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1.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(9): 1680-1691, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477366

RESUMO

While alarmone nucleotides guanosine-3',5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine-5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are archetypical bacterial second messengers, their adenosine analogues ppApp (adenosine-3',5'-bisdiphosphate) and pppApp (adenosine-5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate) are toxic effectors that abrogate bacterial growth. The alarmones are both synthesized and degraded by the members of the RelA-SpoT Homologue (RSH) enzyme family. Because of the chemical and enzymatic liability of (p)ppGpp and (p)ppApp, these alarmones are prone to degradation during structural biology experiments. To overcome this limitation, we have established an efficient and straightforward procedure for synthesizing nonhydrolysable (p)ppNuNpp analogues starting from 3'-azido-3'-deoxyribonucleotides as key intermediates. To demonstrate the utility of (p)ppGNpp as a molecular tool, we show that (i) as an HD substrate mimic, ppGNpp competes with ppGpp to inhibit the enzymatic activity of human MESH1 Small Alarmone Hyrolase, SAH; and (ii) mimicking the allosteric effects of (p)ppGpp, (p)ppGNpp acts as a positive regulator of the synthetase activity of long ribosome-associated RSHs Rel and RelA. Finally, by solving the structure of the N-terminal domain region (NTD) of T. thermophilus Rel complexed with pppGNpp, we show that as an HD substrate mimic, the analogue serves as a bona fide orthosteric regulator that promotes the same intra-NTD structural rearrangements as the native substrate.

2.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3310-3322.e6, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416138

RESUMO

Amino acid starvation is sensed by Escherichia coli RelA and Bacillus subtilis Rel through monitoring the aminoacylation status of ribosomal A-site tRNA. These enzymes are positively regulated by their product-the alarmone nucleotide (p)ppGpp-through an unknown mechanism. The (p)ppGpp-synthetic activity of Rel/RelA is controlled via auto-inhibition by the hydrolase/pseudo-hydrolase (HD/pseudo-HD) domain within the enzymatic N-terminal domain region (NTD). We localize the allosteric pppGpp site to the interface between the SYNTH and pseudo-HD/HD domains, with the alarmone stimulating Rel/RelA by exploiting intra-NTD autoinhibition dynamics. We show that without stimulation by pppGpp, starved ribosomes cannot efficiently activate Rel/RelA. Compromised activation by pppGpp ablates Rel/RelA function in vivo, suggesting that regulation by the second messenger (p)ppGpp is necessary for mounting an acute starvation response via coordinated enzymatic activity of individual Rel/RelA molecules. Control by (p)ppGpp is lacking in the E. coli (p)ppGpp synthetase SpoT, thus explaining its weak synthetase activity.


Assuntos
Regulação Alostérica/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , GTP Pirofosfoquinase/genética , Guanosina Pentafosfato/genética , Pirofosfatases/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrolases/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Inanição/genética , Inanição/metabolismo
3.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(9): 989-997, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341587

RESUMO

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel is essential to maintain fluid homeostasis in key organs. Functional impairment of CFTR due to mutations in the cftr gene leads to cystic fibrosis. Here, we show that the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR can spontaneously adopt an alternate conformation that departs from the canonical NBD fold previously observed. Crystallography reveals that this conformation involves a topological reorganization of NBD1. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy shows that the equilibrium between the conformations is regulated by adenosine triphosphate binding. However, under destabilizing conditions, such as the disease-causing mutation F508del, this conformational flexibility enables unfolding of the ß-subdomain. Our data indicate that, in wild-type CFTR, this conformational transition of NBD1 regulates channel function, but, in the presence of the F508del mutation, it allows domain misfolding and subsequent protein degradation. Our work provides a framework to design conformation-specific therapeutics to prevent noxious transitions.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/química , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/isolamento & purificação , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Desdobramento de Proteína
4.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3160-3170.e9, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174184

