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1.
Planta Med ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839466

RESUMO

Two pimaranes ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (1: ) and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol (2: ), isolated from Aldama arenaria, and six semi-synthetic derivatives methyl ester of the ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (3: ), ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-ol (4: ), acetate of ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-ol (5: ), ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-ol succinic acid (6: ), acetate of ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol (7: ), ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol succinic acid (8: ) were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activities to childhood leukemia cell lines and leishmanicidal activity against the parasite Leishmania amazonensis. Among these compounds, 1: to 6: presented moderate cytotoxic activity, with compound 4: being the most active (GI50 of 2.6 µM for the HL60 line) and the derivatives 7: and 8: being inactive. Against the parasite Leishmania amazonensis, the most promising derivative was the acetate of ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-ol (5: ), with EC50 of 20.1 µM, selectivity index of 14.5, and significant reduction in the parasite load. Pimarane analogues 1: , ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, and 2: , ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol, presented different activities, corroborating the application of such molecules as prototypes for the design of other derivatives that have greater cytotoxic or leishmanicidal potential.

3.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 377-387, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities of the ethanolic extract (EEMz), fractions (LPFMz and HPFMz) and compounds isolated from the leaves of Manilkara zapota L. P. Royen. METHODS: Extract and fractions were produced by turbolization. LPFMz fraction was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds from HPFMz were purified by flash and preparative chromatographic methods, and chemically characterised by UPLC-ESITOFMS, optical rotation, and one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR techniques. Anthelmintic against Strongyloides venezuelensis and antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: EEMz showed mainly phenolic compounds and pentacyclic triterpenes from Δ12-oleane/Δ12-ursane series. Chlorogenic acid, myricetin-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, mearnsitrin, germanicol and germanicol acetate were reported to M. zapota leaves for the first time in this work. EEMz, HPFMz, LPFMz showed significative activity against C. albicans (16 µg/mL), while isolated flavonoids were active against S. aureus (<32 µg/mL). EEMz, phenolic-rich compounds (F2), and chlorogenic acid were potentially active against S. venezuelensis at 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: M. zapota and its bioactive compound can be eligible such as a potential phytomedicine for the treatment of microbial and strongyloidiasis drug-resistant infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Manilkara/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 705-713, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415404

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected parasitic infections of the world and current therapeutic options show several limitations. In the search for more effective drugs, plant compounds represent a powerful natural source. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone extracted from Artemisia annua L. leaves, from which dihydroartemisinin (DQHS) and artesunic acid (AA)/artesunate are examples of active derivatives. These lactones have been applied successfully on malaria therapy for decades. Herein, we investigated the sensitivity of Leishmania braziliensis, one of the most prevalent Leishmania species that cause cutaneous manifestations in the New World, to artemisinin, DQHS, and AA. L. braziliensis promastigotes and the stage that is targeted for therapy, intracelular amastigotes, were more sensitive to DQHS, showing EC50 of 62.3 ± 1.8 and 8.9 ± 0.9 µM, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that 50% of bone marrow-derived macrophages cultures were inhibited with 292.8 ± 3.8 µM of artemisinin, 236.2 ± 4.0 µM of DQHS, and 396.8 ± 6.7 µM of AA. The control of intracellular infection may not be essentially attributed to the production of nitric oxide. However, direct effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics and H2O2 production appear to be associated with the leishmanicidal effect of DQHS. Our data provide support for further studies of artemisinin and derivatives repositioning for experimental leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Succinatos/farmacologia
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(10): 2779-2789, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743668

