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1.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244787

RESUMO

Little information exists in humans on the regulation that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) exerts on adipocyte metabolism, which is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim was to analyze the oxLDL effects on adipocytokine secretion and scavenger receptors (SRs) and cell death markers in human visceral adipocytes. Human differentiated adipocytes from visceral adipose tissue from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects were incubated with increasing oxLDL concentrations. mRNA expression of SRs, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, secretion of adipocytokines, and glucose uptake were analyzed. In non-obese and in morbidly obese subjects, oxLDL produced a decrease in insulin-induced glucose uptake, a significant dose-dependent increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, and adiponectin secretion, and a decrease in leptin secretion. OxLDL produced a significant increase of Lox-1 and a decrease in Cxcl16 and Cl-p1 expression. The expression of Bnip3 (marker of apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy) was significantly increased and Bcl2 (antiapoptotic marker) was decreased. OxLDL could sensitize adipocytes to a lower insulin-induced glucose uptake, a more proinflammatory phenotype, and could modify the gene expression involved in apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, and mitophagy. OxLDL can upregulate Lox-1, and this could lead to a possible amplification of proinflammatory and proapoptotic effects of oxLDL.

2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(1): 61-69, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186148

RESUMO

Aunque la nutrición de yodo en España ha mejorado en los últimos años, el problema no está resuelto del todo. Es preciso que las Instituciones sanitarias establezcan medidas para garantizar que la nutrición de yodo de toda la población sea la adecuada, especialmente entre los colectivos de mayor riesgo (niños y adolescentes, mujeres en edad fértil, mujeres embarazadas y madres lactantes). Debe aconsejarse un bajo consumo de sal, pero que esta sea yodada. También es imprescindible que las agencias de control alimentario establezcan un control efectivo sobre una adecuada yodación de la sal. En las futuras encuestas de salud debería incluirse indicadores sobre la nutrición de yodo. El estudio EUthyroid y la Declaración de Cracovia sobre la nutrición de yodo brindan una oportunidad para establecer un plan paneuropeo para la prevención de la deficiencia de yodo que debería ser considerada y aprovechada por las autoridades sanitarias


Although iodine nutrition in Spain has improved in recent years, the problem is not completely resolved. It is necessary that health institutions establish measures to ensure an adequate iodine nutrition of the population, especially among the highest risk groups (children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women and nursing mothers). A low salt intake should be advised, but it should be iodized. It is also imperative that food control agencies establish effective control over adequate iodization of salt. Indicators on iodine nutrition should be included in future health surveys. The EUthyroid study and the Krakow Declaration on iodine nutrition provide an opportunity to set up a pan-European plan for the prevention of iodine deficiency that should be considered and used by health authorities


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Compostos de Iodo/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Iodo/prevenção & controle , Valor Nutritivo , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Dieta Hipossódica , Planejamento em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades Médicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/normas
3.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 67(1): 61-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962160

RESUMO

Although iodine nutrition in Spain has improved in recent years, the problem is not completely resolved. It is necessary that health institutions establish measures to ensure an adequate iodine nutrition of the population, especially among the highest risk groups (children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women and nursing mothers). A low salt intake should be advised, but it should be iodized. It is also imperative that food control agencies establish effective control over adequate iodization of salt. Indicators on iodine nutrition should be included in future health surveys. The EUthyroid study and the Krakow Declaration on iodine nutrition provide an opportunity to set up a pan-European plan for the prevention of iodine deficiency that should be considered and used by health authorities.

