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1.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 10781552211003638, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our goal was to demonstrate the effects of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs on oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in health professionals who manipulate and administer antineoplastic drugs in a University Hospital in Southern Brazil. METHODS: The case-control study with a longitudinal design, involved 64 individuals, 29 of them pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and nurses who were occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs and 35 professionals who were not exposed. Gene mutations were determined by micronucleus from salivary fluid; DNA damage by comet assay and oxidative stress parameters in whole blood were also evaluated. RESULTS: All workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs used personal protective equipment (PPE). It was demonstrated that the total nonprotein thiol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels showed interaction between group and time, with higher levels one week after handling/administration of antineoplastic drugs in the exposed group (GEE, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0,013, respectively). Additionally, there was a group effect on the activities of the catalase and glutathione peroxidase antioxidant enzymes (GEE, p = 0.027 and p ≤ 0.0001, respectively), and workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs had higher enzyme activities compared to those not exposed. No genotoxic damage was demonstrated through the evaluated parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the correct use of PPE, professionals occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs were more susceptible to oxidative stress than those not exposed. The evaluation of the studied parameters is especially important for the definition of conducts and practices in the area, always in search of guaranteeing the establishment of a rational policy to protect workers' health.

2.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127857, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854004

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of the chronic exposure to chemical agents from air pollution on phenotypic and genotypic expressions of peripheral biomarkers and tumor-related proteins in mononuclear cells. This study evaluates 85 taxi drivers (outdoor workers) and 55 non-occupationally exposed persons (NOE) to air pollution (indoor workers). The biomarkers were urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), for organic agents, and blood As and Ni, for inorganic agents. Oxidative stress biomarkers; protein expression of ICAM-1 (CD54), ß2-integrin, L-selectin (CD62-L), and MCP1; gene expression of ICAM-1, p53 and CD26 were performed. Urinary 1-OHP and blood As and Ni levels were increased in taxi drivers and were associated with inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. These exposure biomarkers were also associated with each other, suggesting a common source of exposure. The gene expression of p53, CD26 and ICAM-1 were decreased in taxi drivers and were strongly associated between them, indicating a commom regulation point. The antioxidant non-protein thiols and lycopene were negatively associated with inflammatory biomarkers, maybe regulating the immune-response. We demonstrated, for the first time, that in occupational exposure to air pollution chemicals, oxidative and inflammatory processes are involved in the immune-regulatory process, and indirectly contribute to suppressing the p53 and CD26 expressions, increasing the risk of cancer development. On the other hand, antioxidants could contribute to improving the immune-regulation, but more studies are needed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Pirenos/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; : 129066, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293049

RESUMO

Fish consumption and chronic exposure to low doses of mercury (Hg) seems to activate several molecular mechanisms leading to carcinogenic and/or teratogenic processes. However, Hg genotoxic effects on humans are not completely described. In the present study, we assessed cytogenetic damage in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-Cyt), micronucleus formation with anti-kinetochore antibody (CREST staining), levels of total Hg in hair (T-Hg), fish consumption, and estimated Hg dose. The study comprised 39 non-exposed, and 73 residents from La Mojana region, an area with a well-documented Hg contamination. Data showed a significant increase in micronuclei (MNBN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), and necrotic and apoptotic cell frequencies in residents of "La Mojana." The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for exposed residents was 1.12 ± 0.94 mg kg-1 and 0.15 ± 0.05 in individuals from the reference area. Approximately 40% of analyzed individuals showed T-Hg levels that exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose. Increased T-Hg levels in hair were related to increased MNBN frequencies and high fish consumption. Other cellular markers, such as necrotic and apoptotic cell frequencies, were also correlated with high fish intake and T-Hg contents. Results of the CREST staining demonstrated that in vivo exposure to Hg induces genetic instability by chromosome fragment loss (clastogenic). Additionally, a high average intake of some fish species, particularly with carnivorous habits like Caquetaia kraussii, Hoplias malabaricus, and Sorubin cuspicaudus, seems to increase MNBN frequencies significantly.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805194