RESUMO

Endophytes are considered one of the most important microbial resources for obtaining biomolecules of therapeutic use. Passiflora incarnata, widely employed by the pharmaceutical industry, shows therapeutic effects on anxiety, nervousness, constipation, dyspepsia and insomnia based on their antioxidant compounds. In this study, from 315 endophytic fungi isolated from P. incarnata leaves, 60 were selected to determinate presence of chemical constituents related with antioxidant activity, based on their production of soluble pigments. The promising fungi were evaluated specifically on their potential to produce phenolic compounds, flavonoids and for antioxidant activity. Five isolates significantly produced flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and n-Butanol extracts, also saponins and high antioxidant activity against the DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical. A strain of Aspergillus nidulans var. dentatus (former Emericella dentata) was able to produce tannins as well; its butanolic extract was very similar than the BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (94.3% × 94.32%) and Rutin (95.8%) reference substances in the DPPH radical scavenging. Similarly, a Chaetomium strain exhibited 93.6% and 94.7% of antioxidant activity in their ethyl acetate and butanolic fractions, respectively. The chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction from the Aspergillus strain revealed the production of orcinol (3.19%). Four-methoxymethylphenol (4.79%), sorbicillin (33.59%) and ergosterol (23.08%) was produced by Trichoderma longibrachiatum and isopropenyl-1,4-dimethyl-1,2,3,3a,4,5,6,7-octahydroazulene were found in two Fusarium oxysporum strains. The phytochemical screening showed that all analyzed fungi were able to produce a kind of secondary metabolite (phenols, flavonoids, tannins and/or saponins). The study shows a great underexplored potential for industrial application of P. incarnata endophytes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Passiflora/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/análise , Fungos/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Taninos
6.
Planta Med ; 86(11): 782-789, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512613

RESUMO

Ten lignans (1:  - 10: ) were isolated from the hexane-ethyl acetate extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves. Three of them, cubebin dimethyl ether (3: ), urinatetralin (4: ), and lintetralin (7: ) are described for the first time in this species, while phyllanthin (1: ), niranthin (2: ), 5-demethoxyniranthin (5: ), isolintetralin (6: ), hypophyllanthin (8: ), nirtetralin (9: ), and phyltetralin (10: ) have been already reported from P. amarus. Among the lignans tested against Trypanosoma cruzi intracellular amastigotes, 2: was the most active with an EC50 of 35.28 µM. Lignans 2, 5, 7: , and 9: showed inhibitory effects against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes with EC50 of 56.34, 51.86, 23.57, and 43.27 µM, respectively. During in vitro infection assays, 5: reduced amastigotes by 91% at 103.68 µM concentration, whereas 7: and 9: reduced amastigotes by approximately 84% at 47.5 and 86.04 µM, respectively. Lignans 5, 7: , and 9: were more potent in intracellular amastigotes with EC50 of 2.76, 8.30, and 15.83 µM, respectively, than in promastigotes. CC50 for all samples was > 100 µg/mL, thus revealing low cytotoxicity against macrophages, and selectivity against the parasite. L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with compounds 2: and 9: showed decreased respiratory control of 38% and 25%, respectively, suggesting a change in mitochondrial membrane potential and lower ATP production.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania mexicana , Lignanas , Phyllanthus , Extratos Vegetais
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068961

RESUMO

Colleters are trichomes or emergencies that produce a sticky exudate consisting of a mixture of mucilage, lipids, terpenes, and phenolic compounds. Colleters occur in at least 60 families of angiosperms; however, reports of them are scarce for the Orchidaceae. Elleanthus brasiliensis is distinguished by the presence of an abundant gelatinous secretion that covers almost all of its inflorescences. We aimed to describe the histology of colleters in inflorescences of E. brasiliensis and Elleanthus crinipes, and to analyze the chemical composition of their secretion to better understand the functions of these secretory structures. Due to the low frequency of colleters and lack of visible secretion in E. crinipes, histochemical tests and chemical analyses were not performed for this species. Colleters are of a brush type and their secretion has, at the same time, hydrophilic and lipophilic components. Histochemical tests further revealed the presence of pectin, mucilage, lipids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, and proteins. The GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of γ-sitosterol and palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids in the secretion of E. brasiliensis. Infrared analysis indicated the possible presence of polysaccharides in the secretion. The occurrence of colleters in both species studied and in other orchids described in the literature suggests that these structures are common in the inflorescences of tropical orchids. In these environments, the hydrated polysaccharides in the secretion form a dense matrix that can act as a physical barrier, and terpenes may help to protect against herbivores and pathogenic microorganisms. This information broadens our knowledge of the morphological and chemical diversity of the secretions produced by orchid colleters.