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(2): 340-352, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The intestinal immune response could play an important role in obesity-related comorbidities. We aim to study the profile of duodenal cytokines and chemokines in patients with morbid obesity (MO), its relation with insulin resistance (IR) and the intake of metformin, and with the evolution of MO after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Duodenal levels of 24 cytokines and 9 chemokines were analyzed in 14 nonobese and in 54 MO who underwent SG: with lower IR (MO-lower-IR), with higher IR (MO-higher-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2DM). RESULTS: MO-lower-IR had higher levels of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, M1 macrophages, and chemokines involved in the recruitment of macrophages and T-lymphocytes (p < 0.05), and total (CD68 expression) and M1 macrophages (ITGAX expression) (p < 0.05) when compared with nonobese patients, but with a decrease in M2 macrophages (MRC1 expression) (p < 0.05). In MO-higher-IR, these chemokines and cytokines decreased and were similar to those found in nonobese patients. In MO-metf-T2DM, only IL-4 (Th2) and IL-22 (Th22) increased their levels with regard to MO-higher-IR (p < 0.05). In MO-higher-IR and MO-metf-T2DM, there was a decrease of CD68 expression (p < 0.05) while ITGAX and MRC1 were similar with regard to MO-lower-IR. We found an association between CXCL8, TNFß and IL-2 with the evolution of body mass index (BMI) after SG (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between a higher IR and a lower duodenal immune response in MO, with a slight increase in those patients with metformin treatment. Intestinal immune response could be involved in the evolution of BMI after SG.

5.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(11): 1888-1895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota could be involved in the metabolic improvement after surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term evolution of the gut microbiome after different bariatric surgery procedures and their functionality and relate it with obesity resolution. SETTING: University hospital, Spain. METHODS: We studied 28 patients with severe obesity; 14 underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 14 underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). All patients were examined before and 3 months after the correspondent bariatric surgery. Gut microbiome profile was assessed by the sequencing of amplicons from the 16S rDNA gene by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Gut microbiota profiles significantly differed between surgical procedures. RYGB suffered the largest changes in the microbiota population. SG and RYGB differed in their profiles with higher levels of Akkermansia, Eubacterium, Haemophilus, and Blautia for SG, while Veillonella, Slackia, Granucatiella, and Acidaminococcus occurred with greater levels in RYGB. RYGB microbiota changes were reflected also at the level of functionality, especially in pathways related to environmental adaptation. A biomarker discovery analysis revealed the genus Blautia as characteristic in SG, while Veillonella was of RYGB. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a shift of the gut microbiome after a bariatric surgery in a procedure-related manner. Gut microbiome changes are related to the adaptation to the changing gut environment and could be related to the pH fluctuations.

6.
Front Genet ; 10: 613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333715

RESUMO

Objective: Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by gut microbiota and epigenetic alterations. Recent insight has suggested the existence of a crosstalk between the gut microbiome and the epigenome. However, the possible link between alterations in gut microbiome composition and epigenetic marks in obesity has been not explored yet. The aim of this work is to establish a link between the gut microbiota and the global DNA methylation profile in a group of obese subjects and to report potential candidate genes that could be epigenetically regulated by gut microbiota in adipose tissue. Methods: Gut microbiota composition was analyzed in DNA stool samples from 45 obese subjects by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Twenty patients were selected based on their Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio (BFR): HighBFR group (BFR > 2.5, n = 10) and LowBFR group (BFR < 1.2, n = 10). Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation pattern in both whole blood and visceral adipose tissue of these selected patients was performed with an Infinium EPIC BeadChip array-based platform. Gene expression analysis of candidate genes was done in adipose tissue by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation revealed a completely different DNA methylome pattern in both blood and adipose tissue in the low BFR group vs. the high BFR group. Two hundred fifty-eight genes were differentially methylated in both blood and adipose tissue, of which several potential candidates were selected for gene expression analysis. We found that in adipose tissue, both HDAC7 and IGF2BP2 were hypomethylated and overexpressed in the low BFR group compared with the high BFR group. ß values of both genes significantly correlated with the BFR ratio and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and/or Firmicutes. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate that the DNA methylation status is associated with gut microbiota composition in obese subjects and that the expression levels of candidate genes implicated in glucose and energy homeostasis (e.g., HDAC7 and IGF2BP2) could be epigenetically regulated by gut bacterial populations in adipose tissue.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a complex disease that has a strong association with diet and lifestyle. Dietary factors can influence the expression of key genes connected to insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue composition. In this study, our objective was to determine gene expression and fatty acid (FA) profiles in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from lean and morbidly obese individuals. We also aimed to study the agonist effect of dietary factors on glucose metabolism. DESIGN AND METHODS: Lean and low and high insulin resistance morbidly obese subjects (LIR-MO and HIR-MO) were included in this study. The gene expression of liver X receptor type alpha (LXR-α) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and the FA profiles in VAT were determined. Additionally, the in vivo and in vitro agonist effects of oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2) on the activity of GLUT4 were studied. RESULTS: Our results showed a dysregulation of GLUT4 and LXR-α in VAT of morbidly obese subjects. In addition, a specific FA profile for morbidly obese individuals was found. Finally, AA was an PPAR-γ2 agonist that activates the expression of GLUT4. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a dysregulation of LXR-α and GLUT4 expression in VAT of morbidly obese individuals. FA profiles in VAT could elucidate their possible role in lipolysis and adipogenesis. Finally, AA binds to PPAR-γ2 to activate the expression of GLUT4 in the HepG2 cell line, showing an alternative insulin-independent activation of GLUT4.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Adulto , DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Ligantes , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , PPAR gama/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Magreza/genética
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(6): e13315, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681756

