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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The higher mortality rate in COVID-19 patients is still a concern. Though some studies mention that elderly patients with co-morbidities are at higher risk of mortality, some others report uneventful outcomes in young patients even without co-morbidities. Secondary bacterial and fungal infections, especially with nosocomial pathogens are known to be associated with worse outcome in the ongoing pandemic as well as in the previous viral outbreaks. In such a scenario, the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients can be improved by timely identification of secondary infections using appropriate biomarkers and by following appropriate infection control measures to prevent the spread of nosocomial pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to find out the prevalence of bloodstream infections (BSI) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and to analyze their laboratory markers and outcome by comparing them with those without BSI. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the prevalence of secondary BSI was determined among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients by including 388 blood culture bottles collected from 293 patients, which were received in the microbiology lab within the study period. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of BSI in COVID-19 patients was 39.5% (116/293), out of which 35.5% (104/293) infections were bacterial, and 4.1% (12/293) were fungal, while 8.9% (26/293) patients grew contaminants, and 51.5% (151/293) were sterile. Common causative agents of secondary BSI were found to be MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.9%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.8%) followed by Candida species (4.1%). Patients with co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension and COPD were at higher risk of developing BSI with significantly higher levels of sepsis markers such as Creactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, ferritin and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). The mortality rate was significantly higher (60.2%) in patients with BSI compared to the group of patients without BSI. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the necessity of early diagnosis of the secondary infections using appropriate biomarkers and following proper infection control measures to prevent the spread of the nosocomial infections and improve the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

2.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443502

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease with varied presentation as well as outcome. Inflammation plays a major role in the outcome of COVID-19 infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of conventional feasible inflammatory markers in predicting the outcome of COVID-19 in hospitalized adult patients. MATERIAL: A total of 100 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Biochemical, hematological, and inflammatory markers were assessed in all the patients. Disease severity and primary outcome as survival and or mortality were recorded. OBSERVATION: Hematological indices and inflammatory markers were significantly higher among the non-survivor. N/L (Neutrophil/Lymphocyte) ratio and CRP (C-reactive protein) can differentiate non-survivor from survivors with the sensitivity of 85.7%, 85.7%, and specificity of 96.8 %, 77.4% with a cut-off value of 6.44, 23.02 respectively in the receiver operator curve (ROC). N/L ratio and CRP were significantly increased among the patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Cox regression Survival analysis showed that an elevated N/L ratio and CRP were significantly associated with mortality with the Hazard ratio of 1.331 (P <0.001) and 1.014 (P <0.015) respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study implicates that increased N/L ratio and CRP were significantly correlated with severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. These conventional feasible markers can be useful in predicting the outcome of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21530, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35223305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of infection in pancreatitis significantly increases the mortality rate up to 100% in the absence of any intervention. Therefore, it is extremely important to diagnose these cases at an early stage. The objectives of this study were to assess the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in the diagnosis of infection in pancreatic collections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study of abdominal collections due to pancreatitis that underwent both CT and DW-MRI from August 2018 to July 2020 were enrolled in the study. The collections were analysed for infections - air foci in CT and diffusion restriction on DW-MRI. RESULTS: Of the 39 patients recruited in the study, infected collections were present in 17, and 22 cases had sterile collections. On CT, air foci within the collection were present only in seven of the cases in our study (sensitivity 35%, specificity 95.4%, PPV 85.7%, NPV 65.6%). DW-MRI detected infection in all 17 cases (sensitivity 100%, specificity 72.7%, PPV 74%, NPV 100%). DISCUSSION: Thirteen out of 17 collections suspicious for infection on DW-MR showed microbiological growth on culture examination. We believe that this is likely due to the patient's prior antibiotic use, which might have altered the micro-environment or inflammatory cell and bacterial content of the collection. CONCLUSION: DW-MRI is complementary and superior to CT in detecting infection in pancreatic collections. CT may be used to detect disease burden, extent and vascular complication.

