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1.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-4, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868042

RESUMO

Background: Adult female acne (AFA) occurs beyond 25 years of age and can present either as isolated acne or with hyperandrogenic signs.Methods: 120 females aged ≥ 25 years were evaluated for acne, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. Hormonal assessment included total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was diagnosed using Rotterdam's criteria.Results: The mean GAGS score was 15.57 ± 4.04.71.66% females had acne with hyperandrogenic signs (hirsutism, 55.81%; hyperseborrhoea, 65.12%; irregular menses, 36.05%) and 18.33% had increased androgen levels. The group with hyperandrogenic signs had longer duration of disease, truncal acne, significant adolescent acne history, stress, inappropriate diet and PCOS compared to the isolated acne group. The mean androgen levels were higher in the former but the difference was statistically insignificant.Conclusions: Adult female acne can be associated with hyperandrogenic features though routine hormonal tests may not reveal an underlying abnormality except PCOS. End-organ hypersensitivity is the most plausible explanation and thus justifies the use of antiandrogens in its management.

2.
Indian J Med Res ; 147(5): 484-495, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082573

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Data on bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia are scant from young females with HIV. This study was conducted to determine occurrence, predictors and impact of body composition alterations on osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women with HIV. Methods: A total of 214 females with serologically documented HIV infection were screened, of whom 103 pre-menopausal women, 25-45 yr age, clinically stable, having at least one year follow up data, underwent hormonal and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis for BMD and body composition. Seventy five matched controls were also evaluated. Results: Females with HIV had significantly lower BMD and. Z: -score at lumbar spine (LS), total femur, neck of femur (NOF), and radius ultra-distal (UD) compared to controls. Osteoporosis at least at one site was observed in 34.95 per cent patients, compared to eight per cent in controls (P<0.001). Most common site of osteoporosis in females with HIV was radius UD (24.27%), followed by radius 33 per cent (17.48%), radius total (15.53%) and greater trochanter, NOF and LS (6.80% each). HIV patients had significantly lower bone mineral content, lean mass (LM), fat per cent, android (A) fat, gynoid (G) fat, and A/G ratio. LM and fat mass (FM) were -15.65 and -11.54 per cent lower in HIV patients, respectively. Osteoporosis patients had significantly higher use of antiretroviral therapy and lower LM, FM and fat per cent. On logistic regression, LM followed by A/G ratio and BMI were the best predictors of osteoporosis. Sarcopenia was observed in 17.5 per cent patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that osteoporosis and sarcopenia were significant problems in young women with HIV. HIV was associated with greater LM loss, which was critical for bone health. Sarcopenia may predict low BMD in HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Osteoporose/complicações , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais , Pré-Menopausa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Indian J Med Res ; 148(4): 411-421, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666003