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in grape products and oxidative stress has been reported as an important mechanism involved in its toxicity, classified as possible carcinogenic to humans. Conversely, phenolics are known bioactive compounds in grapes and display great antioxidant properties. However, the biological effects of the concomitant presence of phenolic compounds and OTA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of OTA presence in Cabernet Sauvignon wine on antioxidant activity in vitro and on oxidative stress markers in vivo. In addition, the phenolic composition of wine was evaluated by LC-DAD-MS/MS. In vitro assays were based on spectrophotometric methods, while in vivo assays were performed evaluating oxidative stress markers in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an alternative model to animal testing. A total of 23 phenolic compounds were identified in the Cabernet sauvignon red wine, including the anthocyanins delphinidin-3-O-glicoside and malvidin-3-O-glicoside, the flavonol quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and the phenolic acids caffeic, verbascoside and caftaric. Trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were the only stilbenes found in the samples. OTA presence in the red wine was accompanied by reduction in GSH content and increase in hydroxyl radical generation in vitro. The presence of OTA in wine also increased lipoperoxidation and induced overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo. This study demonstrates that OTA presence in red wine can reduce its antioxidant potential in vitro and induces oxidative stress in vivo, without affecting the phenolic compounds levels in the samples. Thus, this work provides insights into the negative effects of the presence of OTA in wine, not only by its known toxicity, but also by prejudicing the antioxidant potential of wine. It is important to be aware of these effects when developing a complete description of OTA toxicity in humans.

5.
Future Med Chem ; 12(12): 1137-1154, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513026

RESUMO

Background: Dihydropyrimidin-2-thiones (DHPMs) are a class of heterocyclic compound which have been intensively investigated mainly due to their anticancer activity as kinesin Eg5 inhibitors. Materials & methods: A library of N1 aryl substituted DHPMs were tested against glioma and bladder cancer cell lines. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) investigation was performed in order to identify key elements of DHPMs linked with their antiproliferative effect. The toxicity of most active compounds was investigated using Caenorhabditis elegans as the model. Results & conclusion: DHPMs 9, 13 and 17 have been identified as having improved activity against glioma and bladder cell lines as compared with monastrol. Flow cytometry investigations showed that the new compounds induce cell cycle arrest in phase G2/M and cell death by apoptosis. In addition, compound 13 was able to modulate the reactive oxygen species production in vivo in C. elegans. The biphenyl dihydropyrimidinthiones provided a safety profile in C. elegans.

6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2587-2595, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524267

RESUMO

Lycorine is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that presents anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity. T. vaginalis causes trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection. The modulation of T. vaginalis purinergic signaling through the ectonucleotidases, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase represents new targets for combating the parasite. With this knowledge, the aim of this study was to investigate whether NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibition by lycorine could lead to extracellular ATP accumulation. Moreover, the lycorine effect on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by neutrophils and parasites was evaluated as well as the alkaloid toxicity. The metabolism of purines was assessed by HPLC. ROS production was measured by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity against epithelial vaginal cells and fibroblasts was tested, as well as the hemolytic effect of lycorine and its in vivo toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae. Our findings showed that lycorine caused ATP accumulation due to NTPDase inhibition. The alkaloid did not affect the ROS production by T. vaginalis; however, it increased ROS levels in neutrophils incubated with lycorine-treated trophozoites. Lycorine was cytotoxic against vaginal epithelial cells and fibroblasts; conversely, it was not hemolytic neither exhibited toxicity against the in vivo model of G. mellonella larvae. Overall, besides having anti-T. vaginalis activity, lycorine modulates ectonucleotidases and stimulates neutrophils to secrete ROS. This mechanism of action exerted by the alkaloid could enhance the susceptibility of T. vaginalis to host immune cell, contributing to protozoan clearance.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/farmacologia , Amaryllidaceae/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenantridinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Tricomoníase/metabolismo , Trichomonas vaginalis/enzimologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/antagonistas & inibidores , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichomonas vaginalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichomonas vaginalis/metabolismo , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofozoítos/enzimologia , Trofozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trofozoítos/metabolismo
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29291-29302, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436094