4.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives and lifestyles of people of all ages worldwide. Lifestyle has an essential role in the management of diabetes mellitus in children. METHODS: The study was carried out at a tertiary care centre in India. A telehealth survey was conducted among the parents/guardians of children with diabetes to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey evaluated the effects on lifestyle, diabetes management and challenges in connecting to a new telemedicine programme. RESULTS: The survey was completed by guardians of 91 patients. The mean age of the patients was 13.0 ± 3.8 years in boys and 11.9 ± 4.5 years in girls. Fifty-seven per cent of them were boys, and 63.7% stayed in rural areas. The pandemic has resulted in a significant increase in screen time and sleep duration. The median non-educational screen time has gone up from 1.00 (0.5-2.0) to 2.50 (1.0-4.0) h. The mean sleep duration in children increased from 9.1 ± 1.4 to 9.7 ± 1.4 h. Telemedicine services have been established with minimum resources, but they have limitations, and awareness about them is also limited. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has made the lifestyle of children with diabetes more sedentary. Some of them have also faced challenges with regard to diabetes-related supplies and management. It would be fair to anticipate more complications related to this sedentary lifestyle in the future and work towards identifying and treating them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Telemedicina , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(3): 967-969, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100564

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is a common occupational hazard in the tropics. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy and acute kidney injury are the most frequently encountered complications of viper bites. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is an unusual presentation reported rarely in the literature. Our case report highlights the uncommon presentation of delayed pulmonary hemorrhage after snakebite envenoming. A 40-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency department after 6 hours of Echis sochureki (a saw-scaled viper subspecies) bite. He had abnormal coagulation parameters and thrombocytopenia with no signs of acute kidney injury. Transfusion protocols were initiated because of active bleeding and a rapid decrease in hemoglobin levels over next few days. Around day 10, his coagulation profile and hemoglobin were corrected, but he developed hemoptysis with rapidly progressive respiratory distress. Computed tomography of the chest was suggestive of DAH and the patient was started on plasma exchange with pulse methylprednisolone. After the initial worsening, he had rapid symptomatic improvement and radiological resolution. The patient had persistent hypofibrinogenemia, which resolved, and was discharged and remained healthy at the 60-day follow-up. This case highlights a presentation with an initial phase of venom-induced consumption coagulopathy followed by delayed DAH in saw-scaled viper envenoming that was treated successfully with immunosuppressants and plasma exchange.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Viperidae , Adulto , Animais , Antivenenos , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Venenos de Víboras/toxicidade
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064475

RESUMO

The deficiencies of trace elements and infectious diseases often coexist and exhibit complex interactions. Several trace elements such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) have immunomodulatory functions and thus influence the susceptibility to the course and outcome of a variety of viral infections. So, this present study was aimed to study relations of trace metals in association with severity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. A total of 150 individuals infected with COVID-19 and 50 healthy individuals were recruited. Cases were divided based on severity (mild, moderate and severe) and outcome (discharged or deceased). Serum Zn, Mg and Cu levels were analysed by direct colourimetric method. Both serum Cu and Zn levels were significantly decreased in cases when compared to those in controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.0001). Serum magnesium levels although not significant were found to be slightly decreased in controls. On comparing the trace elements between the deceased and discharged cases, a significant difference was found between serum copper and zinc levels, but for magnesium, both groups have similar levels. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve results indicate that a serum Cu/Zn ratio along with the age of patient provides some reliable information on COVID-19 course and survival odds by yielding an AUC of 95.1% with a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 89.8%. Therefore, we would like to emphasize that measuring the serum copper and zinc along with their ratio can be used as routine investigations for COVID-19 patients in proper identification and management of severe cases in upcoming new waves of COVID-19.

8.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(2): 632-642, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820907

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened healthcare services around the world especially in resource constrained settings. It has shaken already unstable foundation of TB control programs in India and other high burden states. A 25% decline is expected in TB detection while estimates suggest 13% increase in TB deaths due to the impact of the pandemic. However, the significant intersections between the two diseases perhaps offer potential opportunities for consolidating the efforts to tackle both. The widespread implementation and acceptance of universal masking and social distancing in India has helped limit transmission of both diseases. Integrating the capacity building strategies for the two diseases, optimizing the existing the surveillance and monitoring systems which have been achieved over the years will result in a single vertically integrated national program addressing both, rather than multiple parallel program which utilize the already sparse primary care manpower and infrastructure. In this article, we explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tuberculosis in India and offer suggestions on how effective health planning can efficiently integrate infrastructure and manpower at primary level to provide care for both COVID-19 and tuberculosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tuberculose , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
9.
Mycoses ; 65(3): 294-302, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787939

