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1.
AIDS ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of HIV acquisition in women post-rape compared with t a cohort of women who had not been raped. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: The Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation (RICE) study based in Durban, South Africa, enrolled women aged 16-40 years from post-rape care services, and a control group of women from Primary Health Care services. Women who were HIV negative at baseline (441 in the rape-exposed group and 578 in the control group) were followed for 12 to 36 months with assessments every three months in the first year and every six months thereafter. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for baseline and time varying covariates were used to investigate the effect of rape exposure on HIV incidence over follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty-six women acquired HIV during 1605.5 total person-years of follow-up, with an incident rate of 6.6 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.8 - 9.1) among the rape exposed group and 4.7 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 3.5 - 6.2) among control group. After controlling for confounders (age, previous trauma, social support, perceived stress, multiple partners and transactional sex with a casual partner), women exposed to rape had a 60% increased risk of acquiring HIV (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01 - 2.48) compared to those not exposed. Survival analysis showed difference in HIV incident occurred after month nine. CONCLUSION: Rape is a long-term risk factor for HIV acquisition. Rape survivors need both immediate and long-term HIV prevention and care.

2.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e040104, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Violence against women is a serious threat to women's health and human rights globally. Disability has been associated with increased risk of exposure to different forms of violence, however, there are questions concerning how best to measure this association. Research on understanding the association between violence and disability among women has included incorporating short disability measures into violence against women prevalence surveys. The potential to improve understanding of interconnections between violence and disability by measuring violence within disability-focused research is underexplored. The scoping review described here focuses on three areas of measurement of violence against women and disability: (1) measurement of violence within the context of disability-focused research, (2) measurement in research focused on the intersection of disability and violence and (3) measurement of disability in the context of research focused on violence against women. Specifically, we aim to map definitions, measures and methodologies in these areas, globally. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: For our scoping review, we will conduct searches for quantitative studies of disability-focused research which use measures of violence against women, and measures of disability in research focused on violence against women, in 11 online databases. Two authors will independently review titles and abstracts retrieved through the search strategy. We will search for grey literature, search the websites of National Statistics Offices for all countries to identify any national or subnational disability research and consult with experts for input. Data extraction will be conducted independently by one author and reviewed by another author, and data will be analysed and synthesised using a thematic synthesis approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was not sought as no primary data is being collected. Findings will be disseminated through a publication in a peer-reviewed journal, through coordinated dissemination to researchers, practitioners, data users and generators and through various working groups and networks on violence against women and disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Violência , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1834769, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about women who have experienced a recent rape, and how they differ from women without this exposure. Identifying factors linked to rape is important for preventing rape and developing effective responses in countries like South Africa with high levels of sexual violence. OBJECTIVE: To describe the socio-demographic and health profile of women recently exposed to rape and to compare them with a non-rape-exposed group. METHODS: The Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation Study (RICE) enrolled 852 women age 16-40 years exposed to rape from post-rape care centres in Durban (South Africa) and a control group of 853 women of the same age range who have never been exposed to rape recruited from public health services. Descriptive analyses include logistic regression modelling of socio-demographic characteristics associated with recent rape exposure. RESULTS: Women with recent rape reported poorer health and more intimate partner violence than those who were not raped. They had a lower likelihood of having completed school (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.24-0.87) and dependence on a government grant as a main source of income (OR 0.61: 95%CI 0.49-0.77). They were more likely to live in informal housing (OR 1.88 95%CI: 1.43-2.46) or rural areas (OR 2.24: 95%CI 1.61-3.07) than formal housing areas - however they were also more likely to report full-time employment (OR 4.24: 95%CI 2.73-6.57). CONCLUSION: The study shows that structural factors, such as lower levels of education, poverty, and living in areas of poor infrastructure are associated with women's vulnerability to rape. It also shows possible protection from rape afforded by the national financial safety net. It highlights the importance of safe transportation in commuting to work. Preventing rape is critical for enabling women's full social and economic development, and structural interventions are key for reducing women's vulnerability.