RESUMO

AIMS: The paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme could play an important role in the anti-oxidant capacity of high-density lipoprotein. However, there are no studies which analyse the evolution of the three activities of PON1 (PON arylesterase, PON paraoxonase and PON lactonase) after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) in morbidly obese subjects. We analysed the association of PON concentration and activities with the evolution of morbidly obese subjects who underwent RYGB, and its relationship with biochemical variables and different atherogenic indices. METHODS: Twenty-seven non-obese and 82 morbidly obese subjects were studied before and 6 months after RYGB. RESULTS: Before RYGB, morbidly obese subjects had a lower PON1 concentration (P < 0.05) and higher PON lactonase activity (P < 0.001) than non-obese subjects, with no differences in PON arylesterase and PON paraoxonase activities. After RYGB, PON1 concentration (P < 0.05) and PON lactonase activity (P < 0.001) decreased with regard to the presurgery state. PON lactonase activity correlated with the atherogenic index of plasma before (r = 0.19, P = 0.047) and after RYGB (r = 0.27, P = 0.035). In different multiple lineal regression analysis models, presurgery PON lactonase activity was associated with total cholesterol (ß = 0.909, P < 0.001), LDL (ß = 0.632, P = 0.006) and DBP (ß = 0.230, P = 0.030) (R2  = 0.295), postsurgery PON lactonase activity was associated with esterified cholesterol (ß = 0.362, P = 0.011) (R2  = 0.131), and the change (Δ) in PON lactonase activity after RYGB was associated with Δesterified cholesterol (ß = 0.304, P = 0.030) (R2  = 0.093). CONCLUSIONS: PON lactonase activity is associated with the presence of morbid obesity and with an impaired lipid profile. All associations found could indicate the relationship between PON lactonase activity and the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Adulto , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 14(9): 1327-1334, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammation, and bariatric surgery is proposed as an effective treatment for reducing the obesity-related co-morbidities. Epigenetic modifications could be involved in the metabolic improvement after surgery. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation pattern from genes related to inflammation and insulin response is associated with the metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients and if these changes depend on the surgical procedure. SETTING: University hospital, Spain. METHODS: We studied 60 severely obese patients; 31 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 29 underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. All patients were examined before and at 6 months after bariatric surgery. DNA methylation profile of genes related to the inflammatory response and insulin sensitivity was measured by pyrosequencing. RESULTS: The promoter methylation levels of the NFKB1 gene were increased significantly after surgery (2.16 ± .9 versus 2.8 ± 1.03). The decrease in blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, after surgery was significantly associated with the changes in the promoter methylation levels of the NFKB1 gene (ß = -.513, P = .003 and ß = -.543, P = .004, respectively). A decrease in inflammation status, measured by high sensitivity C-reactive protein values, was associated with changes in SLC19A1 methylation levels. CONCLUSION: Our study shows for the first time an association between NFKB1 methylation levels and blood pressure after bariatric surgery, highlighting the possible function of this gene in the regulation of arterial pressure. Regarding SLC19A1, this gene could position as a potential target linking inflammation and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia
11.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 14(8): 1182-1191, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The changes that are produced in the gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are not yet fully known. OBJECTIVE: To identify the changes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of morbidly obese women with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR) and high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR) to find a relationship with measured obesity-related co-morbidities. SETTING: A university hospital. METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were assessed by microarray analysis before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in MO-low-IR and MO-high-IR patients. RESULTS: There is a group of shared differentially expressed genes (DEG) in both MO-low-IR and MO-high-IR, also there is a group of exclusive DEG in MO-low-IR and another