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate biomarkers of exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors insecticides (AChE and BuChE activities) and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb blood levels) and their associations with biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters in farmers from Southern Brazil. One hundred and sixteen individuals were divided into two groups: 62 farmers (exposed group) and 54 subjects non-occupationally exposed (NOE) to agrochemicals. Erythrocyte (AChE) and serum (BuChE) cholinesterases activities were significantly reduced as well as blood Cd and Pb levels were increased in farmers when compared to NOE group (p < 0.05). Farmers presented increased glucose and urea levels compared to NOE group, which were inversely associated with AChE and positively correlated with Cd (p < 0.05), respectively. In addition, Cd was inversely associated with the hematological cells counts, which were significantly reduced in farmers (p < 0.05). C3 complement was higher in farmers and was positively associated with blood Pb (p < 0.05). Surface protein expression analysis revealed a downregulation of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in farmers. Inverse associations were found between LFA-1 and blood As, Cr, and Ni levels (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results pointed to a relationship between agrochemicals and metals exposure and biochemical, hematological, and immunological disorders that can lead to several chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Brasil , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Metais
8.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-8, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106715

RESUMO

Inhalation of xenobiotics during manufacture process in chrome plating bath produce hazards to workers' health. Chromium (Cr) is a metal widely used by industry, and its hexavalent (VI) form has been classified as mutagenic and carcinogenic. This study aimed to evaluate the occupational risk of exposure to metals in chrome plating workers. Biological monitoring was performed through quantification of Cr, Pb, As, Ni, and V in blood by ICP-MS in 50 male chrome-plating workers from the exposed group and 50 male non-exposed workers. The inflammatory parameters assessed were ß-2 integrin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and L-selectin expression in lymphocytes. The genotoxicity was evaluated with comet and micronucleus (MN) assays and as a biomarker of oxidative damage the lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO). The results demonstrated that Cr levels in blood and urine were increased in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. Although the biomarkers of exposure proved to be within the levels considered safe in exposed individuals, chrome plating workers presented significantly increase in the percentage of lymphocytes expressing ß-2 integrin, ICAM-1, and L-selectin as well as DNA damage (comet assay) and plasmatic MDA and PCO levels. Therefore, it is possible also assign the injuries caused to lipids, proteins, and DNA assessed due to the increased presence of other metals such as Pb, As, Ni, and V in exposed subjects. These results suggest that exposure to xenobiotics present in the occupational environment in chrome plating industry could play a crucial role toward the inflammation, genetic, and oxidative damage.

9.
J Appl Toxicol ; 40(6): 722-736, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960485

RESUMO

There is a well-recognized association between environmental air pollution exposure and several human diseases. However, the relationship between diseases related to occupational air pollution exposure on roads and high levels of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) is less substantiated. Biomarkers are essential tools in environmental and occupational toxicology, and studies on new biomarkers are increasingly relevant due to the need to determine early biomarkers to be assessed in exposure conditions. This review aimed to investigate the main advances in the biomonitoring of subjects occupationally exposed to air pollution, as well as to summarize the biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility. Furthermore, we discuss how biomarkers could be used to complement the current application of methods used to assess occupational exposures to xenobiotics present in air pollution. The databases used in the preparation of this review were PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. Considering the significant deleterious effects on health associated with chronic occupational exposure to xenobiotics, this topic deserves attention. As it is difficult to avoid occupational exposure to TRAPs, biomonitoring should be applied as a strategy to reduce the toxic effects of workplace exposure.

