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1.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 445-449, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240424

RESUMO

A 51-year old presented with a 6-month history of increasing pelvic/lower back pain with nocturnal waking and episodes of anorexia and vomiting. Examination revealed right torticollis and Horner's syndrome, and a large abdominal mass arising from the pelvis. Magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography imaging revealed (A) a 14 cm heterogeneous enhancing mass, abutting the left kidney with standardised uptake value max = 2.9, (B) a large heterogeneous enhancing pelvic mass (C) mesenteric adenopathy standardised uptake value max = 10.3 and (D) 6 cm right lung apex mass standardised uptake value max = 4.3. Computerised tomography-guided biopsy of lesion A was reported as neurofibroma with occasional atypia, lesion B a benign uterine leiomyoma and lesion C follicular lymphoma world health organisation Grade 2. Although she had been given the diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis Type-1 (NF1) 25-years previously following removal of an intradural extramedullary schwannoma she had no cutaneous stigmata of NF1. Genetic analysis of blood lymphocyte DNA identified a pathogenic variant in SMARCB1 confirming a diagnosis of schwannomatosis. Following 6-months chemotherapy for lymphoma, surgery was performed to remove lesion A. Histology revealed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour with areas of low and high-grade change. An incidental, well-differentiated small bowel neuroendocrine carcinoma was also excised. Close surveillance continues with no recurrence after 6 years. This case study describes a novel finding of three separate synchronous primary malignancies in a patient with schwannomatosis and a proven SMARCB1 pathogenic variant.

2.
Breast ; 45: 1-6, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802821

RESUMO

AIM: In breast cancer patients, post chemotherapy weight gain is linked with increased risk of cancer recurrence. We prospectively studied a cohort of premenopausal women receiving contemporary chemotherapy following a diagnosis of breast cancer to examine factors predicting weight increase. METHODS: Between May 2005 and January 2008, 523 patients from the Prospective Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary (POSH) breast cancer study entered this sub-study comparing weight prior to chemotherapy and weight and waist/hip measurements 12-months following chemotherapy. RESULTS: Data from 380 patients were available. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) pre-treatment body mass index (BMI) was 26.3 (5.6) kg/m2; 30% women gained > 5% body weight during the study period. Lower BMI at diagnosis predicted greater subsequent post treatment weight gain (4.3% relative weight gain for those in the 1st quartile of BMI compared to 0.8% for those in the 4th quartile; r = -0.22; p < 0.001). No link to chemotherapy regimens, cigarette smoking, previous parity or chemotherapy induced amenorrhoea was noted. A total of 44% of women had central obesity (post-treatment waist measurement of ≥88 cm). CONCLUSIONS: Almost a third of premenopausal patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer will gain clinically significant weight and over 40% will have central obesity 12-months following diagnosis. A greater weight gain is predicted by lower pretreatment BMI.

3.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(1): 297-309, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955974

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a decision support tool for young women with breast cancer considering genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations soon after cancer diagnosis. METHODS: A four-stage iterative development process was employed; stage 1, literature review exploring the availability and efficacy of empirically tested decision support tools; stage 2, in-depth interviews with 29 young women (< 50 years) recently diagnosed with breast cancer, exploring information requirements and experiences of genetic testing decision making; stage 3, three focus groups (N = 21) exploring preferences for information presentation and prioritisation of content; stage 4, think-aloud interviews to refine the prototype (N = 16). RESULTS: Participants wanted information regarding the pros and cons of testing, the testing process and implications for their family, presented in a way that allowed them to choose the level of detail they required. They preferred the term 'altered gene', valued a medical word definition function and warnings before accessing sensitive information. CONCLUSION: Participants valued the decision support tool, the accessibility of the information and its clinical endorsement. The decision support tool has considerable clinical utility as an adjunct to genetic counselling or for use in busy oncology clinics where formal genetic counselling may be unavailable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação
4.
Mol Autism ; 9: 12, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484149

