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2.
Can J Diabetes ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the middle to late 2000s, many family physicians switched from a Family Health Group (FHG; a blended fee-for-service model) to a Family Health Organization (FHO; a blended capitation model) in Ontario, Canada. The evidence on the link between physician remuneration schemes and quality of diabetes care is mixed in the literature. We examined whether physicians who switched from the FHG to FHO model provided better care for individuals living with diabetes relative to those who remained in the FHG model. METHODS: Using longitudinal health administrative data from 2006 to 2016, we investigated the impact of physicians switching from FHG to FHO on 8 quality indicators related to diabetes care. Because FHO physicians are likely to be systematically different from FHGs, we employed propensity-score-based inverse probability-weighted fixed-effects regression models. All analyses were conducted at the physician level. RESULTS: We found that FHO physicians were more likely to provide glycated hemoglobin testing by 2.75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89% to 3.60%), lipid assessment by 2.76% (CI, 1.95% to 3.57%), nephropathy screening by 1.08% (95% CI, 0.51% to 1.66%) and statin prescription by 1.08% (95% CI, 0.51% to 1.66%). Patients under FHOs had a lower estimated risk of mortality by 0.0124% (95% CI, 0.0123% to 0.0126%) per physician per year. However, FHG and FHO physicians were similar for annual eye examination, prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (or angiotensin II receptor blockers) and patients' risk of avoidable diabetes-related hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with blended fee-for-service, blended capitation payment is associated with a small, but statistically significant, improvement in some aspects of diabetes care.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041281, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surveys and qualitative studies suggest that women physicians may delay childbearing, be at increased risk of adverse peripartum complications when they do become pregnant, and face discrimination and lower earnings as a result of parenthood. Observational studies enrolling large, representative samples of women physicians are needed to accurately evaluate their reproductive patterns, pregnancy outcomes, parental leave practices and earnings. This protocol provides a detailed research plan for such studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Dr Mom Cohort Study encompasses a series of retrospective observational studies of women physicians in Ontario, Canada. All practising physicians in Ontario are registered with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO). By linking a dataset of physicians from the CPSO to existing provincial administrative databases, which hold health data and physician billing records, we will be able to retrospectively assess the healthcare utilisation, work practices and pregnancy outcomes of women physicians at the population level. Specific outcomes of interest include: (1) rates and timing of pregnancy; (2) pregnancy-related care and complications; and (3) duration of parental leave and subsequent earnings, each of which will be evaluated with regression methods appropriate to the form of the outcome. We estimate that, at minimum, 5000 women physicians will be eligible for inclusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Board at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (#18-248). We will disseminate findings through several peer-reviewed publications, presentations at national and international meetings, and engagement of physicians, residency programmes, department heads and medical societies.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(9): e006415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend routine kidney function and serum potassium testing within 30 days of initiating ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy. However, evidence is lacking about whether follow-up testing reduces therapy-related adverse outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted 2 population-based retrospective cohort studies in Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Ontario, Canada. Patients with outpatient serum creatinine and potassium tests in the 30 days after starting ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy were matched 1:1 to patients without follow-up tests. We evaluated the association of follow-up testing with 30-day all-cause mortality and hospitalization with acute kidney injury or hyperkalemia using Cox regression. We also developed and externally validated a risk score to identify patients at risk of having abnormally high serum creatinine and potassium values in follow-up. We identified 75 251 matched pairs initiating ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017, in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Follow-up testing was not significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.54-1.06]) and was associated with higher mortality in 84 905 matched pairs in Ontario (hazard ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07-1.62]). In Kaiser Permanente Northern California, follow-up testing was significantly associated with higher rates of hospitalization with acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.10-2.22]) and hyperkalemia (hazard ratio, 3.36 [95% CI, 1.08-10.41]), as was observed in Ontario. The risk score for abnormal potassium provided good discrimination (area under the curve [AUC], 0.75) and excellent calibration of predicted risks, while the risk score for abnormal serum creatinine provided moderate discrimination (AUC, 0.62) but excellent calibration. CONCLUSIONS: Routine laboratory monitoring after ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker initiation was not associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality. We identified patient subgroups in which targeted testing may be effective in identifying therapy-related changes in serum potassium or kidney function.