RESUMO

RelA-SpoT Homolog (RSH) enzymes control bacterial physiology through synthesis and degradation of the nucleotide alarmone (p)ppGpp. We recently discovered multiple families of small alarmone synthetase (SAS) RSH acting as toxins of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, with the FaRel subfamily of toxSAS abrogating bacterial growth by producing an analog of (p)ppGpp, (pp)pApp. Here we probe the mechanism of growth arrest used by four experimentally unexplored subfamilies of toxSAS: FaRel2, PhRel, PhRel2, and CapRel. Surprisingly, all these toxins specifically inhibit protein synthesis. To do so, they transfer a pyrophosphate moiety from ATP to the tRNA 3' CCA. The modification inhibits both tRNA aminoacylation and the sensing of cellular amino acid starvation by the ribosome-associated RSH RelA. Conversely, we show that some small alarmone hydrolase (SAH) RSH enzymes can reverse the pyrophosphorylation of tRNA to counter the growth inhibition by toxSAS. Collectively, we establish RSHs as RNA-modifying enzymes.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Guanosina Pentafosfato/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Bacilos Gram-Positivos Asporogênicos/química , Bacilos Gram-Positivos Asporogênicos/metabolismo , Guanosina Pentafosfato/química , Ligases/química , Ligases/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Pirofosfatases , Ribossomos/metabolismo
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(1): 444-457, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330919

RESUMO

In the Gram-positive Firmicute bacterium Bacillus subtilis, amino acid starvation induces synthesis of the alarmone (p)ppGpp by the RelA/SpoT Homolog factor Rel. This bifunctional enzyme is capable of both synthesizing and hydrolysing (p)ppGpp. To detect amino acid deficiency, Rel monitors the aminoacylation status of the ribosomal A-site tRNA by directly inspecting the tRNA's CCA end. Here we dissect the molecular mechanism of B. subtilis Rel. Off the ribosome, Rel predominantly assumes a 'closed' conformation with dominant (p)ppGpp hydrolysis activity. This state does not specifically select deacylated tRNA since the interaction is only moderately affected by tRNA aminoacylation. Once bound to the vacant ribosomal A-site, Rel assumes an 'open' conformation, which primes its TGS and Helical domains for specific recognition and stabilization of cognate deacylated tRNA on the ribosome. The tRNA locks Rel on the ribosome in a hyperactivated state that processively synthesises (p)ppGpp while the hydrolysis is suppressed. In stark contrast to non-specific tRNA interactions off the ribosome, tRNA-dependent Rel locking on the ribosome and activation of (p)ppGpp synthesis are highly specific and completely abrogated by tRNA aminoacylation. Binding pppGpp to a dedicated allosteric site located in the N-terminal catalytic domain region of the enzyme further enhances its synthetase activity.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Guanosina Pentafosfato/biossíntese , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Acilação , Sítio Alostérico , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Domínio Catalítico , GTP Pirofosfoquinase/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Bactérias/metabolismo
6.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(8): 834-840, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393900

RESUMO

Bifunctional Rel stringent factors, the most abundant class of RelA/SpoT homologs, are ribosome-associated enzymes that transfer a pyrophosphate from ATP onto the 3' of guanosine tri-/diphosphate (GTP/GDP) to synthesize the bacterial alarmone (p)ppGpp, and also catalyze the 3' pyrophosphate hydrolysis to degrade it. The regulation of the opposing activities of Rel enzymes is a complex allosteric mechanism that remains an active research topic despite decades of research. We show that a guanine-nucleotide-switch mechanism controls catalysis by Thermus thermophilus Rel (RelTt). The binding of GDP/ATP opens the N-terminal catalytic domains (NTD) of RelTt (RelTtNTD) by stretching apart the two catalytic domains. This activates the synthetase domain and allosterically blocks hydrolysis. Conversely, binding of ppGpp to the hydrolase domain closes the NTD, burying the synthetase active site and precluding the binding of synthesis precursors. This allosteric mechanism is an activity switch that safeguards against futile cycles of alarmone synthesis and degradation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-rel/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-rel/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes rel/genética , Guanosina Pentafosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Tetrafosfato/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Ligases/fisiologia , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Thermus thermophilus/enzimologia , Thermus thermophilus/metabolismo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10500-10510, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345719