RESUMO

Background: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a monogenic model for syndromic autism. Statins rescue the social and cognitive phenotype in animal knockout models, but translational trials with subjects > 8 years using cognition/behaviour outcomes have shown mixed results. This trial breaks new ground by studying statin effects for the first time in younger children with NF1 and co-morbid autism and by using multiparametric imaging outcomes. Methods: A single-site triple-blind RCT of simvastatin vs. placebo was done. Assessment (baseline and 12-week endpoint) included peripheral MAPK assay, awake magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy (MRS; GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx)), arterial spin labelling (ASL), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), resting state functional MRI, and autism behavioural outcomes (Aberrant Behaviour Checklist and Clinical Global Impression). Results: Thirty subjects had a mean age of 8.1 years (SD 1.8). Simvastatin was well tolerated. The amount of imaging data varied by test. Simvastatin treatment was associated with (i) increased frontal white matter MRS GABA (t(12) = - 2.12, p = .055), GABA/Glx ratio (t(12) = - 2.78, p = .016), and reduced grey nuclei Glx (ANCOVA p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney p < 0.01); (ii) increased ASL perfusion in ventral diencephalon (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01); and (iii) decreased ADC in cingulate gyrus (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01). Machine-learning classification of imaging outcomes achieved 79% (p < .05) accuracy differentiating groups at endpoint against chance level (64%, p = 0.25) at baseline. Three of 12 (25%) simvastatin cases compared to none in placebo met 'clinical responder' criteria for behavioural outcome. Conclusions: We show feasibility of peripheral MAPK assay and autism symptom measurement, but the study was not powered to test effectiveness. Multiparametric imaging suggests possible simvastatin effects in brain areas previously associated with NF1 pathophysiology and the social brain network. Trial registration: EU Clinical Trial Register (EudraCT) 2012-005742-38 (www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu).


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neurofibromatose 1/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Autístico/sangue , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/sangue , Neurofibromatose 1/sangue , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/sangue
5.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 7, 2018 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited genomic instability disorder with congenital and developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and predisposition to cancer early in life, and cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks. CASE PRESENTATION: A fifty-one-year old female patient, initially diagnosed with FA in childhood on the basis of classic features and increased chromosomal breakage, and remarkable sun-sensitivity is described. She only ever had mild haematological abnormalities and no history of malignancy. To identify and characterise the genetic defect in this lady, who is one of the oldest reported FA patients, we used whole-exome sequencing for identification of causative mutations, and functionally characterized the cellular phenotype. Detection of the novel splice site mutation c.793-2A > G and the previously described missense mutation c.1765C > T (p.Arg589Trp) in XPF/ERCC4/FANCQ assign her as the third individual of complementation group FA-Q. Ectopic expression of wildtype, but not mutant, XPF/ERCC4/FANCQ, in patient-derived fibroblasts rescued cellular resistance to DNA interstrand-crosslinking agents. Patient derived FA-Q cells showed impaired nuclear excision repair capacity. However, mutated XPF/ERCC4/FANCQ protein in our patient's cells, as in the two other patients with FA-Q, was detectable on chromatin, in contrast to XP-F cells, where missense-mutant protein failed to properly translocate to the nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FA characteristics and UV sensitivity should be tested for mutations in XPF/ERCC4/FANCQ. The missense mutation p.Arg589Trp was previously detected in patients diagnosed with Xeroderma pigmentosum or Cockayne syndrome. Hence, phenotypic manifestations associated with this XPF/ERCC4/ FANCQ mutation are highly variable.

6.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
8.
EBioMedicine ; 2(10): 1331-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26629528

RESUMO

Breast cancer development in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is a net consequence of cell-autonomous and cell nonautonomous factors which may serve as excellent targets for cancer prevention. In light of our previous data we sought to investigate the consequences of the BRCA-mutation carrier state on RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) signalling. We analysed serum levels of RANKL, OPG, RANKL/OPG complex, oestradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) during menstrual cycle progression in 391 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and 782 noncarriers. These studies were complemented by analyses of RANKL and OPG in the serum and mammary tissues of female cynomolgus macaques (n = 88) and serum RANKL and OPG in postmenopausal women (n = 150). BRCA-mutation carriers had lower mean values of free serum OPG in particular in BRCA1-mutation carriers (p = 0.018) compared with controls. Among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, lower OPG levels were associated with germline mutation locations known to confer an increased breast cancer risk (p = 0.003). P is associated with low OPG levels in serum and tissue, particularly in BRCA-mutation carriers (rho = - 0.216; p = 0.002). Serum OPG levels were inversely correlated (rho = - 0.545, p < 0.001) with mammary epithelial proliferation measured by Ki67 expression and increased (p = 0.01) in postmenopause. The P-RANKL/OPG system is dysregulated in BRCA-mutation carriers. These and previously published data provide a strong rationale for further investigation of antiprogestogens or an anti-RANKL antibody such as denosumab for breast cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/sangue , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pós-Menopausa , Ligante RANK/sangue , Fatores de Risco
9.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 272(11): 3143-50, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25294053

