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1.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 115(1): 4, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832789

RESUMO

Despite promising experimental studies and encouraging proof-of-concept clinical trials, interventions aimed at limiting infarct size have failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Our objective was to examine whether variables (cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, post-procedural variables, cotreatments) might be associated with clinical outcomes in STEMI patients independently from infarct size reduction. The present study was based on a post hoc analysis of the CIRCUS trial database (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01502774) that assessed the clinical benefit of a single intravenous bolus of cyclosporine in 969 patients with anterior STEMI. Since cyclosporine had no detectable effect on clinical outcomes as well as on any measured variable, we here considered the whole study population as one group. Multivariate analysis was performed to address the respective weight of infarct size and variables in clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that several variables (including gender, hypertension, renal dysfunction, TIMI flow grade post-PCI < 3, and treatment administered after PCI with betablockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) had per se a significant influence on the occurrence of [death or hospitalization for heart failure] at 1 year. The relative weight of infarct size and variables on the composite endpoint of [death or hospitalization for heart failure] at 1 year was 18% and 82%, respectively. Several variables contribute strongly to the clinical outcomes of STEMI patients suggesting that cardioprotective strategy might not only focus on infarct size reduction.

2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863453

RESUMO

Translation of cardioprotective interventions aimed at reducing myocardial injury during ischaemia-reperfusion from experimental studies to clinical practice is an important yet unmet need in cardiovascular medicine. One particular challenge facing translation is the existence of demographic and clinical factors that influence the pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the heart and the effects of treatments aimed at preventing it. Among these factors, age and sex are prominent and have a recognised role in the susceptibility and outcome of ischaemic heart disease. Remarkably, some of the most powerful cardioprotective strategies proven to be effective in young animals become ineffective during ageing. This article reviews the mechanisms and implications of the modulatory effects of ageing and sex on myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and their potential effects on cardioprotective interventions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Optimal lipid control is difficult to attain. We assessed preadmission achievement of the European Society of Cardiology targets for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) control in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Fasting LDL-C levels were measured in 3164 patients admitted between 2010 and 2017. We assessed the frequency of adequate LDL-C control, with targets defined according to individual cardiovascular risk, and the predictors of inadequate control. RESULTS: The median LDL-C value was 104 (80-130) mg/dL. Most patients had high or very high cardiovascular risk and only 34.2% had LDL-C levels below the recommended target for their estimated risk. Achievement of LDL-C goals increased moderately throughout the study period. Adequate LDL-C control was inversely associated with patient risk. Dyslipidemia, active smoking, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index ≥ 25 were independent predictors of inadequate lipid control, while ongoing statin therapy was associated with adequate control. CONCLUSIONS: Only slightly more than one third of patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome meet recommended LDL-C targets on admission. There is broad scope for improvement in primary and secondary prevention, especially among patients who are overweight or have other cardiovascular risk factors.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775376