RESUMO

Under stressful conditions, bacterial RelA-SpoT Homolog (RSH) enzymes synthesize the alarmone (p)ppGpp, a nucleotide second messenger. (p)ppGpp rewires bacterial transcription and metabolism to cope with stress, and, at high concentrations, inhibits the process of protein synthesis and bacterial growth to save and redirect resources until conditions improve. Single-domain small alarmone synthetases (SASs) are RSH family members that contain the (p)ppGpp synthesis (SYNTH) domain, but lack the hydrolysis (HD) domain and regulatory C-terminal domains of the long RSHs such as Rel, RelA, and SpoT. We asked whether analysis of the genomic context of SASs can indicate possible functional roles. Indeed, multiple SAS subfamilies are encoded in widespread conserved bicistronic operon architectures that are reminiscent of those typically seen in toxin-antitoxin (TA) operons. We have validated five of these SASs as being toxic (toxSASs), with neutralization by the protein products of six neighboring antitoxin genes. The toxicity of Cellulomonas marina toxSAS FaRel is mediated by the accumulation of alarmones ppGpp and ppApp, and an associated depletion of cellular guanosine triphosphate and adenosine triphosphate pools, and is counteracted by its HD domain-containing antitoxin. Thus, the ToxSAS-antiToxSAS system with its multiple different antitoxins exemplifies how ancient nucleotide-based signaling mechanisms can be repurposed as TA modules during evolution, potentially multiple times independently.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Guanosina Pentafosfato/metabolismo , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/fisiologia , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Guanosina Tetrafosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184768

RESUMO

The (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is a bacterial stress response implicated in virulence and antibiotic tolerance. Both synthesis and degradation of the (p)ppGpp alarmone nucleotide are mediated by RelA-SpoT Homolog (RSH) enzymes which can be broadly divided in two classes: single-domain 'short' and multi-domain 'long' RSH. The regulatory ACT (Aspartokinase, Chorismate mutase and TyrA)/RRM (RNA Recognition Motif) domain is a near-universal C-terminal domain of long RSHs. Deletion of RRM in both monofunctional (synthesis-only) RelA as well as bifunctional (i.e., capable of both degrading and synthesizing the alarmone) Rel renders the long RSH cytotoxic due to overproduction of (p)ppGpp. To probe the molecular mechanism underlying this effect we characterized Escherichia coli RelA and Bacillus subtilis Rel RSHs lacking RRM. We demonstrate that, first, the cytotoxicity caused by the removal of RRM is counteracted by secondary mutations that disrupt the interaction of the RSH with the starved ribosomal complex - the ultimate inducer of (p)ppGpp production by RelA and Rel - and, second, that the hydrolytic activity of Rel is not abrogated in the truncated mutant. Therefore, we conclude that the overproduction of (p)ppGpp by RSHs lacking the RRM domain is not explained by a lack of auto-inhibition in the absence of RRM or/and a defect in (p)ppGpp hydrolysis. Instead, we argue that it is driven by misregulation of the RSH activation by the ribosome.

9.
Structure ; 27(11): 1675-1685.e3, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495532

RESUMO

The E. coli hicAB type II toxin-antitoxin locus is unusual by being controlled by two promoters and by having the toxin encoded upstream of the antitoxin. HicA toxins contain a double-stranded RNA-binding fold and cleaves both mRNA and tmRNA in vivo, while HicB antitoxins contain a partial RNase H fold and either a helix-turn-helix (HTH) or ribbon-helix-helix domain. It is not known how an HTH DNA-binding domain affects higher-order structure for the HicAB modules. Here, we present crystal structures of the isolated E. coli HicB antitoxin and full-length HicAB complex showing that HicB forms a stable DNA-binding module and interacts in a canonical way with HicA despite the presence of an HTH-type DNA-binding domain. No major structural rearrangements take place upon binding of the toxin. Both structures expose well-ordered DNA-binding motifs allowing a model for DNA binding by the antitoxin to be generated.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina , Sítios de Ligação , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Estabilidade Proteica
10.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 75(Pt 8): 561-569, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397328

