Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 106
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medication errors (MEs) are the main type of preventable adverse events in medical care, as well as safety indicators in the medication processes. Advances in the quality of care in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have enabled to improve clinical outcomes. However, ME epidemiology in pediatric oncology is still incipient in developing countries. In view of this, the objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of MEs, determine their types and consequences, as well as their preventability in the induction treatment of children with ALL at Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gómez. METHODS: We reviewed the remission-induction chemotherapy records of children with ALL between January 2015 and December 2017. A two-phase review was carried out for ME identification and verification. The consequences of errors were determined by agreement between reviewers. RESULTS: We reviewed 1762 chemotherapy orders involving 181 children. MEs were observed in 16.9% of orders and in 57.5% of patients. Prescription errors were the most common (93.3%), with wrong dose errors (90.2%) being predominant. Only 3.7% of wrong dose errors were intercepted, while 12.2% of the children experienced adverse drug events (ADEs) preceded by some wrong dose error. CONCLUSIONS: MEs were common, since they occurred in 57.5% of children with ALL on induction treatment and involved 16.5% of chemotherapy orders. Only 3.7% of MEs were intercepted, while 12.2% of children had ADEs related to overdose. Measures are required to prevent calculation error in prescriptions, as well as training of the nursing staff to intercept MEs.

2.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(3): 106-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116710

RESUMO

Obesity is a global public health problem with a concerning increasing rate and no conclusive answer related to its causes. The thrifty genotype, proposed by James V. Neel in 1962, is one of the many hypotheses that intend to explain the epidemic. Neel proposed that genetic variations in hunter-gatherer communities-which were selectively favorable in the past since they allowed to confront famine-are currently a disadvantage because food is plentiful and relatively constant. This conclusion remains valid despite being highly criticized. This review discusses that the hypothesis of the thrifty genotype supports an explicative approach based on biological determinism. This approach, such as social determinism, underestimates the role of individuals as free entities responsible for their own behavior. While a drastic change in the current theoretical framework occurs, in which individuals are considered as independent, free and self-responsible agents with the ability to overcome their heredity and their environment, the idea that the obesity pandemic cannot be explained or solved will be present. Although the influence of these elements in behavior is not rejected, it is proposed that behavior potentially and mainly comes from free will, which is neither biologically nor socially determined.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629602

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the burden of out-of-pocket household expenditures and time spent on care by families responsible for children with Down Syndrome (DS). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed after surveying families of children with DS. The children all received medical care at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gomez (HIMFG), a National Institute of Health. Data were collected on out-of-pocket household expenditures for the medical care of these children. The percentage of such expenditure was calculated in relation to available household expenditure (after subtracting the cost of food/housing), and the percentage of households with catastrophic expenditure. Finally, the time spent on the care of the child was assessed. RESULTS: The socioeconomic analysis showed that 67% of the households with children with DS who received medical care in the HIMFG were within the lower four deciles (I-IV) of expenses, indicating a limited ability to pay for medical services. Yearly out-of-pocket expenditures for a child with DS represented 27% of the available household expenditure, which is equivalent to $464 for the United States dollars (USD). On average, 33% of families with DS children had catastrophic expenses, and 46% of the families had to borrow money to pay for medical expenses. The percentage of catastrophic expenditure was greater for a household with children aged five or older compared with households with younger children. The regression analysis revealed that the age of the child is the most significant factor determining the time spent on care. CONCLUSIONS: Some Mexican families of children with DS incur substantial out-of-pocket expenditures, which constitute an economic burden for families of children who received medical care at the HIMFG.

4.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 75(4): 216-223, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084439

