perceived difficulties in maintaining ergonomic posture decreased over the course of the school year.

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