RESUMO

The stringent response, controlled by (p)ppGpp, enables bacteria to trigger a strong phenotypic resetting that is crucial to cope with adverse environmental changes and is required for stress survival and virulence. In the bacterial cell, (p)ppGpp levels are regulated by the concerted opposing activities of RSH (RelA/SpoT homologue) enzymes that can transfer a pyrophosphate group of ATP to the 3' position of GDP (or GTP) or remove the 3' pyrophosphate moiety from (p)ppGpp. Bifunctional Rel enzymes are notoriously difficult to crystallize owing to poor stability and a propensity for aggregation, usually leading to a loss of biological activity after purification. Here, the production, biochemical analysis and crystallization of the bifunctional catalytic region of the Rel stringent factor from Thermus thermophilus (RelTtNTD) in the resting state and bound to nucleotides are described. RelTt and RelTtNTD are monomers in solution that are stabilized by the binding of Mn2+ and mellitic acid. RelTtNTD crystallizes in space group P4122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.4, c = 182.7 Å, at 4°C and in space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 105.7, c = 241.4 Å, at 20°C.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , GTP Pirofosfoquinase/química , Thermus thermophilus/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalização , GTP Pirofosfoquinase/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2636, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201318

RESUMO

The leading cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutation affects the thermodynamic stability of the domain and the integrity of the interface between NBD1 and the transmembrane domain leading to its clearance by the quality control system. Here, we develop nanobodies targeting NBD1 of human CFTR and demonstrate their ability to stabilize both isolated NBD1 and full-length protein. Crystal structures of NBD1-nanobody complexes provide an atomic description of the epitopes and reveal the molecular basis for stabilization. Furthermore, our data uncover a conformation of CFTR, involving detachment of NBD1 from the transmembrane domain, which contrast with the compact assembly observed in cryo-EM structures. This unexpected interface rearrangement is likely to have major relevance for CF pathogenesis but also for the normal function of CFTR and other ABC proteins.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Cristalografia por Raios X , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/isolamento & purificação , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Humanos , Dobramento de Proteína , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 972, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814507

RESUMO

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are tightly regulated to maintain growth in favorable conditions or growth arrest during stress. A typical regulatory strategy involves the antitoxin binding and repressing its own promoter while the toxin often acts as a co-repressor. Here we show that Pseudomonas putida graTA-encoded antitoxin GraA and toxin GraT differ from other TA proteins in the sense that not the antitoxin but the toxin possesses a flexible region. GraA auto-represses the graTA promoter: two GraA dimers bind cooperatively at opposite sides of the operator sequence. Contrary to other TA modules, GraT is a de-repressor of the graTA promoter as its N-terminal disordered segment prevents the binding of the GraT2A2 complex to the operator. Removal of this region restores operator binding and abrogates Gr aT toxicity. GraTA represents a TA module where a flexible region in the toxin rather than in the antitoxin controls operon expression and toxin activity.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Antitoxinas/genética , Antitoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Óperon , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética
13.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(3): 285-294, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718814

RESUMO

GCN5-related N-acetyl-transferase (GNAT)-like enzymes from toxin-antitoxin modules are strong inhibitors of protein synthesis. Here, we present the bases of the regulatory mechanisms of ataRT, a model GNAT-toxin-antitoxin module, from toxin synthesis to its action as a transcriptional de-repressor. We show the antitoxin (AtaR) traps the toxin (AtaT) in a pre-catalytic monomeric state and precludes the effective binding of ac-CoA and its target Met-transfer RNAfMet. In the repressor complex, AtaR intrinsically disordered region interacts with AtaT at two different sites, folding into different structures, that are involved in two separate functional roles, toxin neutralization and placing the DNA-binding domains of AtaR in a binding-compatible orientation. Our data suggests AtaR neutralizes AtaT as a monomer, right after its synthesis and only the toxin-antitoxin complex formed in this way is an active repressor. Once activated by dimerization, later neutralization of the toxin results in a toxin-antitoxin complex that is not able to repress transcription.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Antitoxinas/fisiologia , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/fisiologia , Acetiltransferases/fisiologia , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase , Proteínas de Bactérias , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Salmonella/enzimologia , Salmonella/metabolismo , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(2): 843-854, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496454