RESUMO

Introducción: La participación de las mujeres en medicina ha incrementado en las últimas décadas, incluyendo mayor representatividad en la autoría de artículos científicos en diversos países y distintas especialidades. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las diferencias de género en la autoría de artículos a través de la historia del Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis bibliométrico de los artículos originales publicados en los años 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 y 2013. Se identificó el género de los autores, tipo de autoría (primer autor o autor correspondiente) y el diseño de estudio (descriptivo vs. analítico). Se evaluó la diferencia en la proporción de género y la tendencia en el tiempo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 272 artículos. Se observó una reducción en la brecha de género entre 1953 y 2013. La participación de las mujeres como primeras autoras incrementó del 2 al 63% (p < 0.001) y como correspondiente del 27 al 59% (p < 0.001). Al considerar únicamente estudios analíticos, el incremento fue del 25 al 50% como primera autora (p = 0.03), con un cambio similar como autor correspondiente, pero sin una tendencia significativa en el tiempo (p = 0.19). La reducción en la brecha de género fue más notoria a partir del periodo 1983-1993. Conclusiones: En las últimas décadas ha existido un incremento significativo en la autoría de las mujeres en el Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México, llegando incluso a una mayor proporción en relación con el sexo masculino. Lo anterior es un reflejo del papel actual de las mujeres en la medicina; en particular, en el área pediátrica. Background: Women's participation in medicine has increased in the last decades, with greater representativeness in the authorship of scientific articles in many countries and different specialties. The objective of this research was to analyze the gender gap in the authorship of articles through the history of the medical journal Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México. Methods: In a bibliometric analysis, we reviewed original articles published during the years 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2013. The gender of the author, type of authorship (first author or corresponding author) and the design of the study (descriptive vs analytic) were identified. We evaluated the difference between gender proportion and trends over time. Results: We included 272 articles. We observed a gender gap reduction between 1953 and 2013. The participation of women as first author increased from 2 to 63% (p < 0.001) and as corresponding author from 27 to 59% (p < 0.001). If we include only analytic studies, the increasing was 25 to 50% as first author (p = 0.03), with a similar tendency as corresponding author, but without a statistical significant on time (p = 0.19). We observed the most notable change since 1983-1993. Conclusions: In the last decades, there has been a significant increase in women´s authorship in the medical journal Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México, even reaching a greater proportion against male gender. This reflects the present role of women in medicine, particularly in pediatrics.

5.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(4): 216-223, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974046

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La participación de las mujeres en medicina ha incrementado en las últimas décadas, incluyendo mayor representatividad en la autoría de artículos científicos en diversos países y distintas especialidades. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las diferencias de género en la autoría de artículos a través de la historia del Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis bibliométrico de los artículos originales publicados en los años 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 y 2013. Se identificó el género de los autores, tipo de autoría (primer autor o autor correspondiente) y el diseño de estudio (descriptivo vs. analítico). Se evaluó la diferencia en la proporción de género y la tendencia en el tiempo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 272 artículos. Se observó una reducción en la brecha de género entre 1953 y 2013. La participación de las mujeres como primeras autoras incrementó del 2 al 63% (p < 0.001) y como correspondiente del 27 al 59% (p < 0.001). Al considerar únicamente estudios analíticos, el incremento fue del 25 al 50% como primera autora (p = 0.03), con un cambio similar como autor correspondiente, pero sin una tendencia significativa en el tiempo (p = 0.19). La reducción en la brecha de género fue más notoria a partir del periodo 1983-1993. Conclusiones: En las últimas décadas ha existido un incremento significativo en la autoría de las mujeres en el Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México, llegando incluso a una mayor proporción en relación con el sexo masculino. Lo anterior es un reflejo del papel actual de las mujeres en la medicina; en particular, en el área pediátrica.


Abstract Background: Women's participation in medicine has increased in the last decades, with greater representativeness in the authorship of scientific articles in many countries and different specialties. The objective of this research was to analyze the gender gap in the authorship of articles through the history of the medical journal Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México. Methods: In a bibliometric analysis, we reviewed original articles published during the years 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2013. The gender of the author, type of authorship (first author or corresponding author) and the design of the study (descriptive vs analytic) were identified. We evaluated the difference between gender proportion and trends over time. Results: We included 272 articles. We observed a gender gap reduction between 1953 and 2013. The participation of women as first author increased from 2 to 63% (p < 0.001) and as corresponding author from 27 to 59% (p < 0.001). If we include only analytic studies, the increasing was 25 to 50% as first author (p = 0.03), with a similar tendency as corresponding author, but without a statistical significant on time (p = 0.19). We observed the most notable change since 1983-1993. Conclusions: In the last decades, there has been a significant increase in women´s authorship in the medical journal Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México, even reaching a greater proportion against male gender. This reflects the present role of women in medicine, particularly in pediatrics.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 181, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998090

