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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 312, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941973

RESUMO

Exposure to acrylamide may lead to different neurotoxic effects in humans and in experimental animals. To gain insights into this poorly understood type of neurotoxicological damage, we used a multi-omic approach to characterize the molecular changes occurring in the zebrafish brain exposed to acrylamide at metabolite, transcript and protein levels. We detected the formation of acrylamide adducts with thiol groups from both metabolites and protein residues, leading to a quasi-complete depletion of glutathione and to the inactivation of different components of the thioredoxin system. We propose that the combined loss-of-function of both redox metabolism-related systems configure a perfect storm that explains many acrylamide neurotoxic effects, like the dysregulation of genes related to microtubules, presynaptic vesicle alteration, and behavioral alterations. We consider that our mechanistical approach may help developing new treatments against the neurotoxic effects of acrylamide and of other neurotoxicants that may share its toxic mode of action.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226687, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877201

RESUMO

Large scale biological responses are inherently uncertain, in part as a consequence of noisy systems that do not respond deterministically to perturbations and measurement errors inherent to technological limitations. As a result, they are computationally difficult to model and current approaches are notoriously slow and computationally intensive (multiscale stochastic models), fail to capture the effects of noise across a system (chemical kinetic models), or fail to provide sufficient biological fidelity because of broad simplifying assumptions (stochastic differential equations). We use a new approach to modeling multiscale stationary biological processes that embraces the noise found in experimental data to provide estimates of the parameter uncertainties and the potential mis-specification of models. Our approach models the mean stationary response at each biological level given a particular expected response relationship, capturing variation around this mean using conditional Monte Carlo sampling that is statistically consistent with training data. A conditional probability distribution associated with a biological response can be reconstructed using this method for a subset of input values, which overcomes the parameter identification problem. Our approach could be applied in addition to dynamical modeling methods (see above) to predict uncertain biological responses over experimental time scales. To illustrate this point, we apply the approach to a test case in which we model the variation associated with measurements at multiple scales of organization across a reproduction-related Adverse Outcome Pathway described for teleosts.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16467, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712630

RESUMO

Two essential key events in acrylamide (ACR) acute neurotoxicity are the formation of adducts with nucleophilic sulfhydryl groups on cysteine residues of selected proteins in the synaptic terminals and the depletion of the glutathione (GSx) stores in neural tissue. The use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been recently proposed as a potential antidote against ACR neurotoxicity, as this chemical is not only a well-known precursor of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), but also is an scavenger of soft electrophiles such as ACR. In this study, the suitability of 0.3 and 0.75 mM NAC to protect against the neurotoxic effect of 0.75 mM ACR has been tested in vivo in adult zebrafish. NAC provided only a mild to negligible protection against the changes induced by ACR in the motor function, behavior, transcriptome and proteome. The permeability of NAC to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) was assessed, as well as the ACR-scavenging activity and the gamma-glutamyl-cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) and acylase I activities. The results show that ACR not only depletes GSx levels but also inhibits it synthesis from NAC/cysteine, having a dramatic effect over the glutathione system. Moreover, results indicate a very low NAC uptake to the brain, probably by a combination of low BBB permeability and high deacylation of NAC during the intestinal absorption. These results strongly suggest that the use of NAC is not indicated in ACR acute neurotoxicity treatment.

4.
Risk Anal ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721239

RESUMO

Adverse outcome pathway Bayesian networks (AOPBNs) are a promising avenue for developing predictive toxicology and risk assessment tools based on adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Here, we describe a process for developing AOPBNs. AOPBNs use causal networks and Bayesian statistics to integrate evidence across key events. In this article, we use our AOPBN to predict the occurrence of steatosis under different chemical exposures. Since it is an expert-driven model, we use external data (i.e., data not used for modeling) from the literature to validate predictions of the AOPBN model. The AOPBN accurately predicts steatosis for the chemicals from our external data. In addition, we demonstrate how end users can utilize the model to simulate the confidence (based on posterior probability) associated with predicting steatosis. We demonstrate how the network topology impacts predictions across the AOPBN, and how the AOPBN helps us identify the most informative key events that should be monitored for predicting steatosis. We close with a discussion of how the model can be used to predict potential effects of mixtures and how to model susceptible populations (e.g., where a mutation or stressor may change the conditional probability tables in the AOPBN). Using this approach for developing expert AOPBNs will facilitate the prediction of chemical toxicity, facilitate the identification of assay batteries, and greatly improve chemical hazard screening strategies.