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Dyslipidaemia is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity, which is increased in HIV. Data on dyslipidaemia in Indians with HIV are scant. This study was undertaken to determine the predictors of dyslipidaemia and lipoatrophy in Indians with HIV infection and their relation with body composition parameters. Methods: A total of 382 consecutive patients with HIV infection were screened, of whom 257 clinically stable patients, without any acute comorbidity, having at least one year follow up underwent biochemical and DEXA analysis. Results: The most common dyslipidaemia was hypertriglyceridaemia (47.08%), followed by hypercholesterolaemia [total cholesterol (TC)] (38.91%) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (38.52%), in patients having median age 37 (32-42) yr and HIV duration 57 (33-101) months. Patients with at least one dyslipidaemia (78.99%) had significantly higher insulin resistance (IR), per cent body fat, per cent trunk fat (PTF) and trunk limb fat ratio (TLFR). Baseline CD4 count and delta CD4 count (change in CD4 count 6-12 months following ART) had significant inverse correlation with triglycerides and TC. Patients with highest triglycerides and cholesterol quartiles had significantly higher immune reconstitution, metabolic syndrome, IR, trunk fat mass (FM), PTF and TLFR, with comparable total FM. Logistic regression revealed that body mass index, HIV duration and PTF were independent predictors of hypertriglyceridaemia, with only PTF being significant predictor of hypercholesterolaemia. Every unit increase in PTF was associated with 13 and 4.1 per cent increased hypertriglyceridaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Lipoatrophy was present in 8.57 per cent patients and was a poor predictor of dyslipidaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: : High occurrence of dyslipidaemia was observed in patients with HIV on anti retroviral therapy. Central adiposity (TFM) was the most important predictor of dyslipidaemia in these patients.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Extremidades/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Atrofia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Índia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
Endokrynol Pol ; 68(6): 642-651, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in men with HIV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 220 men with HIV were screened, of which 115 men, 30-50 years-age, having at least 1-year follow-up, underwent hormonal and DEXA analysis. 40 controls were also evaluated. RESULTS: Males with HIV had significantly lower BMD and Z-scores at all sites. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 64.35%; commonest site being radius total (49.56%), followed by radius 33% (45.21%), radius ultra distal (36.52%), lumbar spine (19.13%), neck of femur (17.39%), total femur and greater trochanter (7.82% each). HIV patients had significantly lower fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), total fat percent, bone mineral content, gynoid fat, percent skeletal muscle mass (PSMM). Men with osteoporosis had higher use of anti retroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), tuberculosis, lower FM, LM and PSMM. Logistic regression revealed PSMM, age and delta (Δ) CD4 count (change in CD4 count after 6-12 months of ART, compared to pre-ART) were best predictors of osteoporosis. Greater PSMM was associated with decreased osteoporosis, without adjusting for any variable (Model-1), adjusting for disease duration, tuberculosis and IRIS (Model-2), and model-2 plus gonadotropins and sex steroids (Model-3). Greater ΔCD4 count and age were associated with increased osteoporosis after adjusting for different models. Sarcopenia was observed in 40% men and none in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Men with decreased skeletal mass, age, severe immune dysfunction at diagnosis, having rapid increase in CD4 count following ART and IRIS have higher risk of osteoporosis in the long run.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Pediatr Neurosci ; 12(1): 1-6, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553370

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating condition that may result in death or severe neurologic deficits in children. Neuroimaging with cranial ultrasound (US), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable tools in the workup of patients with HIE. The pattern of brain injury depends on the severity and duration of hypoxia and degree of brain maturation. Mild to moderate HI injury results in periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix bleed in preterm neonates, and parasagittal watershed infarcts in full-term neonates. Severe HI injury involves deep gray matter in both term and preterm infants. Treatment of HIE is largely supportive. The current article reviews the etiopathophysiology and clinical manifestations of HIE, role of imaging in the evaluation of the condition, patterns of brain injury in term and preterm neonates, the treatment and the prognosis.

6.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 68(2): 161-170, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283299

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals in recent years makes the disease a topic of universal concern. It has insidious onset and can affect virtually any organ system in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more and more complex and atypical with onset of multidrug-resistant TB. Routine diagnostic techniques using serology and body tissue are time consuming and may delay the definitive management. Hence, it is important to be familiar with various radiologic features of CNS TB to ensure early and accurate diagnosis, thereby reducing high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. The newer imaging techniques further help to improve the characterization and diagnosis of atypical CNS TB. The authors review the imaging characteristics of different forms of CNS tuberculosis involving the brain and spine and discuss the role of advanced imaging modalities in differentiating CNS TB from other disease process.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem , Tuberculose do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia
7.
Radiol Case Rep ; 11(4): 313-317, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920851

RESUMO

Developmental anomalies of the urogenital tract are rare but often encountered. Zinner's syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality of mesonephric (Wolffian) duct consisting of unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ipsilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction due to developmental arrest in early embryogenesis affecting the caudal end of Mullerian duct and only approximately a 100 cases have been reported so far. Radiologic modalities such as intravenous pyelography, ultrasonography, vasovesiculography, contrast enhanced computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are all helpful in diagnosis of this unusual entity. We present here an extremely rare developmental anomaly involving the Mullerian ducts, which would remain undiagnosed but for radiologic imaging. The patient presented with symptoms of lower urinary tract irritation.