5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(10): 1464-1473, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many patients, providers, and potential living donors perceive the living kidney donor evaluation process to be lengthy and difficult to navigate. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We sought consensus on key terms and process and outcome indicators that can be used to measure how efficiently a transplant center evaluates persons interested in becoming a living kidney donor. Using a RAND-modified Delphi method, 77 participants (kidney transplant recipients or recipient candidates, living kidney donors or donor candidates, health care providers, and health care administrators) completed an online survey to define the terms and indicators. The definitions were then further refined during an in-person meeting with ten stakeholders. RESULTS: We identified 16 process indicators (e.g., average time to evaluate a donor candidate), eight outcome indicators (e.g., annual number of preemptive living kidney donor transplants), and two measures that can be considered both process and outcome indicators (e.g., average number of times a candidate visited the transplant center for the evaluation). Transplant centers wishing to implement this set of indicators will require 22 unique data elements, all of which are either readily available or easily collected prospectively. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a set of indicators through a consensus-based approach that may be used to monitor and improve the performance of a transplant center in how efficiently it evaluates persons interested in becoming a living kidney donor.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 752, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hemodialysis setting is suitable for trials that use cluster randomization, where intact groups of individuals are randomized. However, cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are complicated in their design, analysis, and reporting and can pose ethical challenges. We reviewed CRTs in the hemodialysis setting with respect to reporting of key methodological and ethical issues. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of CRTs in the hemodialysis setting, published in English, between 2000 and 2019, and indexed in MEDLINE or Embase. Two reviewers extracted data, and study results were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified 26 completed CRTs and five study protocols of CRTs. These studies randomized hemodialysis centers (n = 17, 55%), hemodialysis shifts (n = 12, 39%), healthcare providers (n = 1, 3%), and nephrology units (n = 1, 3%). Trials included a median of 28 clusters with a median cluster size of 20 patients. Justification for using a clustered design was provided by 15 trials (48%). Methods that accounted for clustering were used during sample size calculation in 14 (45%), during analyses in 22 (71%), and during both sample size calculation and analyses in 13 trials (42%). Among all CRTs, 26 (84%) reported receiving research ethics committee approval; patient consent was reported in 22 trials: 10 (32%) reported the method of consent for trial participation and 12 (39%) reported no details about how consent was obtained or its purpose. Four trials (13%) reported receiving waivers of consent, and the remaining 5 (16%) provided no or unclear information about the consent process. CONCLUSION: There is an opportunity to improve the conduct and reporting of essential methodological and ethical issues in future CRTs in hemodialysis. REVIEW REGISTRATION: We conducted this systematic review using a pre-specified protocol that was not registered.

7.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish diagnostic criteria for bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) defined as bleeding during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery that is independently associated with mortality within 30 days of surgery, and to estimate the proportion of 30-day postoperative mortality potentially attributable to BIMS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of participants ≥45 yr old having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the adjusted relationship between candidate diagnostic criteria for BIMS and all-cause mortality within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: Of 16 079 participants, 2.0% (315) died and 36.1% (5810) met predefined screening criteria for bleeding. Based on independent association with 30-day mortality, BIMS was identified as bleeding leading to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, transfusion of ≥1 unit of red blood cells, or that was judged to be the cause of death. Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery occurred in 17.3% of patients (2782). Death occurred in 5.8% of patients with BIMS (161/2782), 1.3% (39/3028) who met bleeding screening criteria but not BIMS criteria, and 1.1% (115/10 269) without bleeding. BIMS was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.47). We estimated the proportion of 30-day postoperative deaths potentially attributable to BIMS to be 20.1-31.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS), defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the cause of death, is common and may account for a quarter of deaths after noncardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237868, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at heightened risk for polypharmacy. We examined potentially inappropriate prescribing in this population and whether introducing pharmacists into the ambulatory kidney care model was associated with improved prescribing practices. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative databases. We included patients with an eGFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ≥66 years of age followed in multidisciplinary kidney clinics in Ontario, Canada (n = 25,016 from 28 centres). The primary outcome was the absence of a statin prescription or the receipt of a potentially inappropriate prescription defined by the American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria® and a modified Delphi panel that identified key drugs of concern in CKD. We calculated the crude cumulative incidence and incidence rate for the primary outcome and used change-point regression to determine if a change occurred following pharmacist introduction. RESULTS: There were 6,007 (24%) and 16,497 patients (66%) not prescribed a statin and with ≥1 potentially inappropriate prescription, respectively. The rate of potentially inappropriate prescribing was 125.6 per 100 person-years and was higher in more recent years. The change-point regression analysis included 2,275 patients from two centres. No immediate change was detected at pharmacist introduction, but potentially inappropriate prescribing was increasing pre-pharmacist introduction, and this rising trend was reversed post-pharmacist introduction. The incidence of potentially inappropriate prescribing still remained high post-pharmacist introduction. CONCLUSIONS: Potentially inappropriate prescribing practices were common. Incorporating pharmacists into the kidney care model may improve prescribing practices. The role of pharmacists in the ambulatory kidney care team warrants further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Polimedicação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Ambulatorial , Canadá/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(5)2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lithium is an important mood disorder treatment; however, the renal risks of its use in older adults are unclear. We wished to determine in older adults (1) whether lithium is associated with increased risk of renal decline compared to valproate and (2) whether this association differs with higher vs lower baseline serum lithium concentrations. METHOD: We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked health care databases (Ontario, Canada). The cohort consisted of older adults (mean age 71 years) accrued 2007-2015; 3,113 lithium users were propensity-score matched 1:1 to 3,113 valproate users. Users with higher (> 0.7 mmol/L) or lower concentration of serum lithium were further examined. The primary outcome was ≥ 30% loss in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline. RESULTS: Matched lithium users and valproate users demonstrated similar indicators of baseline health over a median (maximum) follow-up of 3.1 (8.3) years. Lithium was associated with increased risk of renal function loss compared to valproate (674/3,113 [21.7%] vs 584/3,113 [18.8%]; 6.5 vs 5.7 events per 100 person years; hazard ratio = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.02-1.27]). When baseline serum lithium concentrations were > 0.7 mmol/L, the risk of renal decline compared to valproate use was 1.26 (95% CI = 1.06-1.49); when baseline lithium concentrations were ≤ 0.7 mmol/L, the risk was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.92-1.22). CONCLUSION: In older adults, lithium use is associated with a statistically significant increased risk of renal decline compared to valproate use, although the decline is less than previously reported. Further studies should confirm whether this effect is primarily in patients with higher serum lithium concentrations.