RESUMO

Ischemic postconditioning (IPoC) reduces reperfusion arrhythmias but the antiarrhythmic mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze IPoC electrophysiological effects and the role played by adenosine A1, A2A and A3 receptors, protein kinase C, ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels, and connexin 43. IPoC reduced reperfusion arrhythmias (mainly sustained ventricular fibrillation) in isolated rat hearts, an effect associated with a transient delay in epicardial electrical activation, and with action potential shortening. Electrical impedance measurements and Lucifer-Yellow diffusion assays agreed with such activation delay. However, this delay persisted during IPoC in isolated mouse hearts in which connexin 43 was replaced by connexin 32 and in mice with conditional deletion of connexin 43. Adenosine A1, A2A and A3 receptor blockade antagonized the antiarrhythmic effect of IPoC and the associated action potential shortening, whereas exogenous adenosine reduced reperfusion arrhythmias and shortened action potential duration. Protein kinase C inhibition by chelerythrine abolished the protective effect of IPoC but did not modify the effects on action potential duration. On the other hand, glibenclamide, a KATP inhibitor, antagonized the action potential shortening but did not interfere with the antiarrhythmic effect. The antiarrhythmic mechanisms of IPoC involve adenosine receptor activation and are associated with action potential shortening. However, this action potential shortening is not essential for protection, as it persisted during protein kinase C inhibition, a maneuver that abolished IPoC protection. Furthermore, glibenclamide induced the opposite effects. In addition, IPoC delays electrical activation and electrical impedance recovery during reperfusion, but these effects are independent of connexin 43.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 605-618, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of signaling pathways altered at early stages after cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is crucial to develop timely therapies aimed at reducing I/R injury. The expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), a key signaling hub, is up-regulated in the long-term in patients and in experimental models of heart failure. However, whether GRK2 levels change at early time points following myocardial I/R and its functional impact during this period remain to be established. METHODS: We have investigated the temporal changes of GRK2 expression and their potential relationships with the cardioprotective AKT pathway in isolated rat hearts and porcine preclinical models of I/R. FINDINGS: Contrary to the maladaptive up-regulation of GRK2 reported at later times after myocardial infarction, successive GRK2 phosphorylation at specific sites during ischemia and early reperfusion elicits GRK2 degradation by the proteasome and calpains, respectively, thus keeping GRK2 levels low during early I/R in rat hearts. Concurrently, I/R promotes decay of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, a positive regulator of AKT stability, and a marked loss of total AKT protein, resulting in an overall decreased activity of this pro-survival pathway. A similar pattern of concomitant down-modulation of GRK2/AKT/Pin1 protein levels in early I/R was observed in pig hearts. Calpain and proteasome inhibition prevents GRK2/Pin1/AKT degradation, restores bulk AKT pathway activity and attenuates myocardial I/R injury in isolated rat hearts. INTERPRETATION: Preventing transient degradation of GRK2 and AKT during early I/R might improve the potential of endogenous cardioprotection mechanisms and of conditioning strategies.

6.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(9): 709-716, sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4509

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Se dispone de poca información sobre el beneficio real de la administración de colchicina en el primer episodio de pericarditis aguda idiopática (PAI). El objetivo principal del presente estudio es evaluar la eficacia real de la colchicina en pacientes con PAI que no toman corticoides. Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico abierto y aleatorizado. Se aleatorizó en 2 grupos a los pacientes con un primer episodio de PAI (no secundario a lesión cardiaca o enfermedad del tejido conectivo): A, con tratamiento antiinflamatorio convencional más colchicina durante 3 meses, y B, con tratamiento antiinflamatorio convencional solamente. Ningún paciente tomaba corticoides. El objetivo primario del estudio fue la aparición de episodios recurrentes de pericarditis. El objetivo secundario fue el tiempo hasta la primera recurrencia. El seguimiento fue de 24 meses. Resultados: Se aleatorizó a 110 pacientes (el 83,6% varones; media de edad, 44+/-18,3 años) a los grupos A (59 pacientes) y B (51 pacientes). No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las características basales, las características clínicas del episodio índice o el tipo de tratamiento antiinflamatorio administrado. Completaron el seguimiento 102 pacientes (92,7%). No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos en la tasa de pericarditis recurrente (12 pacientes [10,9%]; grupo A frente a grupo B, el 13,5 frente al 7,8%; p=0,34). El tiempo hasta la primera recurrencia (9,6+/-9.0 frente a 8,3+/-10,5 meses; p=0,80) no fue diferente entre los grupos. Conclusiones: En pacientes con un primer episodio de PAI que no habían tomado corticoides, no parece que la adición de colchicina al tratamiento antiinflamatorio convencional reduzca la tasa de recurrencias. Registro de ensayos clínicos: URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Identificador: EudraCT 2009-011258-16