8.
Parasitol Res ; 118(2): 505-516, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617587

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a tropical neglected disease whose socioeconomic impact is surpassed only by malaria. Until recently, praziquantel (PZQ) has been the only available drug, raising concerns that tolerant/resistant strains may appear. Since the discovery of the schistosomicidal potential of artemisinin (ART), new derivatives have been produced and evaluated. In this work, we evaluated the activity of ART derivatives against Schistosoma mansoni, both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro assay, worm survival, oviposition, and morphological alterations were evaluated. Further analysis of morphological alterations and membrane integrity was conducted using scanning electron microscopy and a cell-permeable, benzimidazole dye (Hoescht 33258) that binds to the minor groove of double stranded DNA. For the in vivo assay, artesunic acid (AcART) and dihydroartemisinin acetate (AcDQHS) were selected, since they showed the best in vitro results. Infected mice treated 21, 45, or 60 days post-infection (dpi), with a concentration of 100 mg/kg of either AcART or AcDQHS, showed a significant worm reduction (particularly in females), fewer eggs eliminated in feces, and a decrease of immature eggs in the intestinal tissues. Our results indicate that AcART and AcDQHS have some schistosomicidal activity against juvenile and adult stages of S. mansoni.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomicidas/farmacologia , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/ultraestrutura , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 42(2): 100-109, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-958584

RESUMO

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A educação das relações étnico-raciais e a história da cultura afro-brasileira, previstas nas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do curso de graduação em Medicina como temas transversais, representam um desafio para o desenvolvimento curricular no contexto da social accountability, das metodologias de ensino e dos cenários de prática e integração à rede de serviços de saúde. OBJETIVOS: Identificar as necessidades relacionadas à saúde materna em população quilombola, valorizando os valores, conhecimentos, saberes e cultura local. Estabelecer uma estratégia de cuidado, com participação discente, que contemple as necessidades identificadas na comunidade quilombola. Descrever os conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes necessários ao desenvolvimento de competências culturais relacionadas à saúde materna das mulheres quilombolas. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa-ação para implantação de serviço de atenção interprofissional no pré-natal, com participação discente, tendo por base as necessidades da comunidade quilombola Capoeiras, em Macaíba (RN). Os dados foram analisados qualitativamente, pela técnica de análise de conteúdo temática categorial, com categorias definidas a priori. RESULTADOS: A criação de vínculos (a)efetivos entre usuárias e equipe de saúde e a habilidade de reflexão com ênfase na comunicação se mostraram como principais necessidades para o comportamento culturalmente competente no cuidado à saúde materna quilombola. As oportunidades de o estudante de Medicina conhecer a situação de saúde da população quilombola e vivenciar o trabalho interprofissional se mostraram estratégias efetivas para potencializar o desenvolvimento de competências culturais na formação médica. CONCLUSÕES: A formação de profissionais da saúde hábeis em interagir eficazmente com populações etnicamente diversas requer que estes conheçam os processos que influenciam a saúde e cuidados de saúde das minorias populacionais, além de vivências relacionadas à diversidade cultural, inseridas nos currículos médicos.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Training in ethnic and race relations and the history of Afro-Brazilian culture, established in the National Curricular Directives for Undergraduate Medical Courses as a transversal theme, represents a challenge for developing curricula in terms of social accountability, teaching methodologies and work experience in practical settings with integration into the health service network. OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal health care needs among the quilombola population, appreciating the local culture, values and knowledge. To set a care strategy with student participation which contemplates the identified needs in the quilombola community. To describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the development of cultural competencies related to maternal health care of quilombola women. METHODS: Action research for the implantation of interprofessional prenatal care services with student participation, based on the needs of the quilombola community of Capoeiras, in Macaiba (RN). The information gathered was analyzed qualitatively by means of content analysis, with a priori definition of the thematic categories. RESULTS: The formation of affective bonds between users and the health team, and communication skills that help enable reflection were found as the main needs for culturally competent behavior in maternal care of the quilombola community. The medical students' opportunity to learn about the health of the quilombola people and to have an interprofessional work experience proved to be effective strategies to leverage the development of cultural skills in medical training. CONCLUSIONS: The training of health professionals capable of interacting effectively with ethnically diverse populations requires their understanding the processes that influence the health and healthcare of ethnic minorities, as well as experiences related to cultural diversity, included in medical curricula.