10.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(Suppl 1): 75, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gasoline is a complex mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, in which aromatic compounds, such as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) feature as the main constituents. Simultaneous exposure to these aromatic hydrocarbons causes a significant impact on benzene toxicity. In order to detect early alterations caused in gasoline station attendants exposed to BTX compounds, immunological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. METHODS: A total of 66 male subjects participated in this study. The gasoline station attendants (GSA) group consisted of 38 gasoline station attendants from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The non-exposed group consisted of 28 subjects who were non-smokers and who had no history of occupational exposure. Environmental and biological monitoring of BTX exposure was performed using blood and urine. RESULTS: The GSA group showed increased BTX concentrations in relation to the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). The GSA group showed elevated protein carbonyl (PCO) levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of CD80 and CD86 in monocytes, and reduced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.05). BTX levels and trans,trans-muconic acid levels were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with interleukin-10 contents (p < 0.001). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were accompanied by increased PCO contents and decreased GST activity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, according to the multiple linear regression analysis, benzene exposure was the only factor that significantly contributed to the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings show the influence of exposure to BTX compounds, especially benzene, on the immunological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress biomarkers evaluated. Furthermore, the data suggest the relationship among the evaluated biomarkers of effect, which could contribute to providing early signs of damage to biomolecules in subjects occupationally exposed to BTX compounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Citocinas/urina , Biomarcadores Ambientais/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-1/sangue , Antígeno B7-1/urina , Antígeno B7-2/sangue , Antígeno B7-2/urina , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Brasil , Citocinas/sangue , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(Suppl 1): 82, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of impurities in some drugs may compromise the safety and efficacy of the patient's treatment. Therefore, establishing of the biological safety of the impurities is essential. Diabetic patients are predisposed to tissue damage due to an increased oxidative stress process; and drug impurities may contribute to these toxic effects. In this context, the aim of this work was to study the toxicity, in 3 T3 cells, of the antidiabetic agents sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and their two main impurities of synthesis (S1 and S2; V1 and V2, respectively). METHODS: MTT reduction and neutral red uptake assays were performed in cytotoxicity tests. In addition, DNA damage (measured by comet assay), intracellular free radicals (by DCF), NO production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) were evaluated. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity was observed for impurity V2. Free radicals generation was found at 1000 µM of sitagliptin and 10 µM of both vildagliptin impurities (V1 and V2). A decrease in NO production was observed for all vildagliptin concentrations. No alterations were observed in ΔψM or DNA damage at the tested concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the presence of impurities might increase the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress of the pharmaceutical formulations at the concentrations studied.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/toxicidade , Vildagliptina/toxicidade , Células 3T3 , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/química , Vildagliptina/química
12.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(Suppl 1): 76, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease. Although the number of people infected is very high, the only drugs available to treat CD, nifurtimox (Nfx) and benznidazole, are highly toxic, particularly in the chronic stage of the disease. Coumarins are a large class of compounds that display a wide range of interesting biological properties, such as antiparasitic. Hence, the aim of this work is to find a good antitrypanosomal drug with less toxicity. The use of simple organism models has become increasingly attractive for planning and simplifying efficient drug discovery. Within these models, Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a convenient and versatile tool with significant advantages for the toxicological potential identification for new compounds. METHODS: Trypanocidal activity: Forty-two 4-methylamino-coumarins were assayed against the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tulahuen 2 strain) by inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). Toxicity assays: Lethal dose 50% (LD50) and Body Area were determined by Caenorhabditis elegans N2 strain (wild type) after acute exposure. Structure-activity relationship: A classificatory model was built using 3D descriptors. RESULTS: Two of these coumarins demonstrated near equipotency to Nifurtimox (IC50 = 5.0 ± 1 µM), with values of: 11 h (LaSOM 266), (IC50 = 6.4 ± 1 µM) and 11 g (LaSOM 231), (IC50 = 8.2 ± 2.3 µM). In C. elegans it was possible to observe that Nfx showed greater toxicity in both the LD50 assay and the evaluation of the development of worms. It is possible to observe that the efficacy between Nfx and the synthesized compounds (11 h and 11 g) are similar. On the other hand, the toxicity of Nfx is approximately three times higher than that of the compounds. Results from the QSAR-3D study indicate that the volume and hydrophobicity of the substituents have a significant impact on the trypanocidal activities for derivatives that cause more than 50% of inhibition. These results show that the C. elegans model is efficient for screening potentially toxic compounds. CONCLUSION: Two coumarins (11 h and 11 g) showed activity against T. cruzi epimastigote similar to Nifurtimox, however with lower toxicity in both LD50 and development of C. elegans assays. These two compounds may be a feasible starting point for the development of new trypanocidal drugs.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Dose Letal Mediana , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/toxicidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Mutat Res ; 841: 8-13, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138412