group in MO-high-IR. In MO-high-IR, the downexpressed DEG are related to the regulation of transcription and are involved in the pathways related to cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cancer, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling, human T-lymphotropic virus I infection, chemokine signaling, and Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling. In MO-low-IR, the overexpressed DEG are related to carbohydrate metabolic processes, the downexpressed DEG to the glycosaminoglycan metabolic process and regulation of translation, and the pathways are related to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling and metabolic pathways. The fold change of DEG mainly correlates with the percentage of change (Δ) of waist, Δhip, Δglucose, and Δtriglycerides. These DEG were mainly related to cancer, inflammation/immune regulation, metabolic pathways, ribonucleic acid/deoxyribonucleic acid regulation, virus infection, and regulation of cellular proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potential association between high insulin resistance and the expression of genes related to cancer and chronic immune activation/inflammation.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
12.
Obes Surg ; 28(9): 2774-2782, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune response of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obesity, in particular the role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, has not yet been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize iNKT cells and its activation status in VAT and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in morbidly obese subjects (MO), and to analyze their association with metabolic parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty non-obese and 20 MO subjects underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and were studied before and 6 months after RYGB. VAT and PBMC were obtained. RESULTS: A decrease in VAT iNKT cells from MO was found, however, not in PBMC. Visceral adipocytes from MO presented increased CD1d expression (p = 0.032). MO presented an increase in early activated CD69+ iNKT cells in PBMC before RYGB (p < 0.001), but not after RYGB nor in VAT, and an increase in later activated CD25+ iNKT in VAT (p = 0.046), without differences in PBMC. The co-expression of early and later markers (CD69+CD25+) in iNKT cells was increased in MO in VAT (p = 0.050) and PBMC (p = 0.006), decreasing after RYGB (p = 0.050). CD69+ iNKT and CD69+CD25+ iNKT cells in PBMC after RYGB correlated negatively with glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance levels. CONCLUSIONS: There is a tissue-specific phenotype and activation of iNKT cells in VAT in morbid obesity, which could be involved in VAT immunometabolism dysregulation. Also, the increase in CD1d expression could be to offset the lack of VAT iNKT cells.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Células T Matadoras Naturais , Obesidade Mórbida , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/citologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Fenótipo
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6571, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700318

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that iron deficiency (ID) may impair thyroid hormone metabolism, however replication in wide samples of the general adult population has not been performed. We studied 3846 individuals free of thyroid disease, participants in a national, cross sectional, population based study representative of the Spanish adult population. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence (E170, Roche Diagnostics). Serum ferritin was analyzed by immunochemiluminescence (Architect I2000, Abbott Laboratories). As ferritin levels decreased (>100, 30-100, 15-30, <15 µg/L) the adjusted mean concentrations of FT4 (p < 0.001) and FT3 (p < 0.001) descended, whereas TSH levels remained unchanged (p = 0.451). In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, UI, BMI and smoking status, subjects with ferritin levels <30 µg/L were more likely to present hypothyroxinemia (FT4 < 12.0 pmol/L p5): OR 1.5 [1.1-2.2] p = 0.024, and hypotriiodothyroninemia (FT3 < 3.9 pmol/L p5): OR 1.8 [1.3-2.6] p = 0.001 than the reference category with ferritin ≥30 µg/L. There was no significant heterogeneity of the results between men, pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women or according to the iodine nutrition status. Our results confirm an association between ID and hypothyroxinemia and hypotriiodothyroninemia in the general adult population without changes in TSH.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(8): 417-423, oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171804