10.
Rev. bras. pesqui. saúde ; 20(1): 23-31, jan.-mar. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-906609

RESUMO

Introdução: No Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), a implantação de novos modelos assistenciais, como a Estratégia Saúde da Família, vem demandando uma qualificação dos profissionais. Nessa direção, a Residência em Saúde constitui modalidade de ensino de pós-graduação lato sensu, caracterizada pela formação em serviço. Assim, no município de Sorocaba/SP, foram implantados Programas de Residência Médica e Multiprofissional em Saúde da Família. Objetivos: Identificar e analisar as percepções da primeira turma de residentes (2014-2016) a respeito de sua experiência nos Programas de Residência em Saúde da Família. Método: Foi utilizada a abordagem qualitativa de pesquisa, com a técnica do grupo focal. Foram realizados grupos com residentes de Enfermagem, Medicina e Odontologia. O material foi analisado segundo os princípios da análise temática. Resultados: Foram obtidas quatro categorias: a) as várias mudanças de 2014; b) a preceptoria e a tutoria; c) a estruturação do programa; d) a percepção do aprendizado ao final da residência. Discussão: Os residentes consideraram que a experiência vivida foi interessante e proveitosa. Vários dos pontos críticos apontados por eles são semelhantes às experiências de implantação de residência em Saúde da Família de outros municípios. Conclusão: O estudo aponta um caminho possível para a formação dos profissionais de saúde para o SUS, especialmente para sua principal estratégia de organização da Atenção Básica, que é a Estratégia de Saúde da Família.(AU)


Introduction: In the Brazilian Unified Health System, the implementation of novel healthcare models, such as Family Health Strategy, demands training and qualification of new professionals. In this setting, Healthcare Residency constitutes a lato sensu graduation marked by in-service education. In the city of Sorocaba/ SP, Medical and Multi-professional Family Health Residency Programs were implemented. Objectives: To pinpoint and analyze the perceptions of the first class residents regarding their experience in these Programs. Method: A qualitative research approach, with the focal group technique was used. Groups with residents that made up the Family Health core team (Nursing, Medicine and Dentistry) were created. The material was analyzed according to the principles of thematic analysis. Results: Four categories were obtained: a) the various changes in 2014; b) tutoring and mentoring; c) the structuring of the program; d) the learning perception at the end of the residency. Discussion: Residents have considered the experience they have been through to be very exciting and profitable. Several of the critical points raised by the residents are similar to implementation experiences of residency in Family Health in other cities. Conclusion: The study suggests a possible way to train healthcare professionals to the Unified Health System, especially for its main organization strategy of Basic Attention, which is the Family Health Strategy.(AU)


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Brasil , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
11.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 28(1): 1-8, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-898749