RESUMO

Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer of carbon atoms, tightly packed, forming a honey comb crystal lattice, with physical, chemical, and mechanical properties greatly used for energy storage, electrochemical devices, and in nanomedicine. Many studies showed that nanomaterials have side-effects on health. At present, there is a lack of information regarding graphene and its derivatives including their cardiotoxic properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of nano-graphene oxide (nano-GO) in the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and the involvement of oxidative processes. The cell viability was evaluated with the fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI) and in the trypan blue exclusion assay, furthermore mitochondrial membrane potential and production of free radicals were measured. Genotoxicity was evaluated in comet assay and low molecular weight DNA experiment. Reduction of cell viability with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL nano-GO was observed after 24 h incubation. Besides, nano-GO induced a mitochondrial hyperpolarization and a significant increase of free radicals production in the same concentrations. DNA breaks were observed at 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL. This DNA damage was accompanied by a significant increase in LMW DNA only at 40 µg/mL. In conclusion, the nano-GO caused cardiotoxicity in our in vitro model, with mitochondrial disturbances, generation of reactive species and interactions with DNA, indicating the importance of the further evaluation of the safety of nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Grafite/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos , Ratos
14.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-9, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938198

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) causes health effects, especially cancer. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can contain high As concentrations. Using ICP-MS, we quantified the total As (tAs) levels in the main brands of rice (n = 103) and infant cereals (n = 27) consumed by Brazilians. The levels were compared to the maximum limits prescribed by regulatory agencies. We estimated the daily intake (EDI) of As by Brazilians by combining the mean As concentration determined in the white rice samples with per capita daily consumption divided by the average body weight as reported by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in 2010. The possible health risk for consumers was assessed by calculating the margin of exposure (MOE) as prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Moreover, tAs was determined in 11 pesticides used by Brazilian farmers. The tAs levels in the rice ranged from 0.003 to 1.3 mg kg-1. Approximately 27% of the white rice contained tAs levels above the limit set by Mercosul (0.3 mg kg-1) and 45% were above the limit set by the European Commission (0.2 mg kg-1). In the infant cereals, tAs levels ranged from 0.003 to 0.243 mg kg-1. In the pesticides, tAs levels ranged from 0.005 to 0.315 mg L-1. The EDI showed that, on average, Brazilians consume 4.13 µg As kg-1 BW weekly. In addition, a low MOE was observed, demonstrating that high use of rice presents a risk of high inorganic (iAs) exposure, which represents a public health concern.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(2): 1394-1405, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426371

RESUMO

Workers chronically exposed to respirable crystalline silica (CS) are susceptible to adverse health effects like silicosis and lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate potential early peripheral biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in miners. The subjects enrolled in this study were occupationally unexposed workers (OUW, n = 29) and workers exposed to crystalline silica (WECS), composed by miners, which were divided into two subgroups: workers without silicosis (WECS I, n = 39) and workers diagnosed with silicosis, retired from work (WECS II, n = 42). The following biomarkers were evaluated: gene expression of L-selectin, CXCL2, CXCL8 (IL-8), HO-1, and p53; malondialdehyde (MDA) plasma levels and non-protein thiol levels in erythrocytes. Additionally, protein expression of L-selectin was evaluated to confirm our previous findings. The results demonstrated that gene expression of L-selectin was decreased in the WECS I group when compared to the OUW group (p < 0.05). Regarding gene expression of CXCL2, CXCL8 (IL-8), HO-1, and p53, significant fold change decreases were observed in workers exposed to CS in relation to unexposed workers (p < 0.05). The results of L-selectin protein expression in lymphocyte surface corroborated with our previous findings; thus, significant downregulation in the WECS groups was observed compared to OUW group (p < 0.05). The MDA was negatively associated with the gene expression of CXCL-2, CXCL8 (IL-8), and p53 (p < 0.05). The participants with silicosis (WECS II) presented significant increased non-protein thiol levels in relation to other groups (p < 0.05). Taken together, our findings may contribute to help the knowledge about the complex mechanisms involved in the silicosis pathogenesis and in the risk of lung cancer development in workers chronically exposed to respirable CS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CXCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes p53 , Heme Oxigenase-1/sangue , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/genética , Selectina L/sangue , Selectina L/genética , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicose/etiologia
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(2): 1892-1901, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460648