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe changes in hearing over time in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) treated conservatively. A retrospective case review was conducted in a tertiary referral centre. Pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination scores, serviceable hearing (American Academy of Otolaryngology class A or B) and measurement of vestibular schwannoma (VS) size on magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated in 56 patients (89 ears) with NF2 with at least one conservatively managed VS. Over a mean follow-up period of 7 years (range 0.8-21 years) pure tone average thresholds increased gradually with a mean annual rate of 1.3 dB for the right ear (p = 0.0003) and 2 dB for the left ear (p = 0.0009). Speech discrimination scores dropped with an average annual rate of 1.3 and 0.34% in the right and left ear, respectively. Patients maintained serviceable hearing for an average of 7.6 years (range 2.7-19.3 years). The average annual VS growth was 0.4 mm without any correlation with hearing loss. There was a correlation between patients' age and pure tone threshold increase (p < 0.05 for both ears). In this selected population of patients with NF2, hearing threshold increases were very slow. In NF2 patients with indolently behaving tumours, serviceable hearing can be maintained for a significant length of time, making conservative management an attractive option.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Neurofibromatose 2/complicações , Neurofibromatose 2/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 2/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 145(3): 663-72, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24687378

RESUMO

Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(2): 307-21, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21271647

RESUMO

The neurofibromatoses (NF) encompass the rare diseases NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis. The NFs affect 100,000 Americans; over 2 million persons worldwide; and are caused by mutation of tumor suppressor genes. Individuals with NF1 in particular may develop tumors anywhere in the nervous system; additional manifestations can include learning disabilities, bone dysplasia, cardiovascular defects, unmanageable pain, and physical disfigurement. Ultimately, the NFs can cause blindness, deafness, severe morbidity, and increased mortality and NF1 includes a risk of malignant cancer. Today there is no treatment for the NFs (other than symptomatic); however, research efforts to understand these genetic conditions have made tremendous strides in the past few years. Progress is being made on all fronts, from discovery studies-understanding the molecular signaling deficits that cause the manifestations of NF-to the growth of preclinical drug screening initiatives and the emergence of a number of clinical trials. An important element in fuelling this progress is the sharing of knowledge, and to this end, for over 20 years the Children's Tumor Foundation has convened an annual NF Conference, bringing together NF professionals to share ideas and build collaborations. The 2010 NF Conference held in Baltimore, MD June 5-8, 2010 hosted over 300 NF researchers and clinicians. This paper provides a synthesis of the highlights presented at the Conference and as such, is a "state-of-the-field" for NF research in 2010.


Assuntos
Genes Supressores de Tumor , Neurofibromatoses/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatoses/tratamento farmacológico , Neurofibromatoses/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genes ras/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neurofibromatoses/genética
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 124(1): 283-8, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20512659