RESUMO

Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cardiac catheterization are diagnostic tools for right ventricle dysfunction (RVD), but those are expensive and often unavailable techniques. Thus, our objective was to identify clinical and/or echocardiographic variables capable of predicting a catheterization-based diagnosis of RVD. Design: This was cross-sectional, diagnostic test accuracy study, considering the catheterization-based diagnosis of RVD as the gold standard. Patients: Pediatric patients with non-repaired CHD with overload pressure were evaluated. Clinical variables (edema and functional class), transthoracic echocardiography (right heart dimensions, systolic and diastolic function, Doppler velocities), and cardiac catheterization (pressures and right ventricle systolic work measurements) were obtained during the same hospitalization. Results: We included 253 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (39.9%), pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (33.9%), type C Ebstein's anomaly (15.8%), or pulmonary stenosis (10.4%). Among clinical (vascular congestion, functional class derangement) and echocardiographic (indexed right ventricle diameter, fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, S' wave, Tei index) variables, the Tei index (defined as the ratio of isovolumetric contraction time to ejection time) was the sole variable that exhibited high diagnostic capability, with 98.5% sensitivity, 97.4% specificity, 97.8% positive predictive value, and 98.3% negative predictive value, with 98.0% overall performance. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that Tei index alone predicted the catheterization-based diagnosis of RVD. Conclusions: Tei index is the best parameter that can be employed for the non-invasive identification of RVD in patients with CHD.

7.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(3): 166-177, May.-Jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974041

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: Las leyes refieren que los menores no tienen la capacidad para dar su consentimiento informado para su propia atención médica; sin embargo, hay condiciones especiales en las que se les permite determinar lo referente a su salud. Cuanto mayores sean las limitaciones de juicio y experiencia en los menores, menos peso se otorga a los valores y objetivos que expresan; cuanto más adversas sean las consecuencias, se deberá exigir un nivel más alto de autoridad para decidir en nombre del menor, dejando al Estado la capacidad de garantizar el bienestar del menor. Caso clínico: Niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoblástica aguda LI, con antecedentes familiares y sociales precarios; evolución entorpecida por el desapego al tratamiento y sus condiciones insalubres y pobreza extrema. Ambos padres fallecieron al poco tiempo de iniciar su tratamiento, quedando ella al cuidado de su medio hermana mayor de edad. Se exponen la labor y el dilema ético del oncólogo tratante y del personal del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez en la creación de redes de apoyo con el objetivo de priorizar el bienestar de la menor, sin dar lugar al quebrantamiento y la desintegración familiar, consiguiendo exitosamente su recuperación. Conclusiones: El caso fue sometido al Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria. Se formaron redes de apoyo interinstitucionales para intervenir en la dinámica familiar, resolviendo los requerimientos de la menor, y se consiguió con éxito superar la enfermedad.


Abstract: Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor. Case report: 12-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with precarious social and family background; evolution of the disease obstructed by the disregard of the treatment due to her unsanitary and extreme poverty conditions. Both of her parents died soon after the start of the treatment and she was kept under the care of her half-sister of legal age. The work and the ethical dilemma of the pediatrician and the staff of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez are exposed within the building of support networks with the objective of prioritizing the minor's well-being, without allowing family break-up or disintegration, thus succeeding in her recovery. Conclusions: The case was submitted to the Hospital Bioethics Committee. Inter-institutional support networks were built in order to improve dynamics of the family, thus solving the needs of the minor. Despite the misfortune of the situation, the disease was successfully overcome.

8.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 75(3): 166-177, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799532

