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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and perinatal complications associated with poor oxygenation are risk factors for attentional problems in childhood and may show interactive effects. METHODS: We created a novel expression-based polygenic risk score (ePRS) reflecting variations in the function of the DAT1 gene network (ePRS-DAT1) in the prefrontal cortex and explored the effects of its interaction with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic-associated conditions on cognitive flexibility and brain gray matter density in healthy children from two birth cohorts-MAVAN from Canada (n = 139 boys and girls) and GUSTO from Singapore (n = 312 boys and girls). RESULTS: A history of exposure to several perinatal hypoxic-ischemic-associated conditions was associated with impaired cognitive flexibility only in the high-ePRS group, suggesting that variation in the prefrontal cortex expression of genes involved in dopamine reuptake is associated with differences in this behavior. Interestingly, this result was observed in both ethnically distinct birth cohorts. Additionally, parallel independent component analysis (MAVAN cohort, n = 40 children) demonstrated relationships between single nucleotide polymorphism-based ePRS and gray matter density in areas involved in executive (cortical regions) and integrative (bilateral thalamus and putamen) functions, and these relationships differ in children from high and low exposure to hypoxic-ischemic-associated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that the impact of conditions associated with hypoxia-ischemia on brain development and executive functions is moderated by genotypes associated with dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex. We discuss the potential impact of innovative genomic and environmental measures for the identification of children at high risk for impaired executive functions.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 188-202, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of brain insulin receptors modulates reward sensitivity, inhibitory control and memory. Variations in the functioning of this mechanism likely associate with individual differences in the risk for related mental disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, addiction, dementia), in agreement with the high co-morbidity between insulin resistance and psychopathology. These neurobiological mechanisms can be explored using genetic studies. We propose a novel, biologically informed genetic score reflecting the mesocorticolimbic and hippocampal insulin receptor-related gene networks, and investigate if it predicts endophenotypes (impulsivity, cognitive ability) in community samples of children, and psychopathology (addiction, dementia) in adults. METHODS: Lists of genes co-expressed with the insulin receptor in the mesocorticolimbic system or hippocampus were created. SNPs from these genes (post-clumping) were compiled in a polygenic score using the association betas described in a conventional GWAS (ADHD in the mesocorticolimbic score and Alzheimer in the hippocampal score). Across multiple samples (n = 4502), the biologically informed, mesocorticolimbic or hippocampal specific insulin receptor polygenic scores were calculated, and their ability to predict impulsivity, risk for addiction, cognitive performance and presence of Alzheimer's disease was investigated. FINDINGS: The biologically-informed ePRS-IR score showed better prediction of child impulsivity and cognitive performance, as well as risk for addiction and Alzheimer's disease in comparison to conventional polygenic scores for ADHD, addiction and dementia. INTERPRETATION: This novel, biologically-informed approach enables the use of genomic datasets to probe relevant biological processes involved in neural function and disorders. FUND: Toxic Stress Research network of the JPB Foundation, Jacobs Foundation (Switzerland), Sackler Foundation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Endofenótipos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 103: 156-162, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690225

RESUMO

Maternal behavior (MB) is observable across mammals and represents an important feature of environmental variation during early postnatal development. Oxytocin (OT) plays a crucial role in MB. Even prior to childbirth, pregnancy induces epigenetic and other downstream changes in the maternal OT-system, likely mediated by the actions of steroid hormones. However, little is known about the nature and consequences of epigenetic modifications in the maternal OT-encoding gene (OXT) during pregnancy. Our study aims to investigate temporal dynamics of OXT promoter DNA methylation (DNAm) throughout pregnancy in predicting MB in humans. In 107 mother-child dyads, maternal OXT DNAm was serially analyzed in whole blood in early, mid and late pregnancy. MB was coded based on standardized mother-child interactions at six months postpartum. After controlling for cellular heterogeneity, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, OXT-promoter DNAm exhibited a dynamic profile during pregnancy (b = 0.026, t=-3.37, p < .001), with decreases in DNAm from early to mid-pregnancy and no further change until late pregnancy. Moreover, dynamic DNAm trajectories of the OXT-promoter region predicted MB (intrusiveness) at six months postpartum (b = 0.006, t = 2.0, p < 0.05), with 6% higher OXT DNAm in late pregnancy in intrusive compared to non-intrusive mothers. We here demonstrate that OXT promoter DNAm changes significantly throughout gestation in peripheral blood and that these changes are associated with variability in MB, providing a novel potential biomarker predicting postnatal MB.

5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 295, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) describe the genomic contribution to complex phenotypes and consistently account for a larger proportion of variance in outcome than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) alone. However, there is little consensus on the optimal data input for generating PRS, and existing approaches largely preclude the use of imputed posterior probabilities and strand-ambiguous SNPs i.e., A/T or C/G polymorphisms. Our ability to predict complex traits that arise from the additive effects of a large number of SNPs would likely benefit from a more inclusive approach. RESULTS: We developed PRS-on-Spark (PRSoS), a software implemented in Apache Spark and Python that accommodates different data inputs and strand-ambiguous SNPs to calculate PRS. We compared performance between PRSoS and an existing software (PRSice v1.25) for generating PRS for major depressive disorder using a community cohort (N = 264). We found PRSoS to perform faster than PRSice v1.25 when PRS were generated for a large number of SNPs (~ 17 million SNPs; t = 42.865, p = 5.43E-04). We also show that the use of imputed posterior probabilities and the inclusion of strand-ambiguous SNPs increase the proportion of variance explained by a PRS for major depressive disorder (from 4.3% to 4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: PRSoS provides the user with the ability to generate PRS using an inclusive and efficient approach that considers a larger number of SNPs than conventional approaches. We show that a PRS for major depressive disorder that includes strand-ambiguous SNPs, calculated using PRSoS, accounts for the largest proportion of variance in symptoms of depression in a community cohort, demonstrating the utility of this approach. The availability of this software will help users develop more informative PRS for a variety of complex phenotypes.

6.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(3): 891-903, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068421

RESUMO

Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA , Apego ao Objeto , Meio Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Oncotarget ; 6(2): 604-16, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25436982

RESUMO

While high doses of estrogen, in combination with androgens, can initiate prostate cancer (PCa) via activation of the estrogen receptor α (ERα), the role of ERα in PCa cells within established tumors is largely unknown. Here we show that expression of ERα is increased in high grade human PCa. Similarly, ERα is elevated in mouse models of aggressive PCa driven by MYC overexpression or deletion of PTEN. Within the prostate of PTEN-deficient mice, there is a progressive pattern of ERα expression: low in benign glands, moderate in tumors within the dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes, and high in tumors within the anterior prostate. This expression significantly correlates with the proliferation marker Ki67. Furthermore, in vitro knockdown of ERα in cells derived from PTEN-deficient tumors causes a significant and sustained decrease in proliferation. Depletion of ERα also reduces the activity of the PI3K and MAPK pathways, both downstream targets of non-genomic ERα action. Finally, ERα knockdown reduces the levels of the MYC protein and lowers the sensitivity of cellular proliferation to glucose withdrawal, which correlates with decreased expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ERα orchestrates proliferation and metabolism to promote the neoplastic growth of PCa cells.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/biossíntese , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/deficiência , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/biossíntese , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genes myc , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida
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