8.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 10(7): TR01-5, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630925

RESUMO

Lymphoproliferative malignancies constitute a wide spectrum of haematological malignancies and their prevalence is widely increasing. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, frequently involve extranodal soft tissue structures in the head and neck, thorax and abdomen. These malignancies may involve virtually any type of soft tissues to any extent; hence many different imaging manifestations are possible which may mimic other disorders. The imaging characteristics of extranodal lymphomatous soft tissue involvement are described and classified here according to the site of involvement in 6 cases (primary diseases with orbital, muscle, extra testicular, scalp, sinonasal and pachymeningeal/dural involvement). In majority of these cases at presentation we found a predominantly homogeneous soft tissue mass with mildly high attenuation on CT and a T2 intermediate signal on MRI at these sites without any manifestation of disease elsewhere but on follow-up two out of these six cases developed systemic disease elsewhere. Few consistent patterns were noticed on CT and MRI which might help to include lymphomas as an important differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses. Though a definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy (bone marrow, lymph node, or mass), and other laboratory tests, imaging primarily aims at staging of the disease and identification of new or recurrent disease.

9.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 19(2): 195-200, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27293329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale (score = 0.5), respectively. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine by manual segmentation (Megnatom Symphony 1.5T scanner) three-dimensional (3D) sequences. RESULTS: Age and duration of illness in the MCI group were 70.6 ± 8.6 years and 1.9 ± 0.9 years, respectively. In the AD group, age and duration of illness were 72 ± 8.1 years and 3.1 ± 2.2 years, respectively. In cognitively normal subjects, the age range was 45-88 years (66.9 ± 10.32) years. Mean mini-mental status examination (MMSE) score of healthy subjects was 28.28 ± 1.33. In the MCI group, MMSE was 27.05 ± 1.79. In the AD group, MMSE was 13.32 ± 5.6. In the healthy group, the hippocampal volume was 2.73 ± 0.53 cm(3) on the left side and 2.77 ± 0.6 cm(3) on the right side. Likewise, in MCI, the volume on the left side was 2.35 ± 0.42 cm(3) and the volume on the right side was 2.36 ± 0.38 cm(3). Similarly, in the AD group, the volume on the right side was 1.64 ± 0.55 cm(3) and on the left side it was 1.59 ± 0.55 cm(3). Post hoc analysis using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) showed, using analysis of variance (ANOVA) that there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and AD (P ≤ 0.01), and between healthy and MCI (P ≤ 0.01) subjects. There was a correlation between MMSE score and hippocampal volume in the AD group. CONCLUSION: The volume of the hippocampus in older Indian adults was 2.77 ± 0. 6 cm(3) on the right side and 2.73 ± 0.52 cm(3) on the left side. There was a significant hippocampal volume loss in MCI/AD compared to cognitively normal subjects.

10.
Iran J Child Neurol ; 9(4): 65-74, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664445

RESUMO

Objective Hypotonia is a common clinical entity well recognized in pediatric age group, which demands experienced clinical assessment and an extensive array of investigations to establish the underlying disease process. Neuroimaging comes as great help in diagnosing the disease process in rare cases of central hypotonia due to structural malformations of brain and metabolic disorders and should always be included as an important investigation in the assessment of a floppy child. In this article, we discuss the MRI features of eight cases of central and two cases of combined hypotonia and the importance of neuroimaging in understanding the underlying disease in a hypotonic child.