10.
CMAJ ; 192(30): E851-E857, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prepregnancy kidney dysfunction has been associated with preterm birth, which is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality; however, the relation is not well understood. We determined the risk of preterm birth in women with prepregnancy kidney dysfunction, defined using pregnancy-specific serum creatinine cut points. METHODS: This population-based cohort study in the province of Ontario, Canada, involved women aged 16 to 50 years who had a singleton birth between 2006 and 2016 and measurement of serum creatinine within 10 weeks preceding their estimated conception date. The exposure was abnormally elevated prepregnancy serum creatinine, defined as greater than the 95th percentile (> 77 µmol/L), a value derived from a population-based sample of women without known kidney disease who became pregnant soon after the measurement was obtained. The main outcome was any preterm birth from 23 to 36 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes included provider-initiated preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation and spontaneous preterm birth before 37 weeks. RESULTS: Among 55 946 pregnancies, preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation occurred in 3956 women (7.1%). The risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks was higher among women with prepregnancy creatinine above the 95th percentile, relative to those with prepregnancy creatinine at or below the 95th percentile (9.1% v. 7.0%; adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.38). The effect was significant for provider-initiated preterm birth (adjusted RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.52) but not for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.37). INTERPRETATION: Given that prepregnancy kidney dysfunction conferred an increased risk of preterm birth, measurement of serum creatinine (a relatively inexpensive blood test) may form part of the assessment of risk for preterm birth among those planning pregnancy.

11.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707221

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported to be associated with excess risks of death, kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events although previous studies have important limitations. To further examine this, we prospectively studied adults from four clinical centers surviving three months and more after hospitalization with or without AKI who were matched on center, pre-admission CKD status, and an integrated priority score based on age, prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, preadmission estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and treatment in the intensive care unit during the index hospitalization between December 2009-February 2015, with follow-up through November 2018. All participants had assessments of kidney function before (eGFR) and at three months and annually (eGFR and proteinuria) after the index hospitalization. Associations of AKI with outcomes were examined after accounting for pre-admission and three-month post-discharge factors. Among 769 AKI (73% Stage 1, 14% Stage 2, 13% Stage 3) and 769 matched non-AKI adults, AKI was associated with higher adjusted rates of incident CKD (adjusted hazard ratio 3.98, 95% confidence interval 2.51-6.31), CKD progression (2.37,1.28-4.39), heart failure events (1.68, 1.22-2.31) and all-cause death (1.78, 1.24-2.56). AKI was not associated with major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in multivariable analysis (0.95, 0.70-1.28). After accounting for degree of kidney function recovery and proteinuria at three months after discharge, the associations of AKI with heart failure (1.13, 0.80-1.61) and death (1.29, 0.84-1.98) were attenuated and no longer significant. Thus, assessing kidney function recovery and proteinuria status three months after AKI provides important prognostic information for long-term clinical outcomes.