Introduction and objectives: There is a paucity of information about the real benefit of colchicine administration in the first episode of acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP). The main objective of the present study was to assess the real efficacy of colchicine in patients with AIP who did not receive corticosteroids. Methods: Randomized multicenter open-label study. Patients with a first episode of AIP (not secondary to cardiac injury or connective tissue disease) were randomized into 2 groups: group A received conventional anti-inflammatory treatment plus colchicine for 3 months, and group B received conventional anti-inflammatory treatment only. None of the patients received corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was the appearance of recurrent episodes of pericarditis. The secondary endpoint was the time to first recurrence. Follow-up was extended to 24 months. Results: A total of 110 patients (83.6% men, age 44+/-18.3 years) were randomized to group A (n=59) and group B (n=51). No differences were found in baseline demographics or in the clinical features of the index episode or in the type of anti-inflammatory treatment administered in both groups. The follow-up was completed by 102 patients (92.7%). No differences were found in the rate of recurrent pericarditis between groups (12 patients [10.9%]; group A vs group B, 13.5% vs 7.8%; P=.34). The time to first recurrence (group A vs group B, 9.6+/-9.0 vs 8.3+/-10.5 months; P=.80) did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Among patients with a first episode of AIP who had not received corticosteroids, the addition of colchicine to conventional anti-inflammatory treatment does not seem to reduce the recurrence rate. Clinical trial registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Identifier: EudraCT 2009-011258-16

8.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(4): 425-433, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of short or prolonged use of triple therapy (TT) on outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and high risk of bleeding undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unclear. We compared clinical outcomes according to the duration of TT in patients with AF and HAS-BLED ≥ 3 at 1 year of follow-up. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort enrolled 735 patients with AF between 2010 and 2015. Of these, 521 (70.9%) had HAS-BLED ≥ 3 and 380 (72.9%) were discharged on TT. TT was prescribed for 1 month in 233 patients (61.3%). The primary endpoint was the incidence of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC ≥ 3). The secondary endpoint was the occurrence of ischemic events (cardiac death, MI, stroke, or stent thrombosis). RESULTS: Patients on 1-month TT had a higher median HAS-BLED. Intracraneal hemorrhage was twofold more frequently in patients on > 1-month TT but without statistical significance (0.9% vs 2.1%, p = 0.20). Rates of the primary endpoint (bleeding BARC ≥ 3) were 8.2% vs 10.9% and did not differ between groups, while secondary endpoint did not occur more frequently in the 1-month TT group compared with the > 1-month TT group (26.6% vs 23.1%). In adjusted multivariate analyses, patients receiving 1-month TT had a similar risk of the primary endpoint compared to those with > 1-month TT (HR 1.47; 95% CI 0.48-4.47, p = 0.50). No difference was found in the secondary ischemic endpoint (HR 1.24; 95% CI 0.77-2.00, p = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF undergoing PCI at lower ischemic risk and higher bleeding risk, 1 month of TT seems safe and efficacious. Further studies are warranted in patients at high ischemic risk.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028114, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommending 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STEACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were published in year 2012. We aimed to describe the influence of guideline implementation on the trend in 12-month persistence with DAPT between 2010 and 2015 and to evaluate its relationship with DAPT duration regimens recommended at discharge from PCI hospitals. DESIGN: Observational study based on region-wide registry data linked to pharmacy billing data for DAPT follow-up. SETTING: All PCI hospitals (10) belonging to the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) code network in Catalonia (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: 10 711 STEACS patients undergoing PCI between 2010 and 2015 were followed up. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was 12-month persistence with DAPT. Calendar year quarter, publication of guidelines, DAPT duration regimen recommended in the hospital discharge report, baseline patient characteristics and significant interactions were included in mixed-effects logistic regression based interrupted time-series models. RESULTS: The proportion of patients on-DAPT at 12 months increased from 58% (56-60) in 2010 to 73% (71-75) in 2015. The rate of 12-month persistence with DAPT significantly increased after the publication of clinical guidelines with a time lag of 1 year (OR=1.20; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.30). A higher risk profile, more extensive and complex coronary disease, use of drug-eluting stents (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40) and a 12-month DAPT regimen recommendation at discharge from the PCI hospital (OR=5.76; 95% CI 3.26 to 10.2) were associated with 12-month persistence. CONCLUSION: Persistence with 12-month DAPT has increased since publication of clinical guidelines. Even though most patients were discharged on DAPT, only 73% with potential indication were on-DAPT 12 months after PCI. A guideline-based recommendation at PCI hospital discharge was highly associated with full persistence with DAPT. Establishing evidence-based, common prescribing criteria across hospitals in the AMI-network would favour adherence and reduce variability.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(2): 238-256, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296297