RESUMO

The most commonly used solution in chrome plating bath is chromic acid (hexavalent Cr), and a considerable amount of mists is released into the air and consequently produce hazards to workers. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of exposure to metals, specially Cr levels, presents associations with hematological and biochemical parameters and if they can alter the activity of enzymes that contain thiol groups such as pyruvate kinase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase, and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase. Fifty male chrome plating workers were used for exposed group and 50 male non-exposed workers for control group. For that, biological monitoring was performed through quantification of metals on total blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and enzyme activity was performed by spectrometry in erythrocytes. In addition, chromium levels in water was quantified and ecotoxicology assay was performed with Allium cepa test. The results demonstrated that blood and urinary chromium levels in exposed group were higher than the control group (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, decreased activity of enzymes was found in those that contain thiol groups from exposed group when compared with the control group (p < 0.001). The water analysis did not present a statistical difference between control and exposed groups (p > 0.05), demonstrating that water did not seem to be the source of contamination. In summary, our findings indicated some toxicology effects observed in the exposed group, such as thiol enzyme inhibition, mainly associated with occupational exposure in chrome plating and besides the presence of other metals, and Cr demonstrated to influence the activity of the enzymes analyzed in this research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Adulto , Biometria , Cromo , Ecotoxicologia , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Medchemcomm ; 9(6): 995-1010, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108989

RESUMO

An original and focused library of two sets of dihydropyrimidin-2-thiones (DHPMs) substituted with N-1 aryl groups derived from monastrol was designed and synthesized in order to discover a more effective Eg5 ligand than the template. Based on molecular docking studies, four ligands were selected to perform pharmacological investigations against two glioma cell lines. The results led to the discovery of two original compounds, called 20h and 20e, with an anti-proliferative effects, achieving IC50 values of about half that of the IC50 of monastrol in both cell lines. As with monastrol, flow cytometry analyses showed that the 20e and 20h compounds induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and immunocytochemistry essays revealed the formation of monopolar spindles due to Eg5 inhibition without any toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans.

18.
Environ Res ; 166: 91-99, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883905

RESUMO

Benzene is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there are still some gaps in the knowledge regarding the mechanism of toxicity of this organic solvent and potential early biomarkers for the damage caused by it. In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that the adhesion molecules of the immune system (B7.1 and B7.2) could be potential biomarkers in the early detection of immunotoxicity caused by benzene exposure. Therefore, this study was developed to deepen the understanding regarding this important topic, aiming to contribute to the comprehension of the benzene toxicity mechanism mediated by B7.1 and B7.2 and its potential association with the risk of carcinogenicity. B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression in blood monocytes and B7.1 and B7.2 gene expression in PBMCs were evaluated. Additionally, complement C3 and C4 levels in serum were measured, as well as p53 gene expression in PBMCs. Seventy-four gas station workers (GSW group) and 71 non-occupationally exposed subjects (NEG) were evaluated. Our results demonstrated decreased levels of B7.1 and B7.2 protein and gene expression in the GSW group compared to the NEG (n = 71) (p < 0.01). Along the same lines, decreased levels of the complement system were observed in the GSW group (p < 0.01), demonstrating the impairment of this immune system pathway as well. Additionally, a reduction was observed in p53 gene expression in the GSA group (p < 0.01). These alterations were associated with both the benzene exposure biomarker evaluated, urinary trans, trans-muconic acid, and with exposure time (p < 0.05). Moreover, strong correlations were observed between the gene expression of p53 vs. B7.1 (r = 0.830; p < 0.001), p53 vs. B7.2 (r = 0.685; p < 0.001), and B7.1 vs. B7.2 (r = 0.702; p < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate that the immune system co-stimulatory molecule pathway is affected by benzene exposure. Also, the decrease in p53 gene expression, even at low exposure levels, reinforces the carcinogenicity effect of benzene in this pathway. Therefore, our results suggest that the promotion of immune evasion together with a decrease in p53 gene expression may play an important role in the benzene toxicity mechanism. However, further and targeted studies are needed to confirm this proposition.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Benzeno/toxicidade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Biomarcadores , Carcinógenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C3/imunologia , Complemento C4/imunologia , Humanos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 484: 305-313, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860036