12.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic criteria for Bleeding Independently associated with Mortality after noncardiac Surgery (BIMS) have been defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or is judged to be the direct cause of death. Preoperative prediction guides for BIMS can facilitate informed consent and planning of perioperative care. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 16 079 participants aged ≥45 yr having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011, 17.3% (2782) experienced BIMS. An electronic risk calculator for BIMS was developed and internally validated by logistic regression with bootstrapping, and further simplified to a risk index. Decision curve analysis assessed the potential utility of each prediction guide compared with a strategy of identifying risk of BIMS based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1. RESULTS: With information about the type of surgery, preoperative haemoglobin, age, sex, functional status, kidney function, history of high-risk coronary artery disease, and active cancer, the risk calculator accurately predicted BIMS (bias-corrected C-statistic, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.837-0.852). A simplified index based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1, open surgery, and high-risk surgery also predicted BIMS, but less accurately (C-statistic, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.779-0.796). Both prediction guides could improve decision making compared with knowledge of haemoglobin <120 g L-1 alone. CONCLUSIONS: BIMS, defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the direct cause of death, can be predicted by a simple risk index before surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

13.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721447

RESUMO

Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are placed under intense physiologic stress. Blood and urine biomarkers measured peri-operatively may help identify patients at higher risk for adverse long-term kidney outcomes.We sought to determine independent associations of various biomarkers with development or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) following cardiac surgery. In this sub-study of the prospective cohort -TRIBE-AKI Study, we evaluated 613 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Canada in our primary analysis and tested the association of 40 blood and urinary biomarkers with the primary composite outcome of CKD incidence or progression. In those with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over 60 mL/min/1.73m2, we defined CKD incidence as a 25% reduction in eGFR and an eGFR under 60. In those with baseline eGFR under 60 mL/min/1.73m2, we defined CKD progression as a 50% reduction in eGFR or eGFR under 15. Results were evaluated in a replication cohort of 310 patients from one study site in the United States. Over a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 172 patients developed the primary outcome. Each log increase in basic fibroblast growth factor (adjusted hazard ratio 1.52 [95% confidence interval 1.19, 1.93]), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (1.51 [0.98, 2.32]), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (1.19 [1.01, 1.41]), and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (1.75 [1.18, 2.59]) were associated with outcome after adjustment for demographic factors, serum creatinine, and albuminuria. Similar results were noted in the replication cohort. Although there was no interaction by acute kidney injury in continuous analysis, mortality was higher in the no acute kidney injury group by biomarker tertile. Thus, elevated post-operative levels of blood biomarkers following cardiac surgery were independently associated with the development of CKD. These biomarkers can provide additional value in evaluating CKD incidence and progression after cardiac surgery.

14.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(6): 426-435, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although measuring albuminuria is the preferred method for defining and staging chronic kidney disease (CKD), total urine protein or dipstick protein is often measured instead. OBJECTIVE: To develop equations for converting urine protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) and dipstick protein to urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and to test their diagnostic accuracy in CKD screening and staging. DESIGN: Individual participant-based meta-analysis. SETTING: 12 research and 21 clinical cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: 919 383 adults with same-day measures of ACR and PCR or dipstick protein. MEASUREMENTS: Equations to convert urine PCR and dipstick protein to ACR were developed and tested for purposes of CKD screening (ACR ≥30 mg/g) and staging (stage A2: ACR of 30 to 299 mg/g; stage A3: ACR ≥300 mg/g). RESULTS: Median ACR was 14 mg/g (25th to 75th percentile of cohorts, 5 to 25 mg/g). The association between PCR and ACR was inconsistent for PCR values less than 50 mg/g. For higher PCR values, the PCR conversion equations demonstrated moderate sensitivity (91%, 75%, and 87%) and specificity (87%, 89%, and 98%) for screening (ACR >30 mg/g) and classification into stages A2 and A3, respectively. Urine dipstick categories of trace or greater, trace to +, and ++ for screening for ACR values greater than 30 mg/g and classification into stages A2 and A3, respectively, had moderate sensitivity (62%, 36%, and 78%) and high specificity (88%, 88%, and 98%). For individual risk prediction, the estimated 2-year 4-variable kidney failure risk equation using predicted ACR from PCR had discrimination similar to that of using observed ACR. LIMITATION: Diverse methods of ACR and PCR quantification were used; measurements were not always performed in the same urine sample. CONCLUSION: Urine ACR is the preferred measure of albuminuria; however, if ACR is not available, predicted ACR from PCR or urine dipstick protein may help in CKD screening, staging, and prognosis. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Kidney Foundation.