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The Lauraceae family is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical climates, has more than 2500 species and in the taxonomic point of view, it is one of the most difficult families to identify species. The aim of this study was to analyze the leaf anatomy of three species of Lauraceae (Ocotea indecora (Schott) Mez, Nectandra barbellata Coe-Teix. and Endlicheria paniculata (Spreng.) J.F.Macbr.) and identify the chemical profile of essential oil extracted from the leaves by hydrodistillation method. The leaves of the three species were obtained in "Parque Estadual Intervales", Atlantic Forest, São Paulo state, Brazil. Samples of leaves were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in synthetic resin and sectioned for mounting histological slides for anatomical description of leaf tissues. The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation method from dried leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography to establish its chemical profile. The leaves are hypostomatic, the epidermis in E. paniculata and N. barbellata present regular cells walls and irregular cells walls in O. indecora in both sides of epidermis. The three species present a dorsiventral mesophyll. Histochemical analyses presented lipid substances in secretory cavity and cuticle; starch, phenolic compounds and mucilage were observed in parenchyma cells of midrib and mesophyll. Ultra structural analyses demonstrated that trichomes in the species E. paniculata and O. indecora are shown only on the abaxial leaf face and species N. barbellata presented trichomes on both sides of the epidermis (abaxial and adaxial). Ocotea indecora essential oil revealed as main compound the bicyclogermacrene and N. barbellata the δ-cadinene. The species showed different morphological characters and different compounds of the essential oil, being these data useful for the differentiation of the species.

12.
Exp Parasitol ; 183: 56-63, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074138

RESUMO

Human schistosomiasis is an important neglected tropical disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma and is responsible for more than 280,000 deaths annually. Treatment for this disease relies currently on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Concerns regarding PZQ resistance and insensitivity of juvenile schistosomes have increased the interest in resorting to medicinal plants for alternative drug therapies. This study aimed to perform an in vivo schistosomicidal activity evaluation of crude hexanic (HE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts obtained from Phyllanthus amarus in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (BH strain). Mice were treated orally with a single dose of 100 or 250 mg/kg, on two different infection periods, 30 and 45 days post-infection (dpi). Parameters such as worm recovery, faecal egg count, intestinal tissue egg count and liver histopathology were evaluated. Treatment against young adult (30 dpi) and adult (45 dpi) worms were more effective compared to the control group treated with PZQ. At a concentration of 250 mg/kg (30 dpi) EE showed a 54.4% female reduction and a 61.2% total worm reduction whilst at a concentration of 100 mg/kg (45 dpi) HE showed a 40.6% female worm reduction and a 45.3% total worm reduction. Histopathological examination showed a granuloma decrease in both number and size for groups treated with 250 mg/kg of HE (45 dpi) or EE (30 or 45 dpi). From these results, it can be concluded that both hexanic and ethanolic extracts have antischistosomal activities, however, act differently according to the parasites age. The schistosomicidal activity results in groups treated 30 days post infection is extremely important since praziquantel does not show activity against the juvenile forms of Schistosoma.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Phyllanthus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Biomphalaria , Colo Ascendente/parasitologia , Etanol , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexanos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Solventes
13.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 55(10): 969-978, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977501

RESUMO

A rapid, simple, precise and economic method for the quantification of main compounds of copaiba resin and essential oils (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.) by gas chromatography (GC) has been developed and validated. Copaiba essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from the copaiba resin. Resin derivatization allowed the identification of diterpenes compounds. A gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) method was developed to identify compounds composing the copaiba resin and essential oil. Then the GC/MS method was transposed to be used with a flame ionization detector (FID) and validated as a quantitative method. A good correlation between GC/MS and GC/FID was obtained favoring method transposition. The method showed satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation for ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide analyses in copaiba resin and essential oils. The main compounds identified in copaiba essential oil were ß-bisabolene (23.6%), ß-caryophyllene (21.7%) and α-bergamotene (20.5%). Copalic acid methyl ester (15.6%), ß-bisabolene (12.3%), ß-caryophyllene (7.9%), α-bergamotene (7.1%) and labd-8(20)-ene-15,18-dioic acid methyl ester (6.7%) were diterpenes identified from the derivatized copaiba resin. The proposed method is suitable for a reliable separation, identification and quantification of compounds present in copaiba resin and essential oil. It could be proposed as an analytical method for the analysis of copaiba oil fraction in raw and essential oil parent extracts and after they have been incorporate in pharmaceutical formulations.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Rev. bras. pesqui. saúde ; 19(2): 106-114, abr.-jun. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-879158