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages health and is costly to families and society. Individuals experience different forms and combinations of IPV; better understanding of the respective health effects of these can help develop differentiated responses. This study explores the associations of different categories of IPV on women's mental and physical health. METHODS: Using data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, multilevel mixed effects logistic regression modelling was used to analyse associations between categories of abuse (physical IPV alone, psychological IPV alone, sexual IPV alone, combined physical and psychological IPV, and combined sexual with psychological and/or physical IPV) with measures of physical and mental health, including self-reported symptoms, suicidal thoughts and attempts, and nights in hospital. RESULTS: Countries varied in prevalence of different categories of IPV. All categories of IPV were associated with poorer health outcomes; the two combined abuse categories were the most damaging. The most common category was combined abuse involving sexual IPV, which was associated with the poorest health [attempted suicide: odds ratio (OR): 10.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.37-13.89, thoughts of suicide: 8.47, 7.03-10.02, memory loss: 2.93, 2.41-3.56]. Combined psychological and physical IPV was associated with the next poorest outcomes (attempted suicide: 5.67, 4.23-7.60, thoughts of suicide: 4.41, 3.63-5.37, memory loss: 2.33, 1.88-2.87-). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the prevalence and health impact of different forms and categories of IPV is crucial to risk assessment, tailoring responses to individuals and planning services. Previous analyses that focused on singular forms of IPV likely underestimated the more harmful impacts of combined forms of abuse.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041339, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesise the experiences and expectations of women victim/survivors of intimate partner abuse (IPA) following disclosure to a healthcare provider (HCP). METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, SocINDEX, ASSIA and the Cochrane Library were searched in February 2020. Included studies needed to focus on women's experiences with and expectations of HCPs after disclosure of IPA. We considered primary studies using qualitative methods for both data collection and analysis published since 2004. Studies conducted in any country, in any type of healthcare setting, were included. The quality of individual studies was assessed using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist for qualitative studies. The confidence in the overall evidence base was determined using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE)-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research methods. Thematic synthesis was used for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-one papers describing 30 studies were included in the final review. These were conducted in a range of health settings, predominantly in the USA and other high-income countries. All studies were in English. Four main themes were developed through the analysis, describing women's experiences and expectations of HCPs: (1) connection through kindness and care; (2) see the evil, hear the evil, speak the evil; (3) do more than just listen; and (4) plant the right seed. If these key expectations were absent from care, it resulted in a range of negative emotional impacts for women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly align with the principles of woman-centred care, indicating that women value emotional connection, practical support through action and advocacy and an approach that recognises their autonomy and is tailored to their individual needs. Drawing on the evidence, we have developed a best practice model to guide practitioners in how to deliver woman-centred care. This review has critical implications for practice, highlighting the simplicity of what HCPs can do to support women experiencing IPA, although its applicability to low-income and-middle income settings remains to be explored.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to give a global overview of trends in access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and what is being done to mitigate its impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis and content analysis based on an online survey among clinicians, researchers, and organizations. Our data were extracted from multiple-choice questions on access to SRHR services and risk of SRHR violations, and written responses to open-ended questions on threats to access and required response. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 51 people representing 29 countries. Eighty-six percent reported that access to contraceptive services was less or much less because of COVID-19, corresponding figures for surgical and medical abortion were 62% and 46%. The increased risk of gender-based and sexual violence was assessed as moderate or severe by 79%. Among countries with mildly restrictive abortion policies, 69% had implemented changes to facilitate access to abortion during the pandemic, compared with none among countries with severe restrictions (P < .001), 87.5% compared with 46% had implemented changes to facilitate access to contraception (P = .023). The content analysis showed that (a) prioritizations in health service delivery at the expense of SRHR, (b) lack of political will, (c) the detrimental effect of lockdown, and (d) the suspension of sexual education, were threats to SRHR access (theme 1). Requirements to mitigate these threats (theme 2) were (a) political will and support of universal access to SRH services, (b) the sensitization of providers, (c) free public transport, and (d) physical protective equipment. A contrasting third theme was the state of exception of the COVID-19 pandemic as a window of opportunity to push forward women's health and rights. CONCLUSIONS: Many countries have seen decreased access to and increased violations of SRHR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with severe restrictions on abortion seem less likely to have implemented changes to SRHR delivery to mitigate this impact. Political will to support the advancement of SRHR is often lacking, which is fundamental to ensuring both continued access and, in a minority of cases, the solidification of gains made to SRHR during the pandemic.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970746