RESUMO

After a reperfused myocardial infarction (MI), dynamic tissue changes occur (edema, inflammation, microvascular obstruction, hemorrhage, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and ultimately replacement by fibrosis). The extension and magnitude of these changes contribute to long-term prognosis after MI. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold-standard technique for noninvasive myocardial tissue characterization. CMR is also the preferred methodology for the identification of potential benefits associated with new cardioprotective strategies both in experimental and clinical trials. However, there is a wide heterogeneity in CMR methodologies used in experimental and clinical trials, including time of post-MI scan, acquisition protocols, and, more importantly, selection of endpoints. There is a need for standardization of these methodologies to improve the translation into a real clinical benefit. The main objective of this scientific expert panel consensus document is to provide recommendations for CMR endpoint selection in experimental and clinical trials based on pathophysiology and its association with hard outcomes.

11.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 133: 164-173, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194987

RESUMO

Reports on the effect of obesity on the myocardial tolerance to ischemia are contradictory. We have described that obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD) reduces infarct size in B6D2F1 mice submitted to transient coronary occlusion. In this study, we analysed the mechanism by which dietary obesity modifies the susceptibility to myocardial ischemia and the robustness of this effect. B6D2F1 (BDF), C57BL6/J (6J), C57BL6/N (6N) male mice and BDF female mice were fed with a HFD or control diet for 16 weeks. In all three strains, HFD induced obesity with hyperinsulinemia and hypercholesterolemia and without hyperglycemia, hypertension, ventricular remodelling or cardiac dysfunction. In obese mice from all three strains PDK4 was overexpressed and HSQC NMR spectroscopy showed reduced 13C-glutamate and increased 13C-lactate and 13C-alanine, indicating uncoupling of glycolysis from glucose oxidation. In addition, HFD induced mild respiratory uncoupling in mitochondria from BDF and 6N mice in correlation with UCP3 overexpression. In studies performed in isolated perfused hearts submitted to transient ischemia these changes were associated with reduced ATP content and myocardial PCr/ATP ratio at baseline, and delayed pHi recovery (31PNMR) and attenuated hypercontracture at the onset of reperfusion. Finally, in mice subjected to 45 min of coronary occlusion and 24 h of reperfusion, HFD significantly reduced infarct size respect to their respective control diet groups in male BDF (39.4 ±â€¯6.1% vs. 19.9 ±â€¯3.2%, P = 0.018) and 6N mice (38.0 ±â€¯4.1 vs. 24.5 ±â€¯2.6%, P = 0.017), and in female BDF mice (35.3 ±â€¯4.4% vs. 22.3 ±â€¯2.5%, P = 0.029), but not in male 6J mice (40.2 ±â€¯3.4% vs. 34.1 ±â€¯3.8%, P = 0.175). Our results indicate that the protective effect of HFD-induced obesity against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is influenced by genetic background and appears to critically depend on inhibition of glucose oxidation and mild respiratory mitochondrial uncoupling resulting in prolongation of acidosis at the onset of reperfusion.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(12): 2445-2456, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish the best definition of left ventricular adverse remodeling (LVAR) to predict outcomes and determine whether its assessment adds prognostic information to that obtained by early cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). BACKGROUND: LVAR, usually defined as an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) is the main cause of heart failure after an ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction; however, the role of assessment of LVAR in predicting cardiovascular events remains controversial. METHODS: Patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction who received percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 h of symptom onset were included (n = 498). CMR was performed during hospitalization (6.2 ± 2.6 days) and after 6 months (6.1 ± 1.8 months). The optimal threshold values of the LVEDV increase and the LV ejection fraction decrease associated with the primary endpoint were ascertained. Primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, or ventricular arrhythmia. RESULTS: The study was completed by 374 patients. Forty-nine patients presented the primary endpoint during follow-up (72.9 ± 42.8 months). Values that maximized the ability to identify patients with and without outcomes were a relative rise in LVEDV of 15% (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.1; p = 0.007) and a relative fall in LV ejection fraction of 3% (HR: 2.5; p = 0.001). However, the predictive model (using C-statistic analysis) failed to demonstrate that direct observation of LVAR at 6 months adds information to data from early CMR in predicting outcomes (C-statistic: 0.723 vs. 0.795). CONCLUSIONS: The definition of LVAR that best predicts adverse cardiovascular events should consider both the increase in LVEDV and the reduction in LV ejection fraction. However, assessment of LVAR does not improve information provided by the early CMR.