RESUMO

The landscape of fungal endocarditis (FE) has constantly been evolving in the last few decades. Despite the advancement in diagnostic methods and the introduction of newer antifungals, mortality remains high in FE. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients with FE. We also aim to examine the aforementioned factors as a determinant of mortality in FE. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, and all patients ≥18 years with proven fungal endocarditis were included. A total of 220 articles (250 patients) were included in the final analysis. Candida was the commonest aetiology (49.6%), followed by Aspergillus (30%) and Scedosporium species (3.2%). The proportion of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and intravenous drug users was 35.2% and 16%, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 40%. On multivariate analysis, Aspergillus endocarditis (HR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.7; p = .009) and immunocompromised state (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.24-6.3; p = .013) were independently associated with mortality. Patients treated with surgery along antifungals had better survival (HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.09-0.42; p < .001) compared to those treated with antifungals alone. Recurrence of FE was reported in 10.4% of patients. In conclusion, FE carries significant mortality, particularly in immunodeficient and Aspergillus endocarditis. We advocate the use of surgery combined with antifungals to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/microbiologia , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102371, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954484

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has claimed millions of lives since its first identification in December 2019. Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of adverse outcomes after COVID-19 infection, whereas infection itself can be associated with severe hyperglycemia, including hyperglycemic emergencies. While the accelerated vaccine development and rollout have considerably decreased morbidity and mortality with reasonable safety, there are emerging reports of worsening of hyperglycemia in response to vaccination, with possible shared pathophysiology with COVID-19 infection-related hyperglycemia. We hereby report two young patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) who presented with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) after receiving second doses of COVISHIELD (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) and COVAXIN (BBV152- inactivated whole virion) vaccines. Though a causal link cannot be established, post-vaccination immune response can potentially explain this transient worsening of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemic emergencies. We, hence report diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) following COVID-19 vaccination in T1DM. We suggest that people with diabetes, particularly patients with T1DM with inadequate glycemic control should ideally be closely monitored for hyperglycemia and ketonemia for at least 2 weeks after receiving vaccination for COVID 19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(9): 3240-3246, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) issued guidelines that all patients presenting with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) should be investigated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Following the same protocol, in our institute, all patients with SARI were transferred to the COVID-19 suspect intensive care unit (ICU) and investigated for COVID-19. METHODS: This study was planned to examine the demographical, clinical features, and outcomes of the first 500 suspected patients of COVID-19 with SARI admitted in the COVID-19 suspect ICU at a tertiary care center. Between March 7 and July 20, 2020, 500 patients were admitted to the COVID-19 suspect ICU. We analyzed the demographical, clinical features, and outcomes between COVID-19 positive and negative SARI cases. The records of all the patients were reviewed until July 31, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 500 suspected patients admitted to the hospital, 88 patients showed positive results for COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the nasopharyngeal swabs. The mean age in the positive group was higher (55.31 ± 16.16 years) than in the negative group (40.46 ± 17.49 years) (P < 0.001). Forty-seven (53.4%) of these patients in the COVID-19 positive group and 217 (52.7%) from the negative group suffered from previously known comorbidities. The common symptoms included fever, cough, sore throat, and dyspnea. Eighty-five (20.6%) patients died in the COVID-19 negative group, and 30 (34.1%) died in the COVID-19 positive group (P = 0.006). Deaths among the COVID-19 positive group had a significantly higher age than deaths in the COVID-19 negative group (P < 0.001). Among the patients who died with positive COVID-19 status had substantially higher neutrophilia and lymphopenia (P < 0.001). X-ray chest abnormalities were almost three times more likely in COVID-19 deaths (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the present article, 17.6% of SARI were due to COVID-19 infection with significantly higher mortality (34.1%) in COVID-19 positive patients with SARI. Although all patients presenting as SARI have considerable mortality rates, the COVID-19-associated SARI cases thus had an almost one-third risk of mortality.