15.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619496

RESUMO

When multiple living donor candidates come forward to donate a kidney to the same recipient, some living donor programs evaluate one candidate at a time to avoid unnecessary evaluations. Evaluating multiple candidates concurrently rather than sequentially may be cost-effective from a societal perspective if it reduces the time recipients spend on dialysis. We used a simple decision tree to estimate the cost-effectiveness of evaluating two to four candidates simultaneously rather than sequentially as potential kidney donors for the same intended recipient. Evaluating two donor candidates simultaneously cost $1,266 (CAD) more than if they were evaluated sequentially, but living donation occurred one month earlier. This translated into $6,931 in averted dialysis costs and a total cost-savings of $5,665 per intended recipient. Simultaneous evaluations also resulted in one percent more living donor transplants and overall gains in quality-of-life as recipients spent less time on dialysis. If recipients were free from dialysis at the start of donor candidate evaluations, simultaneous evaluations also reduced the rate of dialysis initiation by two percent. Benefits were also observed in the three- and four-candidate scenarios. Thus, living donor programs should consider evaluating up to four living donor candidates simultaneously when they come forward for the same recipient as health care system costs incurred are more than offset by avoided dialysis costs.

16.
Clin Transplant ; 34(8): e14000, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502285

RESUMO

We examined a novel database linking national donor registry identifiers to records from a US pharmaceutical claims warehouse (2007-2015) to describe opioid and NSAID prescription patterns among LKDs during the first year postdonation, divided into three periods: 0-14 days, 15-182 days, and 183-365 days. Associations of opioid and NSAID prescription fills with baseline factors were examined by logistic regression (adjusted odds ratio, LCL aORUCL ). Among 23,565 donors, opioid prescriptions were highest during days 0-14 (36.6%), but 12.6% of donors filled opioids during days 183-365. NSAID prescriptions rose from 0.5% during days 0-14 to 3.3% during days 183-365. Women filled opioids more commonly than men, and black donors filled both opioids and NSAIDs more commonly than white donors. After covariate adjustment, significant correlates of opioid prescription fills during days 183-365 included obesity (aOR,1.24 1.381.53 ), less than college education (aOR,1.19 1.311.43 ), smoking (aOR,1.33 1.451.58 ), and nephrectomy complications (aOR,1.11 1.291.49 ). NSAID prescription fills in year 1 were not associated with differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate, incidence of proteinuria or new-onset hypertension at the first and second year postdonation. Prescription fills for opioids and NSAIDs for LKDs varied with demographic and clinic traits. Future work should examine longer-term outcome implications to help inform safe analgesic regimen choices after donation.

17.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(8): 1052-1060, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511684

RESUMO

Importance: Clarithromycin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic associated with higher levels of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in the blood, with the potential to increase the risk of hemorrhage. Objective: To assess the 30-day risk of a hospital admission with hemorrhage after coprescription of clarithromycin compared with azithromycin among older adults taking a DOAC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted among adults of advanced age (mean [SD] age, 77.6 [7.2] years) who were newly coprescribed clarithromycin (n = 6592) vs azithromycin (n = 18 351) while taking a DOAC (dabigatran, apixaban, or rivaroxaban) in Ontario, Canada, from June 23, 2009, to December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between hemorrhage and antibiotic use (clarithromycin vs azithromycin). Statistical analysis was performed from December 23, 2019, to March 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital admission with major hemorrhage (upper or lower gastrointestinal tract or intracranial). Outcomes were assessed within 30 days of a coprescription. Results: Among the 24 943 patients (12 493 women; mean [SD] age, 77.6 [7.2] years) in the study, rivaroxaban was the most commonly prescribed DOAC (9972 patients [40.0%]), followed by apixaban (7953 [31.9%]) and dabigatran (7018 [28.1%]). Coprescribing clarithromycin vs azithromycin with a DOAC was associated with a higher risk of a hospital admission with major hemorrhage (51 of 6592 patients [0.77%] taking clarithromycin vs 79 of 18 351 patients [0.43%] taking azithromycin; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.20-2.45]; absolute risk difference, 0.34%). Results were consistent in multiple additional analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that, among adults of advanced age taking a DOAC, concurrent use of clarithromycin compared with azithromycin was associated with a small but statistically significantly greater 30-day risk of hospital admission with major hemorrhage.