13.
Echocardiography ; 36(7): 1241-1252, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echocardiography- and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-based studies have revealed a wide range of phenotypic manifestations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) apart from hypertrophy. This study sought to comprehensively describe a number of structural abnormalities in HCM beyond hypertrophy, by multimodality imaging. METHODS: A total of 100 HCM patients were prospectively enrolled, undergoing standard and contrast echocardiography, and CMR. Morphological characteristics involving mitral valve leaflets (MVL), subvalvular apparatus, and left ventricular cavity and wall were investigated. Seventy healthy volunteers served as control population. RESULTS: As assessed by echo, MVLs were longer in HCM patients than in controls (anterior method 1: 24[22,28] vs 19[18,20] mm, P < 0.01; anterior method 2: 27[24, 29] vs 21[19, 23] mm, P < 0.01; posterior: 15[12,19] vs 14[13,15] mm, P < 0.01). Abnormal chordal attachment to anterior MVL, anterior papillary muscle displacement, and accessory apical-basal muscle bundle were present in 42 (42%), 61 (61%), and 35 (35%) patients, respectively (P values vs controls <0.01); direct papillary muscle insertion into MVL and hypertrabeculation were found in two and five patients, respectively. Contrast echocardiography (n = 94) detected myocardial crypts in 15 patients (16%). Overall, 83% of HCM subjects had at least one of these phenotypic manifestations. Echocardiography and CMR agreement for MVL length was poor, while for structural characteristics was moderate to substantial (Cohen's Kappa: 0.53-1.00). Except for posterior MVL length and hypertrabeculation, the phenotypic characteristics studied had acceptable reproducibility by echocardiography and CMR. CONCLUSIONS: Structural abnormalities in HCM beyond hypertrophy are significantly common. Multimodality imaging approach to these HCM facets by echocardiography and CMR is feasible and desirable.

14.
Am J Med Sci ; 358(2): 95-103, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) is recommended for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, there is a lack of comparative data in a real-world clinical setting between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of TT with NOAC or VKA after PCI in patients with AF at 1-year of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study in 2 tertiary care hospitals during 2013-2016. Patients with indication for anticoagulation due to AF from an initial registry of 5,269 patients undergoing PCI were identified. Safety primary endpoint was the occurrence of major bleeding events as defined by Bleeding Academic Consortium (BARC ≥ 3). The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). RESULTS: A total of 187 consecutive patients on TT were identified: 45.4% of were discharged on NOAC and 54.6% on VKA. Patients who received VKA presented more comorbidities and had a higher bleeding risk than those who received NOACs. Major bleeding events occurred in 17 patients (9%), with a higher rate in the VKA group (3.5% vs. 13% confidence interval, 0.19-0.86, P = 0.02). There were no differences in the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, stroke or net clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world study, patients with AF undergoing PCI treated on NOAC-based TT showed lower bleeding rates than those on VKA, with a lower rate of major bleeding events, while efficacy was similar between groups.