RESUMO

Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor. Case report: 12-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with precarious social and family background; evolution of the disease obstructed by the disregard of the treatment due to her unsanitary and extreme poverty conditions. Both of her parents died soon after the start of the treatment and she was kept under the care of her half-sister of legal age. The work and the ethical dilemma of the pediatrician and the staff of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez are exposed within the building of support -networks with the objective of prioritizing the minor's well-being, without allowing family break-up or disintegration, thus succeeding in her recovery. Conclusions: The case was submitted to the Hospital Bioethics Committee. Inter-institutional support networks were built in order to improve dynamics of the family, thus solving the needs of the minor. Despite the misfortune of the situation, the disease was successfully overcome.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190882, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) detected in a patient may not be clinically apparent (potential DDIs), and when they occur, they produce adverse drug reactions (ADRs), toxicity or loss of treatment efficacy. In pediatrics, there are only few publications assessing potential DDIs and their risk factors. There are no studies in children admitted to emergency departments (ED). The present study estimates the prevalence and describes the characteristics of potential DDIs in patients admitted to an ED from a tertiary care hospital in Mexico; in addition, potential DDI-associated risk factors are investigated. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from 915 patients admitted to the ED of the Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez" was conducted. The Medscape Drug Interaction Checker software was used to identify potential DDIs. The results are expressed as number of cases (%), means (95% CI) and medians (25-75th percentiles). Count data regressions for number of total and severity-stratified potential DDIs were performed adjusting for patient characteristics, number of administered drugs, days of stay, presence of ADRs and diagnoses. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential DDIs was 61%, with a median of 4 (2-8). A proportion of 0.2% of potential DDIs was "Contraindicated", 7.5% were classified as "Serious", 62.8% as "Significant" and 29.5% as "Minor". Female gender, age, days of stay, number of administered drugs and diagnoses of Neoplasms (C00-D48), Congenital malformations (Q00-Q99), Diseases of the Blood, Blood-forming Organs and Immunity (D50-D89) and Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99) were significantly associated with potential DDIs. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of potential DDIs in the ED is high, and strategies should therefore be established to monitor patients' safety during their stay, in addition to conducting investigations to estimate the real harm potential DDIs inflict on patients.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Admissão do Paciente , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 15(1): 242, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resilience to face disease is a process of positive adaptation despite the loss of health. It involves developing vitality and skills to overcome the negative effects of adversity, risks, and vulnerability caused by disease. In Mexico, the Mexican Resilience Measurement Scale (RESI-M) has been validated with a general population and has a five-factor structure. However, this scale does not allow evaluation of resilience in specific subpopulations, such as caregivers. METHOD: This study investigated the psychometric properties of RESI-M in 446 family caregivers of children with chronic diseases. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed, internal consistency values were calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and mean comparisons were determined using t-tests. RESULTS: The expected five-factor model showed an adequate fit with the data based on a maximum likelihood test. The internal consistency for each factor ranged from .76 to .93, and the global internal consistency was .95. No average difference in RESI-M and its factors was found between women and men. CONCLUSION: The RESI-M showed internal consistency and its model of five correlated factors was valid among family caregivers of children with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , México , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(5): 319-323, sep.-oct. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-951267

RESUMO

Resumen: Actualmente, la Medicina Basada en Evidencia tiene un papel fundamental en la toma de decisiones médicas, ya que intenta, a través de los métodos de la ciencia, justificar las diferentes alternativas que se le pueden ofrecer a un paciente. Para entender la evolución histórica de esta forma de practicar la medicina, es necesario revisar la contribución de uno de los principales participantes en este movimiento cultural: Archibald Leman Cochrane, quien ayudó a definir el marco teórico que ha permitido incorporar la ciencia a la práctica de la medicina. Su papel, al insistir en la necesidad de integrar la evidencia científica y conjuntarla con la experiencia clínica, constituyó un elemento fundamental y decisivo en el desarrollo de una nueva disciplina, la Medicina Basada en Evidencia.


Abstract: Nowadays, Evidence-Based Medicine plays a fundamental role while making medical decisions, considering that through the methods of science, it attempts to justify the variety of alternatives that may be offered to patients. In order to understand the historical evolution of this way of practicing medicine, it is necessary to review the contribution of one of the main participants in this cultural movement: Archibald Leman Cochrane, who helped to define the theoretical framework that has allowed the integration of science into the practice of medicine. Since he insisted in the need of integrating scientific evidence into clinical experience, his role became a fundamental and decisive element in the development of a new discipline: Evidence-Based Medicine.

12.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 74(5): 319-323, 2017 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382474

RESUMO

Nowadays, Evidence-Based Medicine plays a fundamental role while making medical decisions, considering that through the methods of science, it attempts to justify the variety of alternatives that may be offered to patients. In order to understand the historical evolution of this way of practicing medicine, it is necessary to review the contribution of one of the main participants in this cultural movement: Archibald Leman Cochrane, who helped to define the theoretical framework that has allowed the integration of science into the practice of medicine. Since he insisted in the need of integrating scientific evidence into clinical experience, his role became a fundamental and decisive element in the development of a new discipline: Evidence-Based Medicine.

13.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 73(6): 467-483, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-951265

RESUMO

Abstract: Background: Childhood cancer accounts for 0.5 to 4.6% of the total number of cases in any population. According to the treatment, some side effects are present. Most adverse reactions can cause severe consequences for the survival of the patient. The more effective interventions for the management and the prevention of treatment-induced symptoms (TIS) in children with cancer are necessary to know. The objective of this review was to identify and describe available scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions used for the management and prevention of TIS in children with cancer. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on studies that evaluated or described the effectiveness of interventions used for the management and prevention of TIS in children with cancer in some of the major electronic databases. Results were qualitative synthesized and presented as evidence tables. Results: We identified eight systematic reviews. The revisions included experimental studies. All participants, including children and adults, were patients diagnosed with some cancer about to receive or that received treatment. Conclusions: The results showed only a reduced number of clinical trials that have evaluated the interventions for the management of TIS in children with cancer. In addition, the available evidence was limited and of poor quality. It is necessary to conduct more clinical trials with good methodological quality and high statistical power.