12.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17312, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557362

RESUMO

A cataract in the young age group is uncommon and it is usually secondary to eye trauma, intraocular inflammation, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and hypoparathyroidism. We report a case of a rapidly developing cataract over two years in a 21-year-old female with extensive intracranial calcification due to primary hypoparathyroidism. Chronic hypocalcemia due to underlying hypoparathyroidism results in cataract. Extensive bilateral intracranial calcification involving basal ganglia and white matter has been rarely reported in the literature. It occurs due to the chronic deposition of calcium-phosphorus complexes. We would like to highlight that cataract in young patients is always a matter for further evaluation. Clinicians and ophthalmologists should be aware of hypoparathyroidism as a cause of bilateral cataracts. Early diagnosis of primary hypoparathyroidism can save patients from many complications.

13.
J Lab Physicians ; 13(2): 97-106, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483552

RESUMO

Objectives The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has spread across the globe with more than 6 lakh deaths. Clinical autopsies are important to understand the pathobiology of the disease. Materials and Methods Autopsy techniques have been modified to be minimally invasive autopsies in all COVID-19 positive cases, and tissue biopsies were sampled from lungs, liver, and bone marrow within an hour after death. Detailed histological analysis was performed in the sampled tissues, along with immunohistochemistry. Patients' clinical records were collected. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Results Of the 21 cases studied, 76.2% patients were ≥ 60 years of age, 80.9% were males, and 85.7% had co-morbidities. Histopathological analysis revealed diffuse alveolar damage (including exudative and organizing phase) in 88.9% cases. Microthrombi were seen in 44.4% cases. Additional findings include viral cytopathic changes, metaplastic change in the epithelium, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Liver showed centrizonal congestion with hepatocytic loss, lobular inflammation, steatosis, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, and sinusoidal neutrophilic infiltration, while significant portal infiltrate and cholestasis were absent to minimal. Bone marrow revealed hemophagocytosis in 60% cases. Conclusion Incorporation of minimally invasive autopsies provides an effective method to study the pathological findings in COVID-19 deaths in resource-constrained settings. Presence of pulmonary microthrombi in a significant number of cases supports the vascular events, apart from the characteristic diffuse alveolar damage, as an important pathogenic mechanism for lung injury in COVID-19 infections. Histopathological findings in the liver and bone marrow suggest indirect insult to these organs, related to circulatory and/or hyperinflammatory response to viral infections.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 933, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an emerging cause of significant morbidity and mortality in severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the prevalence, clinical profile and outcome of BSIs in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. All patients (age > 18 years) with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Hospital electronic records were searched for demographic data, time of bloodstream infection since admission, clinical profile, antimicrobial resistance pattern and clinical outcome of all patients who developed BSIs. RESULTS: Out of 750 patients admitted in COVID ICU, 8.5% developed secondary BSIs. All severe COVID-19 patients who developed BSIs succumbed to illness. A significant proportion of BSIs were Gram-negative pathogens (53/64, 82.8%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the commonest isolate, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (32.8% and 21.9%, respectively). Multidrug-resistance organisms (MDRO) were found in 57.8% of the cases. The majority of MDRO belonged to K. pneumoniae and Enterococcus groups. The proportion of Gram-negative bacteria resistant to carbapenems was 47.2% (25/53). On multivariate analysis, raised total leukocyte counts, mechanical ventilation and presence of comorbidities were significantly associated with the incidence of BSIs. CONCLUSION: We found a significant prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii in COVID-19 associated BSIs. The presence of comorbidities raised leukocyte counts and mechanical ventilation should alarm clinicians for possible BSIs. The timely initiation of empirical antibiotics and rapid de-escalation is vital to improve the outcome. At the same time, strict compliance of infection control practices should be accomplished to reduce the occurrence of MDRO.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , COVID-19 , Sepse , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 25(1): 14-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has emerged as a multi-system disease with the potential for endocrine dysfunction. We aimed to study the hormonal profile of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at a tertiary care referral hospital at Jodhpur, India. DESIGN: A hospital-based clinical study of endocrine profile of COVID-19 patients conducted from 15th May to 30th June 2020 after ethical approval. MEASUREMENTS: Fasting blood samples for free thyroxine (T4), free tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH), serum prolactin; basal and 1 h post-intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulated cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were collected within 24 h of admission after written informed consent. All hormones and IL-6 were analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. hsCRP was measured by immune-turbidimetric assay. RESULTS: Of 235 patients studied, 14% had severe disease and 5.5% died. Adrenal insufficiency was present in 14%, most of whom had mild disease. A robust adrenal response was observed in those with severe disease. Basal and post-ACTH serum cortisol were significantly increased in severe disease or those who died compared to those who were mild or asymptomatic. Basal and post-ACTH serum cortisol showed a significant positive correlation with hsCRP but not with IL-6. Low T3 and low T4 syndrome were documented in 25% and 5%, respectively. Serum TSH and FT3 levels declined significantly from asymptomatic to severe category. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 21 patients. hsCRP showed a rising trend with disease severity while IL-6 did not. CONCLUSIONS: Endocrine dysfunction in the form of adrenal insufficiency, low T3, and low TSH syndrome and hyperprolactinemia were common COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 745, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empyema necessitans is a rare pulmonary condition described as the presence of pus in the pleural cavity with insidious extension into the surrounding soft tissue. The common microbial aetiology of empyema necessitans is tuberculosis. Nocardiosis a cause of empyema necessitans is rarely described in the literature. We herein present a case of an 80-year-old male with empyema necessitans with osteomyelitis of rib caused by Nocardia farcinica. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old male presented with complaints of soft swelling on the left lower posterior chest wall associated with dry cough and breathlessness on exertion. Computed Tomography (CT) thorax demonstrated empyema necessitans with features of left fifth rib osteomyelitis. Radiological guided aspiration of the chest wall collection revealed Nocardia species and surgical drainage of abscess was performed. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified the isolate as Nocardia farcinica. He was treated with three-drug regimen: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin and ceftriaxone for 2 weeks. After showing improvement patient was discharged and advised to take oral Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the next 6 months with periodic follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: As our case demonstrates, the possibility of invasive Nocardiosis should not be overlooked even in immunocompetent patients. Clinicians should aware of this rare entity while treating patients with empyema necessitans.