RESUMO

Workers involved in mining activities are exposed to crystalline silica, which leads to constant pulmonary inflammatory reactions and severe oxidative damage, resulting in silicosis. In this work, we aimed to evaluate inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters as potential early biomarkers of effect to assess crystalline silica toxicity in workers who had occupational exposure during mining. We enrolled 38 workers exposed to crystalline silica (WECS), 24 individuals with silicosis (IWS), and 30 occupationally unexposed workers (OUW), a total of 92 participants. The WECS were divided into 2 groups, according to the time of exposure: 19 workers with 1-15 years of occupational exposure (WECS I) and 19 workers with >16 years of occupational exposure (WECS II). The inflammatory parameters assessed were L-selectin, ß-2 integrin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) surface protein expression in lymphocytes and monocytes, complement C3 and C4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum levels of vitamin C were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Biochemical and hematological parameters were also investigated. L-selectin surface protein expression was significantly decreased in the WECS II group (p < 0.05), indicating the importance of this immune system component as a potential marker of crystalline-silica-induced toxicity. The MDA levels were significantly increased in the WECS I, WECS II, and IWS groups compared to the OUW group (p < 0.05). Vitamin C levels were decreased, while C3, hsCRP, ADA, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were increased in the IWS group compared to the OUW group (p < 0.05). Glucose and urea levels were significantly higher in the WECS I, II, and IWS groups compared to the OUW group (p < 0.05). Negative partial association was found between L-selectin and time of exposure (p < 0.001), supporting the relevance of this biomarker evaluation in long-term exposure to crystalline silica. Significant associations were also observed among inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Therefore, our results demonstrated the relevance of L-selectin as a potential peripheral biomarker for monitoring crystalline silica-induced toxicity in miners after chronic exposure, before silicosis has developed. However, more studies are necessary for better understanding of the use L-selectin as an early biomarker in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Silicose/sangue , Silicose/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 182(1): 70-77, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634813

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in several biological pathways, naturally found in rocks, soils, and food. Even though the daily requirement of Se is achieved through a balanced diet, the use of Se supplements has been frequent. Due to the risk of toxic effects of having Se in excess, supplementation is still under debate. The aim was to evaluate the effects of long-term Se supplementation upon systolic blood pressure (SBP) and redox status of rats exposed to sodium selenite. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 2 and 6 mg/L of sodium selenite in drinking water for 85 days. SBP and body weight were evaluated weekly; oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood or plasma; and Se levels were assessed in blood, plasma, kidney, and liver. Se supplementation (2 and 6 mg/L) induced significant increase in the SBP in rats from the 42nd day until the end of the study. This increase on SBP was not associated with significant changes in oxidative stress biomarkers. A significant increase in Se levels was found in whole blood, kidney, and liver from both groups of rats receiving Se supplementation when compared to control. Although the exact mechanisms underlying this augment in SBP are not clear, they are potentially related to other Se biological routes besides the synthesis of selenoproteins, such as GSH-Px. Due to the negative effects upon blood pressure, precautionary measures are advised, since the selling of supplements does not require a medical prescription.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Selenito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
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