RESUMO

The majority of the existing evidence-base on violence against women focuses on women of reproductive age (15-49), and globally there is sparse evidence concerning patterns of and types of violence against women aged 50 and older. Improved understanding of differing patterns and dynamics of violence older women experienced is needed to ensure appropriate policy or programmatic responses. To address these gaps in the evidence, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative literature on violence against older women, including any form of violence against women, rather than adopting a specific theoretical framework on what types of violence or perpetrators should be included from the outset, and focusing specifically on qualitative studies, to explore the nature and dynamics of violence against older women from the perspective of women. Following pre-planned searches of 11 electronic databases, two authors screened all identified titles, abstracts and relevant full texts for inclusion in the review. We extracted data from 52 manuscripts identified for inclusion, and conducted quality assessment and thematic synthesis from the key findings of the included studies. Results indicated that the vast majority of included studies were conducted in high-income contexts, and did not contain adequate information on study setting and context. Thematic synthesis identified several central themes, including the intersection between ageing and perceptions of, experiences of and response to violence; the centrality of social and gender norms in shaping older women's experiences of violence; the cumulative physical and mental health impact of exposure to lifelong violence, and that specific barriers exist for older women accessing community supports and health services to address violence victimization. Our findings indicated that violence against older women is prevalent and has significant impacts on physical and mental well-being of older women. Implications for policy and programmatic response, as well as future research directions, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência de Gênero/tendências , Violência/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426157

RESUMO

Background: Globally, including in low- and middle-income [LMIC] countries, there is increased attention to and investment in interventions to prevent and respond to violence against women; however, most of these approaches are delivered outside of formal or informal health systems. The World Health Organization published clinical and policy guidelines Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women in 2013. Further evidence is needed concerning implementation of the Guidelines, including how health care providers perceive training interventions, if the training approach meets their needs and is of relevance to them and how to ensure sustainability of changes in practice due to training. This manuscript describes a study protocol for a mixed methods study of the implementation of the Guidelines and related tools in tertiary hospitals in two districts in Maharashtra, India. Methods: The study will employ a mixed-methods study design. A quantitative assessment of health care providers' and managers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices will be conducted pre, post, and 6 months after the training. Qualitative methods will include a participatory stakeholders' meeting to inform the design of the training intervention design, in-depth interviews [IDIs] and focus-group discussions [FGDs] with health care providers and managers 3-6 months after training, and IDIs with women who have disclosed violence to a trained health care provider, approximately 6 months after training. The study will also validate two tools: a readiness assessment of health facilities and a health management information system form in a facility register format which will be used to document cases of violence. Discussion: The multiple components of this study will generate data to improve our understanding of how implementation of the Guidelines works, what barriers and facilitators to implementation exist in this context, and how current implementation practices result in changes in terms of health services and providers' practices of responding to women affected by violence. The results will be useful for governmental and non-governmental and United Nations Agency efforts to improve health systems and services for women affected by violence, as well as for researchers working on health systems responses to violence against women in India and possibly other contexts.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(4): e001954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399255