Resumen: Introducción: El cáncer en la infancia representa del 0.5 al 4.6% del total de casos en una población. Dependiendo del tratamiento se presentan cierto tipo de efectos secundarios. La mayoría de los eventos adversos provocan consecuencias graves para la supervivencia del paciente. Es importante conocer cuáles son las intervenciones más eficaces para el manejo y la prevención de los síntomas inducidos por el tratamiento (SIT) en niños con cáncer. El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar y describir la evidencia científica disponible sobre la eficacia y seguridad de las intervenciones utilizadas para el manejo y la prevención de los SIT en niños con cáncer. Métodos: Se realizaron búsquedas bibliográficas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas para identificar revisiones sistemáticas que evaluaran o describieran la efectividad de las intervenciones utilizadas para el manejo y la prevención de los SIT en niños con cáncer. Se realizó la síntesis cualitativa de los resultados, que se presentaron mediante tablas de evidencia. Resultados: Se identificaron ocho revisiones sistemáticas. Las revisiones incluyeron estudios experimentales; los participantes de los estudios, incluyendo niños y adultos, fueron pacientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de cáncer a punto de recibir o que recibieron tratamiento. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran que un número reducido de ensayos clínicos han evaluado las intervenciones para el manejo de SIT en niños con cáncer. Además, la evidencia existente es limitada y de baja calidad. Existe la necesidad de realizar ensayos clínicos con mayor poder estadístico y adecuada calidad metodológica.

14.
Salud Publica Mex ; 58(2): 171-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first fifty years of the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico Manuel Velasco Suárez (Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía de México, INNN) from 1965 to 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 116 institutional records of CNS tumors were analyzed. The frequency and distribution of CNS tumors were evaluated by tumor type, patient age and patient gender. The annual relationship between CNS tumors and surgical discharges (SD) over the last 20 years was estimated. RESULTS: The frequencies of most CNS tumors were consistent with those found worldwide, and the most common tumors were neuroepithelial tumors (33%), particularly astrocytic tumors (67%); meningeal tumors (26%); and pituitary tumors (20%). The incidence of pituitary tumors in these data was twice as high as that reported in other regions of the world, and the relationship between CNS tumors and SD was consistent over time (0.22-0.39). CONCLUSION: This study summarizes the largest sample of CNS tumor cases analyzed in Mexico and provides an important reference of the frequency of this tumor type in the country. This work will serve as a basis for conducting studies evaluating factors associated with the presence of CNS tumors and for identifying adequate public health interventions.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/história , Neurologia/história , Neurocirurgia/história , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/história , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 16: 166, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence, legitimacy and application of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) in the world is growing as a tool that integrates, the best available evidence to decision making in patient care. Our goal was to identify the relationship between self-perception about the relevance of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and the degree of basic knowledge of this discipline in a group of physicians. METHODS: A survey was carried out in a third level public hospital in Mexico City. Self-perception was measured by means of a structured scale, and the degree of knowledge through parameter or "rubrics" methodology. RESULTS: A total of 320 questionnaires were given to 55 medical students (17 %); 45 pre-graduate medical interns (14 %); 118 medical residents (37 %) and 102 appointed physicians of different specialties (32 %). Self-perception of EBM: The majority of those surveyed (n = 274, 86 %) declared that they were very or moderately familiar with EBM. The great majority (n = 270, 84 %) believe that EBM is very important in clinical practice and 197 physicians (61 %) said that they implement it always or usually. The global index of self-perception was 75 %. Knowledge of EBM: Definition of EBM; Seven of those surveyed (2 %) included 3 of the 4 characteristics of the definition, 82 (26 %) mentioned only two characteristics of the definition, 152 (48 %) mentioned only one characteristic and 79 (25 %) did not include any characteristic of EBM. Phases of the EBM process: The majority of those surveyed (n = 218, 68 %) did not include the steps that characterize the practice of EBM, of which 79 participants (25 %) mentioned elements not related to it. The global index of knowledge was 19 %. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the surveyed physicians have a high self-perception of the relevance of EBM. In spite of this, the majority of them did not know the characteristics that define the EBM and phases of the process for its practice. A major discrepancy was found between self-perception and the level of basic knowledge of EBM among the surveyed physicians.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , México
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(2): 171-178, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-792992