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivos: Las guías de tratamiento de disfunción tiroidea recomiendan definir los intervalos de referencia de las hormonas tiroideas de cada área mediante la evaluación de datos de población local considerando el grado de nutrición yódica de la misma. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir los rangos de referencia de la tiroxina libre (T4L), TSH y tiroglobulina en población general de Jaén, área con un nivel de nutrición yódica adecuado, y si estos estaban afectados por la yoduria. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 1.003 sujetos de población general en el Distrito Sanitario de Jaén. El yodo urinario, T4L, TSH, tiroglobulina y los anticuerpos antitiroperoxidasa (anti-TPO) fueron analizados en función de la edad y el sexo. Resultados: La mediana de yoduria fue 110,59μg/l y la media 130,11μg/l. La mediana de TSH fue 1,83μUI/ml (p2,5=0,56μUI/ml, p97,5=4,66μUI/ml). La mediana de T4L fue 0,84ng/dl (p2,5=0,62ng/dl, p97,5=1,18ng/dl). El 5,7% de los sujetos tenían anticuerpos anti-TPO positivos. No existía correlación entre los valores de T4L, TSH ni los anticuerpos anti-TPO con los niveles de yoduria. Los sujetos con anticuerpos anti-TPO positivos tenían una TSH más elevada (3,34μUI/ml frente 2,14μUI/ml; p=0,001; odds ratio=2,42). Conclusiones: El yodo urinario en Jaén está dentro de los valores recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Los rangos de referencia de T4L, TSH y tiroglobulina no son diferentes a lo descrito en la literatura y no difieren según la yoduria. La prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-TPO positivos es semejante a la descrita en otras poblaciones de España (AU)


Background and objectives: The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Results: Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Conclusions: Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Valores de Referência , Tiroxina/análise , Tireotropina/análise , Tireoglobulina/análise , Hormônios Tireóideos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Iodo/análise , Iodo/urina , Modelos Lineares
15.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 64(8): 417-423, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. RESULTS: Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59µg/L and 130.11µg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83µIU/mL (p2.5=0.56µIU/mL, p97.5=4.66µIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34µIU/L versus 2.14µIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas.


Assuntos
Tireoglobulina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipertireoidismo/urina , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/urina , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
16.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(7): 355-362, ago.-sept. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-171793

RESUMO

Background and objective: Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide involved in regulation of body weight and energy balance. However, its behavior after bariatric surgery and its relationship to insulin resistance are still controversial. A simultaneous assessment was made of the association between changes in ghrelin levels and different variables after three types of bariatric surgery. Patients and methods: Ghrelin levels were measured in 103 morbidly obese subjects before and 6 months after bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion of Scopinaro (BPD), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG)), and in 21 non-obese subjects. Results: Ghrelin levels increased after RYGB (p<0.05), were unchanged after BPD, and decreased after SG (p<0.05). The percent change in ghrelin levels (Δ-ghrelin) was associated to the type of surgery in a multiple linear regression model (p=0.017). When the same analysis was only performed in subjects in whom the gastric fundus was maintained (RYGB and BPD), Δ-ghrelin was negatively associated to Δ-HOMA-IR (p=0.001). In morbidly obese subjects who underwent RYGB and BPD, the odds ratio of a lower Δ-HOMA-IR in patients with Δ-ghrelin in the Q1 quartile versus those with Δ-ghrelin in the Q4 quartile was 8.74 (1.73-44.06) (p=0.009). Conclusions: Changes in ghrelin levels after bariatric surgery are associated to the presence or absence of the gastric fundus. After bariatric surgery, the decrease in insulin resistance was associated to increased ghrelin levels in procedures in which the fundus is not excluded (AU)


Antecedentes y objetivo: La ghrelina es un péptido gastrointestinal que interviene en la regulación del peso corporal y del equilibrio energético. Sin embargo, su comportamiento después de la cirugía bariátrica y su relación con la resistencia a la insulina todavía está en discusión. Nosotros hemos realizado una evaluación simultánea de la asociación entre los cambios en los niveles de ghrelina y diferentes variables después de tres tipos de cirugía bariátrica. Pacientes y métodos: Se analizaron los niveles de ghrelina en 103 obesos mórbidos, antes y 6 meses después de la cirugía bariátrica (baipás gástrico en Y de Roux [RYGB], derivación biliopancreática de Scopinaro [BPD] y gastrectomía tubular), y en 21 sujetos no obesos. Resultados: La ghrelina sérica aumentó tras el RYGB (p<0,05), no se modificó tras la BPD y disminuyó tras gastrectomía tubular (p<0,05). El porcentaje de cambio en los niveles de ghrelina (Δ-ghrelina) se asoció con el tipo de cirugía en un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple (p=0,017). Cuando se realizó el mismo análisis solo con aquellos sujetos en los que se mantiene el fundus gástrico (RYGB y BPD), Δ-ghrelina se asoció negativamente con el Δ-HOMA-IR (p=0,001). En los sujetos obesos mórbidos sometidos a RYGB y BPD, la odss ratio de tener un Δ-HOMA-IR más bajo de las personas con Δ-ghrelina en el cuartil Q1 frente a aquellos con Δ-ghrelina en el cuartil Q4 fue de 8,74 (1,73-44,06) (p=0,009). Conclusiones: Los cambios en los niveles de ghrelina después de la cirugía bariátrica están asociados con la presencia/ausencia del fundus gástrico. Después de la cirugía bariátrica, la disminución de la resistencia a la insulina se asoció con el aumento de los niveles de ghrelina en aquellas técnicas en las que el fundus no está excluido (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Grelina/análise , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Anastomose em-Y de Roux/métodos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Desvio Biliopancreático/métodos
17.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 64(7): 355-362, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide involved in regulation of body weight and energy balance. However, its behavior after bariatric surgery and its relationship to insulin resistance are still controversial. A simultaneous assessment was made of the association between changes in ghrelin levels and different variables after three types of bariatric surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ghrelin levels were measured in 103 morbidly obese subjects before and 6 months after bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion of Scopinaro (BPD), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG)), and in 21 non-obese subjects. RESULTS: Ghrelin levels increased after RYGB (p<0.05), were unchanged after BPD, and decreased after SG (p<0.05). The percent change in ghrelin levels (Δ-ghrelin) was associated to the type of surgery in a multiple linear regression model (p=0.017). When the same analysis was only performed in subjects in whom the gastric fundus was maintained (RYGB and BPD), Δ-ghrelin was negatively associated to Δ-HOMA-IR (p=0.001). In morbidly obese subjects who underwent RYGB and BPD, the odds ratio of a lower Δ-HOMA-IR in patients with Δ-ghrelin in the Q1 quartile versus those with Δ-ghrelin in the Q4 quartile was 8.74 (1.73-44.06) (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in ghrelin levels after bariatric surgery are associated to the presence or absence of the gastric fundus. After bariatric surgery, the decrease in insulin resistance was associated to increased ghrelin levels in procedures in which the fundus is not excluded.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Desvio Biliopancreático , Gastrectomia , Fundo Gástrico/metabolismo , Grelina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Antropometria , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Fundo Gástrico/cirurgia , Grelina/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório
18.
Reprod Toxicol ; 73: 1-7, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755858