RESUMO

No Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), a implantação de novos modelos assistenciais, como a Estratégia Saúde da Família, vem demandando uma qualificação dos profissionais. Nessa direção, a Residência em Saúde constitui modalidade de ensino de pós-graduação lato sensu, caracterizada pela formação em serviço. Assim, no município de Sorocaba/SP, foram implantados Programas de Residência Médica e Multiprofissional em Saúde da Família. Objetivo: Identificar e analisar as percepções da primeira turma de residentes (2014-2016) a respeito de sua experiência nos Programas de Residência em Saúde da Família. Métodos: Foi utilizada a abordagem qualitativa de pesquisa, com a técnica do grupo focal. Foram formados grupos com residentes de Enfermagem, Medicina e Odontologia. O material foi analisado segundo os princípios da análise temática. Resultados: Foram obtidas quatro categorias: a) as várias mudanças de 2014; b) a preceptoria e a tutoria; c) a estruturação do programa; d) a percepção do aprendizado ao final da residência. Os residentes consideraram que a experiência vivida foi interessante e proveitosa. Vários dos pontos críticos apontados por eles são semelhantes às experiências de implantação de residência em Saúde da Família de outros municípios. Conclusão: O estudo aponta um caminho possível para a formação dos profissionais de saúde para o SUS, especialmente para sua principal estratégia de organização da Atenção Básica, que é a Estratégia de Saúde da Família.(AU)


Introduction: In the Brazilian National Public Health System (SUS) , the implementation of novel healthcare models, such as Family Health Strategy, demands training and qualification of new professionals. In line with this, the inservice Medical and Multiprofessional Family Health Residency Programs were implemented in the city of Sorocaba, São Paulo. Objectives: To survey the perceptions of the first residents regarding their experience in these Programs. Methods: This is a qualitative research which used the focus group technique. Groups with residents that made up the Family Health core team (Nursing, Medicine and Dentistry) were formed. Data was analyzed according to thematic analysis. Results: Four categories were obtained: a) the various changes that took place in 2014; b) preceptorship and mentoring; c) the program structuring; d) the perception of learning at the end of internship. Discussion: Residents have considered the internship experience to be very exciting and profitable. Several of the critical points raised by the residents are similar to the implementation experiences of residency in Family Health in other cities. Conclusion: The study suggests a possible way to train healthcare professionals for the Brazilian National Public Health System (SUS), especially for its main organization strategy of Primary Care, which is the Family Health Strategy.(AU)


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Brasil , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 90: 813-820, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437885

RESUMO

The main challenge in schistosomiasis control has been the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. Since the 1970's, praziquantel (PZQ) is the single drug for treatment. This fact highlights the importance to research news chemotherapeutic agents. In the last years, S. mansoni excretory system and tegument have been major targets for drug development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sesquiterpenes, alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene on S. mansoni survival, excretory system and membrane integrity, after in vitro exposure. The in vitro studies, showed that sesquiterpenes reduced egg production and motor activity of worms at sublethal concentrations, and caused death in a concentration-dependent manner (100 and 200µg/mL). Tegumental analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), showed tegument damage. Additionally, it was possible to observe lesions, evidenced by intense marking trough Hoechst probe, in the tegument and suckers of worms exposed to 200µg/mL. In this study, we also showed that resorufin is only capable of identifying the interaction of sesquiterpenes in males excretory system, Pgp expression and inferring that females are more tolerant to treatments. Thus, the present study results contribute to an understanding of alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene effect over these targets, contributing for the development of schistosomicidal drugs.