5.
ALTEX ; 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453632

RESUMO

New approaches, like the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, have been developed to describe how chemicals cause toxicity by linking in vitro assays to adverse health outcomes. However, approaches, tools and resources for development of AOPs have not been well described. Here we review information resources for AOP development and define a streamlined process for linking a chemical to an existing AOP. We propose a four step process to facilitate AOP development: link the uncharacterized chemical directly to Molecular Initiating Events, Key Events, or Adverse Outcomes; identify analogs with toxicological information for the uncharacterized chemical; link the characterized chemical (initial chemical if characterized, a characterized analog if initial chemical is not) to Molecular Initiating Events, Key Events, or Adverse Outcomes; and identify AOPs that contain the Molecular Initiating Events, Key Events, or Adverse Outcomes that were found in Steps 1 and 3. The process and library of informational resources proposed and tested here served as the foundation for an informational online tool (AOPERA) that helps practitioners identify their current-state knowledge gaps, navigate the four-step process, and connect to relevant resources. AOPERA can be found at https://igbb.github.io/AOPERA_HTML. Additionally, we anticipate that by simplifying and standardizing the process of linking a chemical to a known AOP, we will lower the barrier to entry for this objective and increase its accessibility to new practitioners. In turn, this may increase the demand for new or improved AOPs to which practitioners can link chemicals, thereby contributing to the expansion of the library of known AOPs.

6.
Toxicol Sci ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214694

RESUMO

Organophosphorus compounds are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Acute organophosphorus poisoning (acute OPP) affects 3 million people, with 300,000 deaths annually worldwide. Severe acute OPP effects include overstimulation of cholinergic neurons, seizures, status epilepticus, and finally, brain damage. In a previous study, we developed three different chemical models of acute OPP in zebrafish larvae. To elucidate the complex pathophysiological pathways related to acute OPP, we used integrative omics (proteomic, transcriptomics and metabolomics) on these three animal models. Our results show that these stochastic, apparently disparate morphological phenotypes can result from almost linear concentration-response variations in molecular levels. Results from the multi-omics analysis strongly suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress might play a central role in the pathophysiology of severe acute OPP, emphasizing the urgent need of further research on this molecular pathway. ER stress could be an important therapeutic target to be included in the treatment of patients with severe acute OPP.

7.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(6): 1212-1222, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074622

RESUMO

Exposure to certain chemicals such as disinfectants through inhalation is suspected to be involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, a lung disease in which lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred. Pulmonary fibrosis is known to be regulated by transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here, we developed an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to better define the linkage of PPARγ antagonism to the adverse outcome of pulmonary fibrosis. We then conducted a systematic analysis to identify potential chemicals involved in this AOP, using the ToxCast database and deep learning artificial neural network models. We identified chemicals bearing a potential inhalation hazard and exposure hazards from the database that could be related to this AOP. For chemicals that were not present in the ToxCast database, multilayer perceptron models were developed based on the ToxCast assays related to the AOP. The reactivity of ToxCast untested chemicals was then predicted using these deep learning models. Both approaches identified a set of chemicals that could be used to validate the AOP. This study suggests that chemicals categorized using an existing database such as ToxCast can be used to validate an AOP and that deep learning approaches can be used to characterize a range of potential active chemicals for an AOP of interest.

8.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 106: 197-209, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078681

RESUMO

Read-across is a well-established data gap-filling technique applied for regulatory purposes. In US Environmental Protection Agency's New Chemicals Program under TSCA, read-across has been used extensively for decades, however the extent of application and acceptance of read-across among U.S. federal agencies is less clear. In an effort to build read-across capacity, raise awareness of the state of the science, and work towards a harmonization of read-across approaches across U.S. agencies, a new read-across workgroup was established under the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). This is one of several ad hoc groups ICCVAM has convened to implement the ICCVAM Strategic Roadmap. In this article, we outline the charge and scope of the workgroup and summarize the current applications, tools used, and needs of the agencies represented on the workgroup for read-across. Of the agencies surveyed, the Environmental Protection Agency had the greatest experience in using read-across whereas other agencies indicated that they would benefit from gaining a perspective of the landscape of the tools and available guidance. Two practical case studies are also described to illustrate how the read-across approaches applied by two agencies vary on account of decision context.

9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 2): 103, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the main challenges when analyzing complex metagenomics data is the fact that large amounts of information need to be presented in a comprehensive and easy-to-navigate way. In the process of analyzing FASTQ sequencing data, visualizing which organisms are present in the data can be useful, especially with metagenomics data or data suspected to be contaminated. Here, we describe the development and application of a command-line tool, Keanu, for visualizing and exploring sample content in metagenomics data. We developed Keanu as an interactive tool to make viewing complex data easier. RESULTS: Keanu, a tool for exploring sequence content, helps a user to understand the presence and abundance of organisms in a sample by analyzing alignments against a database that contains taxonomy data and displaying them in an interactive web page. The content of a sample can be presented either as a collapsible tree, with node size indicating abundance, or as a bilevel partition graph, with arc size indicating abundance. Here, we illustrate how Keanu works by exploring shotgun metagenomics data from a sample collected from a bluff that contained paleosols and a krotovina in an alpine site in Ft. Greely, Alaska. CONCLUSIONS: Keanu provides a simple means by which researchers can explore and visualize species present in sequence data generated from complex communities and environments. Keanu is written in Python and is freely available at https://github.com/IGBB/keanu .


Assuntos
Metagenômica/métodos , Biodiversidade
10.
ALTEX ; 36(3): 353-362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662994

RESUMO

The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework is a conceptual construct that mechanistically links molecular initiating events to adverse biological outcomes through a series of causal key events (KEs) that represent the perturbation of the biological system. Quantitative, predictive AOPs are necessary for screening emerging contaminants and potential substitutes to inform their prioritization for testing. In practice, they are not widely used because they can be costly to develop and validate. A modular approach for assembly of quantitative AOPs, based on existing knowledge, would allow for rapid development of biological pathway models to screen contaminants for potential hazards and prioritize them for subsequent testing and modeling. For each pair of KEs, a quantitative KE relationship (KER) can be derived as a response-response function or a conditional probability matrix describing the anticipated change in a KE based on the response of the prior KE. This transfer of response across KERs can be used to assemble a quantitative AOP. Here we demonstrate the use of proposed approach in two cases: inhibition of cytochrome P450 aromatase leading to reduced fecundity in fathead minnows and ionic glutamate receptor mediated excitotoxicity leading to memory impairment in rodents. The model created from these chains have value in characterizing the pathway and the potential or relative level of toxicological effect anticipated. This approach to simplistic, modular AOP models has wide applicability for rapid development of biological pathway models.

11.
ALTEX ; 36(1): 91-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332685

RESUMO

Current efforts in chemical safety are focused on utilizing human in vitro or alternative animal data in biological pathway context. However, it remains unclear how biological pathways, and toxicology data developed in that context, can be used to quantitatively facilitate decision-making.  The objective of this work is to determine if hypothesis testing using Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) can provide quantitative chemical hazard predictions.  Current methods for predicting hazards of chemicals in a biological pathway context were extensively reviewed, specific case studies examined and computational modeling used to demonstrate quantitative hazard prediction based on an AOP. Since AOPs are chemically agnostic, we propose that AOPs function as hypotheses for how specific chemicals may cause adverse effects via specific pathways. Three broad approaches were identified for testing the hypothesis with AOPs, semi-quantitative weight of evidence, probabilistic, and mechanistic modeling. We then demonstrate how these approaches could be used to test hypotheses using high throughput in vitro data and alternative animal data. Finally, we discuss standards in development and documentation that would facilitate use in a regulatory context. We conclude that quantitative AOPs provide a flexible hypothesis framework for predicting chemical hazards. It accommodates a wide range of approaches that are useful at many stages and build upon one another to become increasingly quantitative.


Assuntos
Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco
12.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(1): 12-26, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570782

RESUMO

In 2007 the United States National Research Council (NRC) published a vision for toxicity testing in the 21st century that emphasized the use of in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) methods and predictive models as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. In the present study we examine the state of the science of HTS and the progress that has been made in implementing and expanding on the NRC vision, as well as challenges to implementation that remain. Overall, significant progress has been made with regard to the availability of HTS data, aggregation of chemical property and toxicity information into online databases, and the development of various models and frameworks to support extrapolation of HTS data. However, HTS data and associated predictive models have not yet been widely applied in risk assessment. Major barriers include the disconnect between the endpoints measured in HTS assays and the assessment endpoints considered in risk assessments as well as the rapid pace at which new tools and models are evolving in contrast with the slow pace at which regulatory structures change. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for environmental scientists and policymakers alike to take an impactful role in the ongoing development and implementation of the NRC vision. Six specific areas for scientific coordination and/or policy engagement are identified. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:12-26. Published 2018 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Medição de Risco , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Testes de Toxicidade
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459712

RESUMO

Omics approaches are broadly used to explore endocrine and toxicity-related pathways and functions. Nevertheless, there is still a significant gap in knowledge in terms of understanding the endocrine system and its numerous connections and intricate feedback loops, especially in non-model organisms. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a widely used small fish model for aquatic toxicology and regulatory testing, particularly in North America. A draft genome has been published, but the amount of available genomic or transcriptomic information is still far behind that of other more broadly studied species, such as the zebrafish. Here, we used a proteogenomics approach to survey the tissue-specific proteome and transcriptome profiles in adult male fathead minnow. To do so, we generated a draft transcriptome using short and long sequencing reads from liver, testis, brain, heart, gill, head kidney, trunk kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. We identified 30,378 different putative transcripts overall, with the assembled contigs ranging in size from 264 to over 9,720 nts. Over 17,000 transcripts were >1,000 nts, suggesting a robust transcriptome that can be used to interpret RNA sequencing data in the future. We also performed RNA sequencing and proteomics analysis on four tissues, including the telencephalon, hypothalamus, liver, and gastrointestinal tract of male fish. Transcripts ranged from 0 to 600,000 copies per gene and a large portion were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Specifically, the telencephalon and hypothalamus shared the most expressed genes, while the gastrointestinal tract and the liver were quite distinct. Using protein profiling techniques, we identified a total of 4,045 proteins in the four tissues investigated, and their tissue-specific expression pattern correlated with the transcripts at the pathway level. Similarly to the findings with the transcriptomic data, the hypothalamus and telencephalon had the highest degree of similarity in the proteins detected. The main purpose of this analysis was to generate tissue-specific omics data in order to support future aquatic ecotoxicogenomic and endocrine-related studies as well as to improve our understanding of the fathead minnow as an ecological model.

14.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 14(5): 615-624, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870141

RESUMO

A working group at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) explored the feasibility of integrating 2 complementary approaches relevant to ecological risk assessment. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) models provide "bottom-up" mechanisms to predict specific toxicological effects that could affect an individual's ability to grow, reproduce, and/or survive from a molecular initiating event. Dynamic energy budget (DEB) models offer a "top-down" approach that reverse engineers stressor effects on growth, reproduction, and/or survival into modular characterizations related to the acquisition and processing of energy resources. Thus, AOP models quantify linkages between measurable molecular, cellular, or organ-level events, but they do not offer an explicit route to integratively characterize stressor effects at higher levels of organization. While DEB models provide the inherent basis to link effects on individuals to those at the population and ecosystem levels, their use of abstract variables obscures mechanistic connections to suborganismal biology. To take advantage of both approaches, we developed a conceptual model to link DEB and AOP models by interpreting AOP key events as measures of damage-inducing processes affecting DEB variables and rates. We report on the type and structure of data that are generated for AOP models that may also be useful for DEB models. We also report on case studies under development that merge information collected for AOPs with DEB models and highlight some of the challenges. Finally, we discuss how the linkage of these 2 approaches can improve ecological risk assessment, with possibilities for progress in predicting population responses to toxicant exposures within realistic environments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:615-624. © 2018 SETAC.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ecologia , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1783: 1-6, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767355

RESUMO

Currently, the study of the transcriptome is widely used to interpret the functional elements of the genome and molecular constituents of cells and tissues in an effort to unravel biological pathways associated with development and disease. The advent of technologies is now enabling the study of such comprehensive transcriptional characterization of mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA, and small RNA in a robust and successful manner. Transcriptomic strategies are gaining momentum across diverse areas of biological, plant sciences, medical, clinical, and pharmaceutical research for biomarker discovery, and disease diagnosis and prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos
16.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 257: 264-271, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822775

RESUMO

This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 257: 50-66, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733229

RESUMO

Estradiol is a potent sex steroid hormone that controls reproduction and other cellular pathways in fish. It is known to regulate important proteins such as vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, and zona radiata proteins that form the eggshell for fish eggs. These proteins are made in the liver and transported out into the blood from where they are taken up into the ovary during oogenesis. Estradiol can exert its influence directly through soluble nuclear receptors (there are three in fish) or indirectly through membrane receptors and a phosphorylation cascade. Often there is coordination through both genomic and non-genomic pathways. We have used a toxicogenomics approach to determine the contribution of genomic and non-genomic regulation in the liver of fathead minnows exposed to 5ng ethinylestradiol per liter or to a mixture of 5ng ethinylestradiol and 100ng ZM189,154 (ZM) per liter. ZM has previously been shown to be a "perfect" antagonist for the fish nuclear estrogen receptors but has displayed agonistic activities for membrane receptors. We find that both nuclear and membrane receptors contribute to the biosynthesis of vitellogenin 1 and estrogen receptor one (Esr1), among others. In addition, lipid metabolism pathways appear to require both activities.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13952, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066856

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR), a type-2 alkene, may lead to a synaptopathy characterized by ataxia, skeletal muscles weakness and numbness of the extremities in exposed human and laboratory animals. Currently, only the mildly affected patients undergo complete recovery, and identification of new molecules with therapeutic bioactivity against ACR acute neurotoxicity is urgently needed. Here, we have generated a zebrafish model for ACR neurotoxicity by exposing 5 days post-fertilization zebrafish larvae to 1 mM ACR for 3 days. Our results show that zebrafish mimics most of the pathophysiological processes described in humans and mammalian models. Motor function was altered, and specific effects were found on the presynaptic nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junction level, but not on the axonal tracts or myelin sheath integrity. Transcriptional markers of proteins involved in synaptic vesicle cycle were selectively altered, and the proteomic analysis showed that ACR-adducts were formed on cysteine residues of some synaptic proteins. Finally, analysis of neurotransmitters profile showed a significant effect on cholinergic and dopaminergic systems. These data support the suitability of the developed zebrafish model for screening of molecules with therapeutic value against this toxic neuropathy.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Larva/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 252: 79-87, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736226

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 aromatase catalyzes conversion of C19 androgens to C18 estrogens and is critical for normal reproduction in female vertebrates. Fadrozole is a model aromatase inhibitor that has been shown to suppress estrogen production in the ovaries of fish. However, little is known about the early impacts of aromatase inhibition on steroid production and gene expression in fish. Adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed via water to 0, 5, or 50µg fadrozole/L for a time-course of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6h, or 0 or 50µg fadrozole/L for a time-course of 6, 12, and 24h. We examined ex vivo ovarian 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) production, and plasma E2 concentrations from each study. Expression profiles of genes known or hypothesized to be impacted by fadrozole including aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19a1a), steriodogenic acute regulatory protein (star), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (cyp11a), cytochrome P450 17 alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (cyp17), and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr) were measured in the ovaries by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). In addition, broader ovarian gene expression was examined using a 15k fathead minnow microarray. The 5µg/L exposure significantly reduced ex vivo E2 production by 6h. In the 50µg/L treatment, ex vivo E2 production was significantly reduced after just 2h of exposure and remained depressed at all time-points examined through 24h. Plasma E2 concentrations were significantly reduced as early as 4h after initiation of exposure to either 5 or 50µg fadrozole/L and remained depressed throughout 24h in the 50µg/L exposure. Ex vivo T concentrations remained unchanged throughout the time-course. Expression of transcripts involved in steroidogenesis increased within the first 24h suggesting rapid induction of a mechanism to compensate for fadrozole inhibition of aromatase. Microarray results also showed fadrozole exposure caused concentration- and time-dependent changes in gene expression profiles in many HPG-axis pathways as early as 4h. This study provides insights into the very rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on steroidogenic processes in fish.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Cyprinidae/genética , Fadrozol/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Esteroides/biossíntese , Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Testosterona/sangue , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(15): 8701-8712, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651047

RESUMO

We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two different wastewater treatment plant discharge sites in the Saint Louis Bay, Duluth, MN and one upstream reference site. The biological impact of 51 chemicals detected in the surface water of 133 targeted chemicals was determined using biochemical endpoints, exposure activity ratios for biological and estrogenic responses, known chemical:gene interactions from biological pathways and knowledge bases, and analysis of the covariance of ovary gene expression with surface water chemistry. Thirty-two chemicals were significantly linked by covariance with expressed genes. No estrogenic impact on biochemical endpoints was observed in male or female minnows. However, bisphenol A (BPA) was identified by chemical:gene covariation as the most impactful estrogenic chemical across all exposure sites. This was consistent with identification of estrogenic effects on gene expression, high BPA exposure activity ratios across all test sites, and historical analysis of the study area. Gene expression analysis also indicated the presence of nontargeted chemicals including chemotherapeutics consistent with a local hospital waste stream. Overall impacts on gene expression appeared to be related to changes in treatment plant function during rain events. This approach appears useful in examining the impacts of complex mixtures on fish and offers a potential route in linking chemical exposure to adverse outcomes that may reduce population sustainability.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrona , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Medição de Risco
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