RESUMO

Sensory and regulatory domains allow bacteria to adequately respond to environmental changes. The regulatory ACT (Aspartokinase, Chorismate mutase and TyrA) domains are mainly found in metabolic-related proteins as well as in long (p)ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase enzymes. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ACT domain of SpoT, the only (p)ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase of Caulobacter crescentus. We show that SpoT requires the ACT domain to efficiently hydrolyze (p)ppGpp. In addition, our in vivo and in vitro data show that the phosphorylated version of EIIANtr (EIIANtr∼P) interacts directly with the ACT and inhibits the hydrolase activity of SpoT. Finally, we highlight the conservation of the ACT-dependent interaction between EIIANtr∼P and SpoT/Rel along with the phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr)-dependent regulation of (p)ppGpp accumulation upon nitrogen starvation in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a plant-associated α-proteobacterium. Thus, this work suggests that α-proteobacteria might have inherited from a common ancestor, a PTSNtr dedicated to modulate (p)ppGpp levels in response to nitrogen availability.


Assuntos
Caulobacter crescentus/enzimologia , Guanosina Pentafosfato/metabolismo , Ligases/química , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Hidrolases/química , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Domínios Proteicos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Sinorhizobium meliloti/metabolismo
16.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 74(Pt 7): 391-401, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969102

RESUMO

The ataRT operon from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli encodes a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module with a recently discovered novel toxin activity. This new type II TA module targets translation initiation for cell-growth arrest. Virtually nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of neutralization, toxin catalytic action or translation autoregulation. Here, the production, biochemical analysis and crystallization of the intrinsically disordered antitoxin AtaR, the toxin AtaT, the AtaR-AtaT complex and the complex of AtaR-AtaT with a double-stranded DNA fragment of the operator region of the promoter are reported. Because they contain large regions that are intrinsically disordered, TA antitoxins are notoriously difficult to crystallize. AtaR forms a homodimer in solution and crystallizes in space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.3, c = 160.8 Å. The crystals are likely to contain an AtaR monomer in the asymmetric unit and diffracted to 3.8 Šresolution. The Y144F catalytic mutant of AtaT (AtaTY144F) bound to the cofactor acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) and the C-terminal neutralization domain of AtaR (AtaR44-86) were also crystallized. The crystals of the AtaTY144F-AcCoA complex diffracted to 2.5 Šresolution and the crystals of AtaR44-86 diffracted to 2.2 Šresolution. Analysis of these structures should reveal the full scope of the neutralization of the toxin AtaT by AtaR. The crystals belonged to space groups P6522 and P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 58.1, c = 216.7 Šand a = b = 87.6, c = 125.5 Å, respectively. The AtaR-AtaT-DNA complex contains a 22 bp DNA duplex that was optimized to obtain high-resolution data based on the sequence of two inverted repeats detected in the operator region. It crystallizes in space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, b = 87.9, c = 190.5 Å. These crystals diffracted to 3.5 Šresolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Homeostase/genética , Óperon/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cristalização/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos
17.
Science ; 361(6403)2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026314

RESUMO

Wnt signaling is key to many developmental, physiological, and disease processes in which cells seem able to discriminate between multiple Wnt ligands. This selective Wnt recognition or "decoding" capacity has remained enigmatic because Wnt/Frizzled interactions are largely incompatible with monospecific recognition. Gpr124 and Reck enable brain endothelial cells to selectively respond to Wnt7. We show that Reck binds with low micromolar affinity to the intrinsically disordered linker region of Wnt7. Availability of Reck-bound Wnt7 for Frizzled signaling relies on the interaction between Gpr124 and Dishevelled. Through polymerization, Dishevelled recruits Gpr124 and the associated Reck-bound Wnt7 into dynamic Wnt/Frizzled/Lrp5/6 signalosomes, resulting in increased local concentrations of Wnt7 available for Frizzled signaling. This work provides mechanistic insights into the Wnt decoding capacities of vertebrate cells and unravels structural determinants of the functional diversification of Wnt family members.