Assuntos
Membranas/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomicidas/farmacologia
16.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 6(4): 195-204, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27169570

RESUMO

The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide.

17.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 39(4): 586-596, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-775613

RESUMO

RESUMO O desenvolvimento de habilidades de comunicação e relacionais (HbCR) é essencial para a formação médica, logo a utilização de estratégias educacionais que favoreçam seu aprendizado é necessária. O presente trabalho tem por objetivos descrever o processo de implementação da técnica de role-play e avaliar sua utilização no ensino das HbCR, de acordo com a percepção docente. A técnica foi utilizada no curso de Semiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal da Bahia (FMB/UFBA). Para atender a esses objetivos, o presente artigo foi estruturado em duas partes: plano de implementação da técnica de role-play e aplicação do role-play segundo a percepção do docente. O role-play revelou ser uma técnica factível, extremamente adequada ao ensino das HbCR, em consonância com as orientações das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Medicina.


ABSTRACT The development of communications skills is essential for the doctor training. Teaching in medical schools should thus involve the use of educational strategies that facilitate the acquisition of these skills. The goal of this paper is to describe the process of implementing a role playing strategy in a Semiology course, at the Medical School of the Federal University of Bahia, and to evaluate its potential for the teaching of communication skills. The paper is divided into two main sections: the action plan for implementing the role play strategy and application of the plan from the teachers’ perspective. In conclusion it is argued that the implementation of role playing in Semiology courses is feasible and adequate for the acquisition and improvement of communications skills. Moreover it should be noted that the use of role play as an educational strategy is in line with the National Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Courses in Medicine.

18.
Rev. CEFAC ; 17(4): 1288-1301, jul.-ago. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-759454

RESUMO

Resumo:OBJETIVO:caracterizar a linguagem de adolescentes deficientes auditivos oralizados que frequentam a escola regular, assim como a percepção do professor a respeito da comunicação desses alunos.MÉTODOS: amostras de fala espontânea de adolescentes portadores de perda auditiva pré-linguística de grau severo ou profundo e entrevista com os professores.RESULTADOS: as maiores dificuldades apresentadas pelos indivíduos na avaliação fonoaudiológica foram em relação à linguagem abstrata e à inteligibilidade de fala; no relato dos professores foram em relação à argumentação em avaliações escritas e à conversação com mais de um interlocutor.CONCLUSÃO: apesar do grau de perda auditiva apresentado pelos indivíduos, observou-se um bom desempenho destes quanto à comunicação, sendo esta efetiva em sua vida diária e escolar.


Abstract:PURPOSE:to characterize the language of oralized hearing impaired adolescents attending regular school, as well as the perception of the teacher about this student's communication.METHODS:sample of spontaneous speech of adolescents with pre-linguistic severe to profound hearing loss and interview with their teachers.RESULTS:the main difficulties presented by individuals in clinical assessment were concerning to the abstract language and speech intelligibility; teacher reports were in relation to argumentation in written tests and conversation with more than one person.CONCLUSION:despite the hearing loss that such individuals present, they have obtained a good and effective communication performance.

19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 20(7): 2059-68, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132245

RESUMO

This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication "Interface: Communication, Health, Education," whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Brasil , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/educação , Editoração/história , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(7): 2059-2068, 07/2015. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-749941

RESUMO

Resumo Faz-se uma reflexão sobre a experiência de 17 anos de produção de periódico científico de natureza interdisciplinar, a revista “Interface: Comunicação, Saúde, Educação,” que tem como escopo os campos da Saúde Coletiva, da Educação e da Comunicação. Examina-se, também, retrospectivamente os temas publicados pelo periódico, buscando-se reconhecê-los nas diferentes seções desta publicação. Por fim, analisa-se o periódico em sua evolução.


Abstract This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication “Interface: Communication, Health, Education,” whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Brasil , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/educação , Editoração/história , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos
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