RESUMO

GEN1 was recently identified as a key Holliday junction resolvase involved in homologous recombination. Somatic truncating GEN1 mutations have been reported in two breast cancers. Together these data led to the proposition that GEN1 is a breast cancer predisposition gene. In this article we have formally investigated this hypothesis. We performed full-gene mutational analysis of GEN1 in 176 BRCA1/2-negative familial breast cancer samples and 159 controls. We genotyped six SNPs tagging the 30 common variants in the transcribed region of GEN1 in 3,750 breast cancer cases and 4,907 controls. Mutation analysis revealed one truncating variant, c.2515_2519delAAGTT, which was present in 4% of cases and 4% of controls. We identified control individuals homozygous for the deletion, demonstrating that the last 69 amino acids of GEN1 are dispensable for its function. We identified 17 other variants, but their frequency did not significantly differ between cases and controls. Analysis of 3,750 breast cancer cases and 4,907 controls demonstrated no evidence of significant association with breast cancer for six SNPs tagging the 30 common GEN1 variants. These data indicate that although it also plays a key role in double-strand DNA break repair, GEN1 does not make an appreciable contribution to breast cancer susceptibility by acting as a high- or intermediate-penetrance breast cancer predisposition gene like BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2 and that common GEN1 variants do not act as low-penetrance susceptibility alleles analogous to SNPs in FGFR2. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrate the importance of undertaking appropriate genetic investigations, typically full gene screening in cases and controls together with large-scale case-control association analyses, to evaluate the contribution of genes to cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Resolvases de Junção Holliday/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Linhagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 117(2): 371-9, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19082709

RESUMO

GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a transcription factor that is crucial to mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation of progenitor cells, and has been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function. The rs570613 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 4 of GATA3 was previously found to be associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project and in pooled analysis of two case-control studies from Norway and Poland (P (trend) = 0.004), with some evidence for a stronger association with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours [Garcia-Closas M et al. (2007) Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2269-2275]. We genotyped GATA3 rs570613 in 6,388 cases and 4,995 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and 5,617 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). We found no association between this SNP and breast cancer risk in BCAC cases overall (OR(per-allele) = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.05), in ER negative BCAC cases (OR(per-allele) = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.13), in BRCA1 mutation carriers RR(per-allele) = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90-1.09) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (RR(per-allele) = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.07). We conclude that there is no evidence that either GATA3 rs570613, or any variant in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, is associated with breast cancer risk in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
14.
Hum Mutat ; 27(7): 716, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16786508

RESUMO

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) are a major cause of mortality in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). We have analysed lymphocyte DNA samples from 30 NF1 patients with MPNSTs to determine their underlying constitutional NF1 gene mutations. Mutations were detected in 27/30 (90%) of these patients. NF1 mutations identified included nonsense, missense, frameshift, splice site mutation and single or multi-exonic deletions and with no obvious clustering of the mutations across the gene. Fourteen of the mutations represent novel gene changes. There did not appear to be any relationship between the mutation type and the level of clinical severity observed. Of the 20 patients with high grade MPNSTs, seven patients had small (<20 bp) and multi-exonic deletions and three had small insertions (<20 bp). Several studies have suggested that NF1 patients with a constitutional 1.5 Mb deletion of the NF1 gene have an increased risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs). None of our patients had a 1.5 Mb deletion. Larger prospective studies are needed to ascertain whether there is a different spectrum of NF1 mutations in NF1 patients with high grade compared to low grade MPNSTs and of patients with the 1.5Mb deletion, in order to determine the true frequency of MPNST in this sub-group of NF1 patients.


Assuntos
Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Heterogeneidade Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 1/mortalidade , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 12(8): 654-62, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15138457

RESUMO

Differences in reported uptake of genetic testing for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 can largely be accounted for by different methodologies and by studying research vs nonresearch families. In our joint study of 75 nonresearch families from two UK centres in which at least 3 years had elapsed since the initial proband had been informed of the availability of testing, only 45 and 34% of eligible individuals from Manchester and London, respectively, had come forward for counselling. Final uptake rates using a non-proactive approach were 53 and 29% for women and 11-12% for men, but the figure among those attending clinic was 73 and 62%, respectively. Unlike previous studies, we did not find that uptake had stabilised after a year with 25% of those being tested more than 2 years after the family was informed, and several delaying a considerable time between genetics appointments. We believe that the particularly low uptake even of counselling in men may need to be addressed by improving family communication or providing information sheets for family members to disseminate.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutação/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
16.
Breast ; 9(6): 301-5, 2000 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14965751

RESUMO

Approximately 5% of all breast cancers arise on a background of one of the high-risk breast cancer genes (hereditary breast cancer and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer). An estimated 20% of cases arise in the presence of a less striking family history with later average age at onset and lower penetrance, familial breast cancer. For hereditary breast cancer, bilaterality is a recognized feature. Cancers often present at an early age with the contralateral risk high. This article explores the current state of knowledge regarding management options for women with hereditary breast cancer.

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