Assuntos
Empiema , Nocardiose , Nocardia , Osteomielite , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Nocardiose/complicações , Nocardiose/diagnóstico , Nocardiose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Costelas
17.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021024, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak ofsevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted inexponential rise in the number of patients getting hospitalised with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a paucity of data from South East Asian Region related to the predictors of clinical outcomes in these patients. This formed the basis of conducting our study. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory data of 125 patients was collected on admission. The study outcome was death or discharge after recovery. For univariate analysis, unpaired t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test were used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and few laboratory parameters. Logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Elderly age, ischemic heart disease and smoking were significantly associated with mortality. Elevated levels of D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reduced lymphocyte counts were the predictors of mortality. The ROCs for SOFA score curve showed a cut-off value ≥ 3.5 (sensitivity- 91.7% and specificity- 87.5%), for IL-6 the cut-off value was ≥ 37.9 (sensitivity- 96% and specificity- 78%) and for lymphocyte counts, a cut off was calculated to be less than and equal to 1.46 x 109per litre (sensitivity-75.2%and specificity- 83.3%). CONCLUSION: Old age, smoking history, ischemic heart disease and laboratory parameters including elevated D-dimer, raised LDH and low lymphocyte counts at baseline are associated with COVID-19 mortality. A higher SOFA score at admission is a poor prognosticator in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(5): 1814-1817, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195108

RESUMO

Currently, RT-PCR is the gold standard for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, due to the time-consuming laboratory tests and the low positivity rate of RT-PCR, it cannot be an ideal screening tool for infected population. In this review article, we have reviewed studies related to RT-PCR and CT chest and we would like to give our recommendations. Depending upon the patient's clinical symptoms and radiology imaging typical of viral pneumonia compatible with COVID-19 infection, clinicians need to consider isolation of these patients early even if the RT-PCR test is negative.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307113

RESUMO

Sudden surge of Post Covid-19 Rhino-orbito-mucormycosis cases has left entire ENT fraternity in the center of a war room. We present a quick administrative preparedness for this situation in a tertiary care Government Institute in India. This model may serve as a reference for other centers.

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(4): 1512-1514, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123883

RESUMO

Doctors, nurses, house cleaning staff and hospital ward attendants are at increased risk of acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) if there is a breach in the personal protection equipment. A new simple, easy to implement scoring system has been developed by our Suraksha Chakra team which can be used by the policy makers and hospital administrators. The scoring system is not to discourage anyone but constantly reinforce the healthcare workers for safe practices during patient care.

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