RESUMO

The role that adequate iodine intake could have on the male reproductive function is not entirely known. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relation between male infertility and urinary and semen iodine levels in 96 couples who underwent consultation for infertility. The median of semen iodine was higher in men who consumed iodized salt than in those who consumed non-iodized salt (p=0.019). Men with a higher semen iodine level had more morphological alterations in spermatozoa (p=0.032). Men with a higher urinary iodine level had a lower motile sperm count according to the "direct swim-up" technique (p=0.044). Men >3years without successfully achieving pregnancy had a higher urinary iodine level than those with ≤ 3years (p=0.035). In conclusion, iodine may play a role in the quality of semen: an increase in semen iodine levels is associated with different variables related to male infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Iodo/análise , Sêmen/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/urina , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Infertilidade Masculina/urina , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
19.
Eurasian J Med ; 49(2): 118-123, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In addition to their antibiotic effect, macrolides appear to modulate the inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis (CF) and could influence oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to assess oxidation biomarkers and levels of inflammation and to determine whether there is an association between these parameters and the intake of macrolides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects included in this cross-sectional study were, on the one hand, clinically stable patients with CF and, on the other, healthy controls. The following serum and plasma inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured: interleukin-6 (IL-6), reactive C protein (RCP), tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), together with markers of lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]). Clinical, anthropometric, lung function, radiological, and analytical variables (albumin, prealbumin, vitamins, and zinc) were also recorded. RESULTS: We studied 36 adults with CF and 41 controls. No differences were observed in age, gender, or anthropometric variables. The patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6, TNF-α, RCP, TBARS, and isoprostanes, and lower levels of SOD than the controls. Twenty-three of the patients were treated with azithromycin, and they had more severe clinical and radiological parameters than those who were not but nevertheless presented significantly lower levels of TNF-α. No differences were observed in the markers of oxidation. CONCLUSION: Inflammation and oxidation biomarkers were increased in patients with CF compared with controls. The use of azithromycin was associated with reduced TNF-α levels and did not influence oxidation parameters.

20.
Br J Nutr ; 117(9): 1304-1311, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534447

RESUMO

The deficiency of Se, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study was designed to determine total serum Se, selenoproteins (extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3), selenoprotein P (SeP)), selenoalbumin (SeAlb) and selenometabolites in healthy women and their newborns at delivery. This cross-sectional study included eighty-three healthy mother-baby couples. Total Se and Se species concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera by an in-series coupling of two-dimensional size-exclusion and affinity HPLC. Additional measurements of serum SeP concentration and of serum GPx-3 enzyme activity were carried out using ELISA. Total Se concentration was significantly higher in maternal serum than in cord serum (68·9 (sd 15·2) and 56·1 (sd 14·6) µg/l, respectively; P<0·01). There were significant correlations between selenoprotein and SeAlb concentrations in mothers and newborns, although they also showed significant differences in GPx-3 (11·2 (sd 3·7) v. 10·5 (sd 3·5) µg/l; P<0·01), SeP (42·5 (sd 9·5) v. 28·1 (sd 7·7) µg/l; P<0·01) and SeAlb (11·6 (sd 3·6) v. 14·1 (sd 4·3) µg/l; P<0·01) concentrations in maternal and cord sera, respectively. Serum GPx-3 activity and concentration were positively correlated in mothers (r 0·33; P=0·038) but not in newborns. GPx-3 activity in cord serum was significantly correlated with gestational age (r 0·44; P=0·009). SeAlb concentration was significantly higher in babies, whereas SeP and GPx-3 concentrations were significantly higher in mothers. The differences cannot be explained by simple diffusion; specific transfer mechanisms are probably involved. GPx-3 concentrations in mothers, at delivery, are related to maternal Se status, whereas the GPx-3 activity in cord serum depends on gestational age.


Assuntos
Selênio/sangue , Selenoproteínas/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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