Assuntos
Proteínas Desgrenhadas/metabolismo , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ligação Proteica , Peixe-Zebra
18.
mBio ; 9(3)2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895634

RESUMO

Persistence is a reversible and low-frequency phenomenon allowing a subpopulation of a clonal bacterial population to survive antibiotic treatments. Upon removal of the antibiotic, persister cells resume growth and give rise to viable progeny. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were assumed to play a key role in the formation of persister cells in Escherichia coli based on the observation that successive deletions of TA systems decreased persistence frequency. In addition, the model proposed that stochastic fluctuations of (p)ppGpp levels are the basis for triggering activation of TA systems. Cells in which TA systems are activated are thought to enter a dormancy state and therefore survive the antibiotic treatment. Using independently constructed strains and newly designed fluorescent reporters, we reassessed the roles of TA modules in persistence both at the population and single-cell levels. Our data confirm that the deletion of 10 TA systems does not affect persistence to ofloxacin or ampicillin. Moreover, microfluidic experiments performed with a strain reporting the induction of the yefM-yoeB TA system allowed the observation of a small number of type II persister cells that resume growth after removal of ampicillin. However, we were unable to establish a correlation between high fluorescence and persistence, since the fluorescence of persister cells was comparable to that of the bulk of the population and none of the cells showing high fluorescence were able to resume growth upon removal of the antibiotic. Altogether, these data show that there is no direct link between induction of TA systems and persistence to antibiotics.IMPORTANCE Within a growing bacterial population, a small subpopulation of cells is able to survive antibiotic treatment by entering a transient state of dormancy referred to as persistence. Persistence is thought to be the cause of relapsing bacterial infections and is a major public health concern. Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are small modules composed of a toxic protein and an antitoxin protein counteracting the toxin activity. These systems were thought to be pivotal players in persistence until recent developments in the field. Our results demonstrate that previous influential reports had technical flaws and that there is no direct link between induction of TA systems and persistence to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Óperon , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Sci Adv ; 4(3): eaap9714, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546243

RESUMO

Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle. Direct modifications of the EF-Tu switch I region or modifications in other regions stabilizing the ß-hairpin state of switch I result in an effective allosteric trap that restricts the normal dynamics of EF-Tu and enables the evasion of the control exerted by nucleotides on G proteins. These results highlight stabilization of a phosphorylation-induced conformational trap as an essential mechanism for phosphoregulation of bacterial translation and metabolism. We propose that this mechanism may lead to the multisite phosphorylation state observed during dormancy and stationary phase.


Assuntos
Fator Tu de Elongação de Peptídeos/química , Fator Tu de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Guanosina 5'-O-(3-Tiotrifosfato)/metabolismo , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fosfotreonina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Termodinâmica
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5211, 2018 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581565

RESUMO

Hypoxia triggers profound modifications of cellular transcriptional programs. Upon reoxygenation, cells return to a normoxic gene expression pattern and mRNA produced during the hypoxic phase are degraded. TIS11 proteins control deadenylation and decay of transcripts containing AU-rich elements (AREs). We observed that the level of dTIS11 is decreased in hypoxic S2 Drosophila cells and returns to normal level upon reoxygenation. Bioinformatic analyses using the ARE-assessing algorithm AREScore show that the hypoxic S2 transcriptome is enriched in ARE-containing transcripts and that this trend is conserved in human myeloid cells. Moreover, an efficient down-regulation of Drosophila ARE-containing transcripts during hypoxia/normoxia transition requires dtis11 expression. Several of these genes encode proteins with metabolic functions. Here, we show that ImpL3 coding for Lactate Dehydrogenase in Drosophila, is regulated by ARE-mediated decay (AMD) with dTIS11 contributing to ImpL3 rapid down-regulation upon return to normal oxygen levels after hypoxia. More generally, we observed that dtis11 expression contributes to cell metabolic and proliferative recovery upon reoxygenation. Altogether, our data demonstrate that AMD plays an important role in the control of gene expression upon variation in oxygen concentration and contributes to optimal metabolic adaptation to oxygen variations.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/genética , Humanos , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
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