18.
Transplantation ; 104(11): e317-e327, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consider a theoretical situation in which 2 patients with similar baseline characteristics receive a kidney transplant on the same day: 1 from a standard criteria deceased donor, the other from a living donor. Which kidney transplant will last longer? METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked administrative healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada, from January 1, 2005, to March 31, 2014, to evaluate several posttransplant outcomes in individuals who received a kidney transplant from a standard criteria deceased donor (n = 1523) or from a living donor (n = 1373). We used PS weighting using overlap weights, a novel weighting method that emphasizes the population of recipients with the most overlap in baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with recipients of a living donor, the rate of all-cause graft failure was not statistically higher for recipients of a standard criteria deceased donor (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-1.6). Recipients of a standard criteria deceased donor, compared with recipients of a living donor had a higher rate of delayed graft function (23.6% versus 18.7%; odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6) and a longer length of stay for the kidney transplant surgery (mean difference, 1.7 d; 95% CI, 0.5-3.0). CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for many important donor and recipient factors, we failed to observe a large difference in the risk of all-cause graft failure for recipients of a standard criteria deceased versus living donor. Some estimates were imprecise, which meant we could not rule out the presence of smaller clinically important effects.

19.
Age Ageing ; 49(6): 995-1002, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: concurrent declines in gait speed and cognition have been associated with future dementia. However, the clinical profile of 'dual decliners', those with concomitant decline in both gait speed and cognition, has not been yet described. We aimed to describe the phenotype and the risk for incident dementia of those who present with dual decline in comparison with non-dual decliners. METHODS: prospective cohort of community-dwelling older adults free of dementia at baseline. We evaluated participants' gait speed, cognition, medical status, functionality, incidence of adverse events and dementia, biannually over 7 years. Gait speed was assessed with a 6-m electronic walkway and global cognition using the MoCA test. We compared characteristics between dual decliners and non-dual decliners using t-test, chi-square and hierarchical regression models. We estimated incident dementia using Cox models. RESULTS: among 144 participants (mean age 74.23 ± 6.72 years, 54% women), 17% progressed to dementia. Dual decliners had a 3-fold risk (HR: 3.12, 95%CI: 1.23-7.93, P = 0.017) of progression to dementia compared with non-dual decliners. Dual decliners were significantly older with a higher prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia (P = 0.002). Hierarchical regression models show that age and sex alone explained 3% of the variation in the dual decliners group. Adding hypertension and dyslipidemia increased the explained variation by 8 and 10%, respectively. The risk of becoming a dual decliner was 4-fold higher if hypertension was present. CONCLUSION: older adults with a concurrent decline in gait speed and cognition represent a group at the highest risk of progression to dementia. Older adults with dual decline have a distinct phenotype with a higher prevalence of hypertension, a treatable condition.

20.
Kidney Int ; 98(1): 176-186, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571482

RESUMO

Better understanding of kidney function after living donor nephrectomy and how it differs by donor characteristics can inform patient selection, counselling, and follow-up care. To evaluate this, we conducted a retrospective matched cohort study of living kidney donors in Alberta, Canada between 2002-2016, using linked healthcare administrative databases. We matched 604 donors to 2,414 healthy non-donors from the general population based on age, sex, year of cohort entry, urban residence and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before cohort entry (nephrectomy date for donors and randomly assigned date for non-donors). The primary outcome was the rate of eGFR change over time (median follow-up seven years; maximum 15 years). The median age of the cohort was 43 years, 64% women, and the baseline (pre-donation) eGFR was 100 mL/min/1.73 m2. Overall, from six weeks onwards, the eGFR increased by +0.35 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (95% confidence interval +0.21 to +0.48) in donors and significantly decreased by -0.85 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (-0.94 to -0.75) in the matched healthy non-donors. The change in eGFR between six weeks to two years, two to five years, and over five years among donors was +1.06, +0.64, and -0.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, respectively. In contrast to the steady age-related decline in kidney function in non-donors, post-donation kidney function on average initially increased by 1 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year attributable to glomerular hyperfiltration, which began to plateau by five years post-donation. Thus, the average change in eGFR over time is significantly different between donors and non-donors.

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