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first fifty years of the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico Manuel Velasco Suárez (Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía de México, INNN) from 1965 to 2014. Materials and methods: A total of 16 116 institutional records of CNS tumors were analyzed. The frequency and distribution of CNS tumors were evaluated by tumor type, patient age and patient gender. The annual relationship between CNS tumors and surgical discharges (SD) over the last 20 years was estimated. Results: The frequencies of most CNS tumors were consistent with those found worldwide, and the most common tumors were neuroepithelial tumors (33%), particularly astrocytic tumors (67%); meningeal tumors (26%); and pituitary tumors (20%). The incidence of pituitary tumors in these data was twice as high as that reported in other regions of the world, and the relationship between CNS tumors and SD was consistent over time (0.22-0.39). Conclusion: This study summarizes the largest sample of CNS tumor cases analyzed in Mexico and provides an important reference of the frequency of this tumor type in the country. This work will serve as a basis for conducting studies evaluating factors associated with the presence of CNS tumors and for identifying adequate public health interventions.


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de neoplasias del sistema nervioso central (NSNC) en los primeros 50 años del Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía de México (INNN). Material y métodos: Se analizaron 16 116 registros institucionales de las NSNC, atendidas en el INNN de 1965 a 2014; se estimó su frecuencia y distribución por tipo de neoplasia, edad y género, y se determinó la relación anual de NSNC y egresos quirúrgicos (EQ) en un período de 20 años. Resultados: Las frecuencias de la mayoría de NSNC fueron consistentes con las encontradas a nivel mundial. Las más frecuentes fueron las neuroepiteliales (33%), entre las cuales destacaron las astrocíticas (67%); meníngeas (26%), e hipofisiarias (20%). El número de neoplasias hipofisiarias en esta serie fue dos veces mayor al reportado en otras regiones del mundo y la relación NSNC/EQ fue similar a través del tiempo (0.22-0.39). Conclusión: Ésta es la mayor serie de casos de NSNC analizados en México y proporciona un referente importante sobre la frecuencia de este tipo de neoplasias en el país. Este trabajo servirá de base para llevar a cabo estudios de los factores asociados a la presencia de NSNC e identificar intervenciones de salud pública adecuadas.

17.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 38(1): 80-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26499501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians identify from 45.7 to 96.2 % of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in their patients, with under-reporting ranging from 6 to 100 %. In order to improve ADR reporting, several interventions have been evaluated in different studies, but not with regard to ADR identification. In addition, it is not known whether some patient characteristics might influence on ADR identification and reporting by physicians. OBJECTIVES: (a) To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention directed to Emergency Department physicians and coordinated by a pharmacist in a tertiary care pediatric hospital on ADR identification and reporting. (b) To assess if some of the children's characteristics might influence on ADR identification and reporting. Setting The Emergency Department of the Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez", which is a national pediatric institute of health in México. METHODS: A Quasi-experimental, pre-post test trial was designed. During the intervention, the pharmacist gave talks on Pharmacovigilance and on the program for electronic capture of data, took part in patient visits, left reminders, improved accessibility to ADR report format and performed feedback activities. To classify and quantify correctly identified ADRs and ADRs reported to the Institutional Pharmacovigilance Center (IPC), 1136 clinical records were reviewed. The models were adjusted for patient variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total ADRs, ADRs correctly identified by physicians, ADRs reported to the IPC by physicians. Results Before the intervention, 97 % of ADRs were correctly identified and 6.1 % reported by physicians. During the intervention, 99.6 % were correctly identified and 41.2 % were reported, and after the intervention, 99.6 and 41.7 %, respectively. Identification during the intervention showed a sevenfold increase with regard to preintervention and was maintained post-intervention. ADR reporting during the intervention showed a 14-fold increase with regard to pre-intervention and was maintained during post-intervention. CONCLUSION: Physicians do identify ADRs, but fail to report them. The intervention increased ADR correct identification and reporting. The effect was maintained after the intervention.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Pediátricos , Farmacovigilância , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Médicos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 73(6): 467-483, 2016 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer accounts for 0.5 to 4.6% of the total number of cases in any population. According to the treatment, some side effects are present. Most adverse reactions can cause severe consequences for the survival of the patient. The more effective interventions for the management and the prevention of treatment-induced symptoms (TIS) in children with cancer are necessary to know. The objective of this review was to identify and describe available scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions used for the management and prevention of TIS in children with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on studies that evaluated or described the effectiveness of interventions used for the management and prevention of TIS in children with cancer in some of the major electronic databases. Results were qualitative synthesized and presented as evidence tables. RESULTS: We identified eight systematic reviews. The revisions included experimental studies. All participants, including children and adults, were patients diagnosed with some cancer about to receive or that received treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed only a reduced number of clinical trials that have evaluated the interventions for the management of TIS in children with cancer. In addition, the available evidence was limited and of poor quality. It is necessary to conduct more clinical trials with good methodological quality and high statistical power.