RESUMO

Introduction: Violence against women is a pressing global health problem that is being met with a new intervention strategy-mobile applications. With this systematic review, we provide an initial analysis and functional categorisation of apps addressing violence against women. Methods: We conducted a systematic online search conforming with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify apps addressing violence against women in five World Bank regions (Europe and Central Asia; North America, Latin America and the Caribbean; Middle East and North Africa; South Asia; and sub-Saharan Africa). Applications with location of initiation in mentioned regions and ≥100 downloads were included. Data on sector, target group(s), year of release, location of initiation and implementation were extracted. By means of a structured qualitative content analysis, applications were then categorised according to their main functions. Results: Of 327 relevant applications, 171 were included into the systematic review and assigned to one of five identified categories of main functions, respectively: emergency, avoidance, education, reporting and evidence building, and supporting apps. The largest proportion (46.78%) consisted of emergency apps, followed by education, reporting and evidence building, supporting and avoidance apps in descending order. With regards to the geographical distribution of app categories, significant (χ2(20)=58.172; p=0.000) differences among the included regions were found. Conclusion: A vast proportion of apps addressing violence against women primarily draw on one-time emergency or avoidance solutions, as opposed to more preventative approaches. Further research is necessary, critically considering questions of data security, personal safety and efficacy of such mobile health interventions.

12.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010409, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373328

RESUMO

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent worldwide and presents pernicious consequences for women in developing countries or humanitarian settings. We examined the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for IPV among women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Seven databases were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining psychosocial interventions for IPV in LMICs. Thirteen RCTs were included in random-effects meta-analyses. Risk ratios (RR) and risk difference were calculated as pooled effect sizes. Risk of bias was assessed using an adapted version of the Cochrane tool accounting for cluster RCTs. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for risk of bias and design characteristics. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Results: Psychosocial interventions reduced any form of IPV by 27% at shortest (relative risk (RR) = 0.73) and 25% at longest (RR = 0.75) follow up. Physical IPV was reduced by 22% at shortest (RR = 0.78) and 27% at longest (RR = 0.73) follow up. Sexual IPV was reduced by 23% at longest follow up (RR = 0.77) but showed no significant effect at shortest follow-up. Sensitivity analyses for risk of bias led to an increase in magnitude of the effect for any form of IPV and physical IPV. The effect on sexual IPV was no longer significant. Heterogeneity was moderate to high in the majority of comparisons. Conclusions: Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of IPV in humanitarian or low and middle income settings. We acknowledge heterogeneity and limited availability of RCTs demonstrating minimal risk of bias as limitations.

13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(3): e001883, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337076

RESUMO

Introduction: Many low- and middle-income countries have implemented health-system based one stop centres to respond to intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence. Despite its growing popularity in low- and middle-income countries and among donors, no studies have systematically reviewed the one stop centre. Using a thematic synthesis approach, this systematic review aims to identify enablers and barriers to implementation of the one stop centre (OSC) model and to achieving its intended results for women survivors of violence in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We searched PubMed, CINAHL and Embase databases and grey literature using a predetermined search strategy to identify all relevant qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. Overall, 42 studies were included from 24 low- and middle-income countries. We used a three-stage thematic synthesis methodology to synthesise the qualitative evidence, and we used the CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research) approach to assess confidence in the qualitative research. Meta-analysis could not be performed due heterogeneity in results and outcome measures. Quantitative data are presented by individual study characteristics and outcomes, and key findings are incorporated into the qualitative thematic framework. Results: The review found 15 barriers with high-confidence evidence and identified seven enablers with moderate-confidence evidence. These include barriers to implementation such as lack of multisectoral staff and private consultation space as well as barriers to achieving the intended result of multisectoral coordination due to fragmented services and unclear responsibilities of implementing partners. There were also differences between enablers and barriers of various OSC models such as the hospital-based OSC, the stand-alone OSC and the NGO-run OSC. Conclusion: This review demonstrates that there are several barriers that have often prevented the OSC model from being implemented as designed and achieving the intended result of providing high quality, accessible, acceptable, multisectoral care. Existing OSCs will likely require strategic investment to address these specific barriers before they can achieve their ultimate goal of reducing survivor retraumatisation when seeking care. More rigorous and systematic evaluation of the OSC model is needed to better understand whether the OSC model of care is improving support for survivors of IPV and sexual violence.The systematic review protocol was registered and is available online (PROSPERO: CRD42018083988).

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(1): e002208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133178

RESUMO

Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a critical public health issue that transcends social and economic boundaries and considered to be a major obstacle to the progress towards the 2030 women, children and adolescents' health goals in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Standardised IPV measures have been increasingly incorporated into Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in LMICs. Routine reporting and disaggregated analyses at country level are essential to identify populational subgroups that are particularly vulnerable to IPV exposure. Methods: We examined data from 46 countries with surveys carried out between 2010 and 2017 to assess the prevalence and inequalities in recent psychological, physical and sexual IPV among ever-partnered women aged 15-49 years. Inequalities were assessed by disaggregating the data according to household wealth, women's age, women's empowerment level, polygyny status of the relationship and area of residence. Results: National levels of reported IPV varied widely across countries-from less than 5% in Armenia and Comoros to more than 40% in Afghanistan. Huge inequalities within countries were also observed. Generally, richer and more empowered women reported less IPV, as well as those whose partners had no cowives. Different patterns across countries were observed according to women's age and area of residence but in most cases younger women and those living in rural areas tend to be more exposed to IPV. Conclusion: The present study advances the current knowledge by providing a global panorama of the prevalence of different forms of IPV across LMICs, helping the identification of the most vulnerable groups of women and for future monitoring of leaving no one behind towards achieving the elimination of all forms of violence among women and girls.

15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e254-e263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative solutions are required to provide mental health support at scale in low-resource humanitarian contexts. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a facilitator-guided, group-based, self-help intervention (Self-Help Plus) to reduce psychological distress in female refugees. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised trial in rural refugee settlements in northern Uganda. Participants were female South Sudanese refugees with at least moderate levels of psychological distress (cutoff ≥5 on the Kessler 6). The intervention comprised access to usual care and five 2-h audio-recorded stress-management workshops (20-30 refugees) led by briefly trained lay facilitators, accompanied by an illustrated self-help book. Villages were randomly assigned to either intervention (Self-Help Plus or enhanced usual care) on a 1:1 basis. Within 14 villages, randomly selected households were approached. Screening of women in households continued until 20-30 eligible participants were identified per site. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, assessed using the Kessler 6 symptom checklist 1 week before, 1 week after, and 3 months after intervention, in the intention-to-treat population. All outcomes were measured at the individual (rather than cluster) level. Secondary outcomes included personally identified problems, post-traumatic stress, depression symptoms, feelings of anger, social interactions with other ethnic groups, functional impairment, and subjective wellbeing. Assessors were masked to allocation. This trial was prospectively registered at ISRCTN, number 50148022. FINDINGS: Of 694 eligible participants (331 Self-Help Plus, 363 enhanced usual care), 613 (88%) completed all assessments. Compared with controls, we found stronger improvements for Self-Help Plus on psychological distress 3 months post intervention (ß -1·20, 95% CI -2·33 to -0·08; p=0·04; d -0·26). We also found larger improvements for Self-Help Plus 3 months post-intervention for five of eight secondary outcomes (effect size range -0·30 to -0·36). Refugees with different trauma exposure, length of time in settlements, and initial psychological distress benefited similarly. With regard to safety considerations, the independent data safety management board responded to six adverse events, and none were evaluated to be concerns in response to the intervention. INTERPRETATION: Self-Help Plus is an innovative, facilitator-guided, group-based self-help intervention that can be rapidly deployed to large numbers of participants, and resulted in meaningful reductions in psychological distress at 3 months among South Sudanese female refugees. FUNDING: Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) Programme.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Refugiados/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(3): 245-256, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828339

RESUMO

Domestic violence (DV) against women is a widespread violation of human rights. Adoption of effective interventions to address DV by health systems may fail if there is no readiness among organizations, institutions, providers and communities. There is, however, a research gap in our understanding of health systems' readiness to respond to DV. This article describes the use of a health system's readiness assessment to identify system obstacles to enable successful implementation of a primary health-care (PHC) intervention to address DV in the occupied Palestinian Territory (oPT). This article describes a case study where qualitative methods were used, namely 23 interviews with PHC providers and key informants, one stakeholder meeting with 19 stakeholders, two health facility observations and a document review of legal and policy materials on DV in oPT. We present data on seven dimensions of health systems. Our findings highlight the partial readiness of health systems and services to adopt a new DV intervention. Gaps were identified in: governance (no DV legislation), financial resources (no public funding and limited staff and infrastructure) and information systems (no uniform system), co-ordination (disjointed referral network) and to some extent around the values system (tension between patriarchal views on DV and more gender equal norms). Additional service-level barriers included unclear leadership structure at district level, uncertain roles for front-line staff, limited staff protection and the lack of a private space for identification and counselling. Findings also pointed to concrete actions in each system dimension that were important for effective delivery. This is the first study to use an adapted framework to assess health system readiness (HSR) for implementing an intervention to address DV in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed on HSR to inform effective implementation and scale up of health-care-based DV interventions.

18.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2369-2371, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155277
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e028809, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is sparse evidence globally concerning patterns of and types of violence against women aged 50 and older. Improved understanding of older women's experiences of violence, including types of violence, perpetrators and health impacts, is needed to address evident gaps in the literature, address requirements for monitoring and reporting on global sustainable development goal indicators, and inform policy and programming for preventing and responding to violence against older women. The aim of the systematic review is to identify, evaluate and synthesise qualitative studies from all countries, exploring violence against women aged 50 and above, identifying types and patterns of violence, perpetrators of violence and impacts of violence on various health outcomes for older women. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic search for qualitative studies of violence against older women will be conducted in the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, PILOTS, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, ProQuest Criminal Justice and Dissertations and Theses Global. Studies will be focused on violence against older women (aged 50 and above), using qualitative methodology, exploring women's experiences of any type of violence perpetrated by any type of perpetrator. Two authors will independently review titles and abstracts retrieved through the search strategy. Data extraction will be conducted independently by one author and quality assessment will be conducted by two authors, using an adapted version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme scale. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a thematic synthesis approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approvals are not required as primary data are not being collected. Findings will be disseminated through a publication in a peer-reviewed journal and used to inform development of a module to measure violence against older women, for use in specialised violence against women surveys. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019119467.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
SSM Popul Health ; 9: 100377, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993478

RESUMO

Psychological abuse within intimate relationships is linked to negative health outcomes among women and is frequently identified as more wounding than physical or sexual violence. There is little agreement, however, on how to conceptualize or measure the phenomenon, despite measurement being necessary to estimate the prevalence of psychological abuse, establish its interaction with physical and sexual violence, assess its health impacts, and monitor progress towards global Sustainable Development Goals. To address this gap, we used latent class analysis (LCA), psychometric testing, and logistic regression to evaluate the construct and content validity of alternative methods for deriving a measure of psychological partner abuse, using pooled data from the first 10 countries and 15 sites of the World Health Organization Multi-Country Study on Domestic Violence and Women's Health (WHO MCS). Our analysis finds that psychological abuse is highly prevalent, ranging from 12% to 58% across countries. A three-class solution was supported for coding psychological abuse: none, moderate-intensity abuse, and high-intensity abuse. This three-level categorization, which can be coded without LCA, demonstrates a clear graded relationship with controlling behaviors and all measured health outcomes except physical pain. Factor analysis confirms that psychological abuse and male controlling behaviors are separate constructs as measured in the WHO MCS and the Demographic and Health Surveys and should not be combined. We conclude that this is a simple way to code psychological abuse for cross-country comparison. Its use could support urgently needed research into psychological abuse across settings and identify an appropriate threshold for defining psychological violence for surveys globally.

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