15.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(6): 473-478, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4392

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico y los beneficios en términos de coste-efectividad de un nuevo protocolo diagnóstico basado en el uso sistemático de un registrador externo de eventos en asa cerrada (REE) de última generación comparado con una estrategia diagnóstica convencional en pacientes con palpitaciones recurrentes de causa desconocida. Métodos: Se compararon 2 cohortes de pacientes consecutivos evaluados por palpitaciones de causa desconocida: una prospectiva tras la implementación de un nuevo protocolo de diagnóstico basado en el uso sistemático de un REE y la otra, retrospectiva, antes de la implementación del protocolo. El coste del diagnóstico se calculó en función del número de exploraciones complementarias, visitas a consultas externas y consultas a urgencias necesarias para alcanzar un diagnóstico y sus costes según los precios publicados para el sistema de salud local. Resultados: Se incluyó a 149 pacientes (91 en el grupo de REE y 58 en el grupo de control). El rendimiento diagnóstico fue mayor en el grupo de REE (79 [86,8%] diagnósticos definitivos en el grupo de REE frente a 12 [20,7%] en el de control; p < 0,001). El coste por diagnóstico fue de 375,13 euros en el grupo de REE y 5.184,75 euros en el de control (p < 0,001). En el estudio de coste-efectividad, el uso sistemático del REE permitió una reducción de 11,30 euros por cada punto porcentual de incremento de la eficacia diagnóstica. Conclusiones: En pacientes con palpitaciones recurrentes de causa desconocida, la evaluación mediante un protocolo de estudio que incorpore el uso sistemático de un REE de última generación presenta un mayor rendimiento diagnóstico y reduce el coste por diagnóstico


Introduction and objectives: To assess the diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness of a diagnostic protocol based on the systematic use of latest-generation external loop recorders (ELRs) compared with the classic diagnostic strategy for patients with recurrent unexplained palpitations. Methods: Two cohorts of consecutive patients referred for diagnosis of unexplained palpitations to the outpatient clinic of the arrhythmia unit were compared: a prospective cohort after the implementation of a new diagnostic protocol based on the systematic use of ELRs, and another, retrospective, cohort before the implementation of the protocol. The cost of diagnosis was calculated based on the number of complementary examinations, visits to outpatient clinics, or emergency department visits required to reach a diagnosis, and its costs according the prices published for the local health system. Results: One hundred and forty-nine patients were included (91 in the ELR group, 58 in the control group). The diagnostic yield was higher in the ELR group (79 [86.8%] definitive diagnoses in the ELR group vs 12 [20.7%] in the control group, P < .001). The cost per diagnosis was €375.13 in the ELR group and €5184.75 in the control group (P < .001). The cost-effectiveness study revealed that the systematic use of ELR resulted in a cost reduction of €11.30 for each percentage point of increase in diagnosis yield. Conclusions: In patients with recurrent unexplained palpitations, evaluation by means of a study protocol that considers the systematic use of a latest-generation ELR increases diagnostic yield while reducing the cost per diagnosis

17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) is considered a low risk congenital heart disease, there have been reports of complications and the need for reintervention throughout follow-up. The aims of this study were to evaluate the long-term outcome of repaired PVS and to identify predictors of cardiovascular complications and reintervention. METHODS: We studied 158 adult patients with repaired PVS (repair procedures performed from 1957 to 2010) receiving active follow-up in a tertiary referral center. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients (60%) received surgical treatment, and 63 patients (40%) received percutaneous pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty. At the end of follow-up (27 years, IQR, 20-33 years), most patients (n=134, 84.8%) were in New York Heart Association functional class I, but 61 patients (38.6%) required a reintervention, mainly pulmonary valve replacement (17.7%, n=28), and 19 patients (12%) had at least one cardiovascular complication: 13 (8.2%) supraventricular arrhythmias, 6 (3.8%) heart failure, 5 (3.2%) stroke, 1 (0.6%) death, 1 (0.6%) thromboembolism, and 1 (0.6%) ventricular arrhythmia. Multivariate analysis showed that age at PVS repair (HR, 1.08; 95%CI, 1.04-1.12; P <.001) and the presence of cyanosis before PVS repair (HR, 5.23; 95%CI, 1.99-13.78; P=.001) were independent predictors for cardiovascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: Good long-term outcome can be expected after PVS repair, but complications and the need for reintervention may appear. Older age and the presence of cyanosis at PVS repair emerged as predictors of cardiovascular complications and identified a population that may merit stricter control.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049558