19.
Rev Invest Clin ; 67(4): 219-26, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26426587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of drug-eluting stents in preventing cardiovascular events has not been investigated in Mexico. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of early and new-generation drug-eluting stents from the perspective of a healthcare provider. METHODS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of early and new-generation drug-eluting stents in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy attending a Cardiology Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute. The health endpoint used was major acute cardiovascular events prevented. The effectiveness by stent type was obtained from the literature. A retrospective chart review study was conducted to collect cost data on cardiovascular events including seven cost categories. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of estimates. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in base-case were 28,910 and US$ 35,590 for early and new-generation stents, respectively. In an optimal scenario, incremental-cost effectiveness ratio was 24,776 and US$ 25,262 for early and new stents, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that 90% of cases were cost-effective when willingness-to-pay was 58,000 and US$ 66,000 for early and new-generation stents, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effectiveness ratios of early and new-generation stents were significantly higher than corresponding bare-metal stents.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Stents , Angioplastia/economia , Angioplastia/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Stents Farmacológicos/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(4): 284-289, jul.-ago. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-781243

RESUMO

ResumenLa atención médica en pacientes pediátricos está condicionada a la autorización de los padres. Estos deciden el momento y tipo de tratamiento que desean que sus hijos reciban cuando enferman y, bajo su consentimiento, el médico procede a otorgar la terapia más apropiada. Cuando los padres rechazan el tratamiento ofrecido, el médico debe buscar otras alternativas de tratamiento que sean mejor aceptadas por los padres y encontrar el cauce que sea más benéfico para el niño. De no poder conciliar con los padres una terapia, entonces el médico entra en un conflicto ético relacionado con el mejor interés del menor y las decisiones paternas. De lo anterior surgen las siguientes interrogantes: ¿cómo debe actuar el médico cuando enfrenta esta situación?, ¿debe solicitar respaldo jurídico que fuerce a los padres a aceptar el tratamiento?, ¿bajo qué condiciones está justificado obligar a los padres o cuándo debe ser tolerada su decisión? ¿Cuál es papel del Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria en este tema?Esta segunda parte se enfoca en proponer cuatro criterios prácticos para que el médico y el Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria utilicen cuando todas las terapias alternativas y opciones conciliatorias se han agotado con los padres que rehúsan el tratamiento, y cuando el médico tenga que tomar una decisión porque el menor está en riesgo de daño. Dicha decisión gira en torno a si existe peligro evitable para el niño derivado de las decisiones de los padres.


AbstractMedical care in pediatric patients is conditional to parental consent. Parents decide the time and type of treatment they want their children to receive when they are ill. The physician should request parental consent before carrying out the most appropriate therapy. When parents refuse the treatment offered, the physician should seek alternative therapies that may be better accepted by parents and find the most beneficial treatment for children and their families. If physicians and parents are unable to agree on the best therapeutic methods, then the physician becomes involved in an ethical conflict related to the best interests of the child and parental choices. From the above posture, the following questions arise: What should the physician do when faced with this situation? Should the physician use legal measures to force parents to accept treatment? Under what conditions is it justified to force parents and when should the decision be tolerated? What is the role of the Hospital Bioethics Committee concerning this issue?This second part focuses on proposing four practical criteria to be used by the physician and Hospital Bioethics Committee when all alternative therapies and conciliatory options have been exhausted with parents and they continue to refuse treatment. The physician then has to make a decision because the child is placed at risk of harm. This decision focuses on whether there is danger to the minor arising from the decisions of parents and if such harm is avoidable.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA