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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1756-1763, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241255

RESUMO

Alpha-mannosidosis (AM) is a very rare (prevalence: 1/500000 births) autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is characterized by multi-systemic involvement associated with progressive intellectual disability, hearing loss, skeletal anomalies, and coarse facial features. The spectrum is wide, from very severe and lethal to a milder phenotype that usually progresses slowly. AM is caused by a deficiency of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. A diagnosis can be established by measuring the activity of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase in leucocytes and screening for abnormal urinary excretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides. Genetic confirmation is obtained with the identification of MAN2B1 mutations. Enzyme replacement therapy (LAMZEDER ) was approved for use in Europe in August 2018. Here, we describe seven individuals from four families, diagnosed at 3-23 years of age, and who were referred to a clinical geneticist for etiologic exploration of syndromic hearing loss, associated with moderate learning disabilities. Exome sequencing had been used to establish the molecular diagnosis in five cases, including a two-sibling pair. In the remaining two patients, the diagnosis was obtained with screening of urinary oligosaccharides excretion and the association of deafness and hypotonia. These observations emphasize that the clinical diagnosis of AM can be challenging, and that it is likely an underdiagnosed rare cause of syndromic hearing loss. Exome sequencing can contribute significantly to the early diagnosis of these nonspecific mild phenotypes, with advantages for treatment and management.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1657-1661, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) powerfully identifies the molecular bases of heterogeneous conditions such as intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital anomalies (ID/MCA). Current ES analysis, combining diagnosis analysis restricted to disease-causing genes reported in OMIM database and subsequent research investigation extended to other genes, indicated causal and candidate genes around 40% and 10%. Nonconclusive results are frequent in such ultrarare conditions that recurrence and genotype-phenotype correlations are limited. International data-sharing permits the gathering of additional patients carrying variants in the same gene to draw definitive conclusions on their implication as disease causing. Several web-based tools have been developed and grouped in Matchmaker Exchange. In this study, we report our current experience as a regional center that has implemented ES as a first-line diagnostic test since 2013, working with a research laboratory devoted to disease gene identification. METHODS: We used GeneMatcher over 2.5 years to share 71 novel candidate genes identified by ES. RESULTS: Matches occurred in 60/71 candidate genes allowing to confirm the implication of 39% of matched genes as causal and to rule out 6% of them. CONCLUSION: The introduction of user-friendly gene-matching tools, such as GeneMatcher, appeared to be an essential step for the rapid identification of novel disease genes responsible for ID/MCA.

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