RESUMO

AIMS: To create a risk score for cardiac events (CE) according to clinical, exercise, and gated SPECT variables. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 5707 consecutive patients; 3181 patients (age 64.2 ± 11 years, male 59.6%) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) [without previous myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularization (CR)] and 2526 patients (age 63.3 ± 11 years, male 81.7%) with established CAD (with previous MI or CR). To create the Vall d'Hebron Risk Score (VH-RS), first we analyse the predictors of CE (non-fatal MI, CR, and/or cardiac death), then the probability of CE for every patient according to the predictive variables. According to risk we stratified patients into four risk levels: very low risk (VLR), low risk (LR), moderate risk (MR), and high risk (HRi) using Multiple Cox Regression analysis models. Finally, we validate the VH-RS in another prospective cohort of 734 patients. In patients with suspected CAD; age (P < 0.001); gender (P = 0.001); hyperlipidaemia (P < 0.001); nitrates (P = 0.04); ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.001); summed stress score (P < 0.001); METs (P < 0.001); exercise angina (P = 0.006); and mm of ST segment depression (P = 0.004) were the independent predictors of CE (C-statistic: 0.8; P < 0.001). In patients with established CAD, EF (P < 0.001); summed difference score (P = 0.001); age (P < 0.001); smoker (P = 0.002); nitrates (P = 0.003); exercise angina (P = 0.001); METs (P < 0.001); and mm of ST segment depression (P = 0.011) were the independent predictors of CE (C-statistic: 0.7; P < 0.001). The risk score obtained from these variables allows the stratification of patients into four risk levels: VLR, LR, MR, and HRi. CONCLUSIONS: The cardiac risk stratification by mean of clinical, exercise, and gated SPECT variables is an objective aid to assessing an individual's cardiac risk.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6395, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996245

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 40(25): 2047-2055, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977783

RESUMO

AIMS: Life expectancy in Marfan syndrome patients has improved thanks to the early detection of aortic dilation and prophylactic aortic root surgery. Current international clinical guidelines support the use of aortic root diameter as a predictor of complications. However, other imaging markers are needed to improve risk stratification. This study aim to ascertain whether proximal aorta longitudinal and circumferential strain and distensibility assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) predict the aortic root dilation rate and aortic events in Marfan syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen Marfan patients with no previous aortic dissection, cardiac/aortic surgery, or moderate/severe aortic regurgitation were prospectively included in a multicentre protocol of clinical and imaging follow-up. At baseline, CMR was performed and proximal aorta longitudinal strain and ascending aorta circumferential strain and distensibility were obtained. During follow-up (85.7 [75.0-93.2] months), the annual growth rate of aortic root diameter was 0.62 ± 0.65 mm/year. Fifteen patients underwent elective surgical aortic root replacement and four presented aortic dissection. Once corrected for baseline clinical and demographic characteristics and aortic root diameter, proximal aorta longitudinal strain, but not circumferential strain and distensibility, was an independent predictor of the aortic root diameter growth rate (P = 0.001, P = 0.823, and P = 0.997, respectively), z-score growth rate (P = 0.013, P = 0.672, and P = 0.680, respectively), and aortic events (P = 0.023, P = 0.096, and P = 0.237, respectively). CONCLUSION: Proximal aorta longitudinal strain is independently related to the aortic root dilation rate and aortic events in addition to aortic root diameter, clinical risk factors, and demographic characteristics in Marfan syndrome patients.

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