12.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 9(12): TR01-5, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26816972

RESUMO

Sinonasal tumours present a myriad of radiographic findings. While many of these tumours have been well described with regard to their typical sites of origin, age group and radiological appearance we have come across lesions in our daily practice which are exceedingly rare with regard to site of origin in sinonasal cavity. The radiological appearances of 4 such rare and unusual tumours arising in sinonasal region evaluated by cross sectional imaging (CT/MRI) have been illustrated in this article with a purpose to review the radio-pathological correlation of these tumours and to explain the utility of cross-sectional imaging CT and MRI in exploring diagnostic clues. Morphological features and radiological patterns of each tumour have been graded into mild, moderate and severe based on the extent of tumoural involvement. This review is intended to acquaint radiologists with the appearance of atypical sinonasal masses and their radiological appearance on cross sectional imaging to make an early diagnosis.

14.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 8(8): RD05-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25302247

RESUMO

Ewing's sarcoma is a common malignant bone tumour presenting in children and young adults. Rarely extra- skeletal soft tissues and visceral organs can also be the site of origin of Ewing's sarcoma. Primary pulmonary Ewing's sarcoma is an extremely rare malignancy which occurs in the paediatric population. We report an unusual case of primary pulmonary Ewing's sarcoma in a nine year old girl who presented with features of superior vena cava syndrome in the emergency department. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically both by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The patient was put on chemotherapy and surgery was planned but the patient expired within three days of starting chemotherapy.

15.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 8(12): RD08-11, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25654011

RESUMO

Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease of muscles affecting children and adolescents with soft tissue calcification and varying systemic involvement. Though diagnosis is primarily by clinical, biochemical and histopathological tests, Imaging has unique significance from characterizing the calcinosis, detecting early changes in muscle in active phase of the disease, diagnosing potential complications,rule out other important differentials, guide biopsies ,and assessing the progress on follow up. Four distinct patterns of calcinosis have been described in relation to dermatomyositis which need to be differentiated from other aetiologies of soft tissue calcification and myopathies.

16.
J Pediatr Neurosci ; 6(1): 19-26, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21977082

RESUMO

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease worldwide and is second only to stroke in causing neurological morbidity. Neuroimaging plays a very important role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. This review article highlights the specific role of various imaging modalities in patients with epilepsy, and their practical applications in the management of epileptic patients.

17.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 2(1): 87-91, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21716867

RESUMO

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) in the elderly. Although there are no pathognomic clinical features of CAA-related PICH, the association of white matter changes with lobar, recurrent, or multiple simultaneous hemorrhages in older patients should raise the suspicion of its diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis of CAA requires pathologic examination of the affected tissue. However, with modern imaging techniques, it is possible to diagnose the "probable CAA" in patients presenting with PICH. Gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive, noninvasive technique for identifying microhemorrhages in life. The diagnosis of CAA is important because of the likely implication it has on future management targeted to reduce risk of future bleeding.

18.
J Pediatr Neurosci ; 6(2): 110-3, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22408656

RESUMO

GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1 is a very rare lysosomal disorder. As per our knowledge, to date, only one article depicting the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1 is available in the literature. We are the first to describe the neuroradiological findings in an Indian patient diagnosed with GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1.

19.
Abdom Imaging ; 35(3): 372-5, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19458996

RESUMO

Retroperitoneal lymphangiectasia is a very rare benign disorder of lymphatic system. The origin of this disorder is speculative. Clinical evolution and prognosis remains unclear. Ultrasound and cross sectional imaging findings are characteristic and diagnostic of the disease. Complications of RPL have been reported only in rare cases. The management alternatives range from pharmacological substitutes to surgical interventions in symptomatic cases.


Assuntos
Linfangiectasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Espaço Retroperitoneal , Criança , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Espaço Retroperitoneal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
20.
Indian J Radiol Imaging ; 19(4): 305-7, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19881110

RESUMO

The occurrence of the intracranial, peripheral, primitive, neuroectodermal tumor, Ewing's sarcoma (pPNET-ES) of the dura, is very rare. Immunophenotypical as well as genetic analyses play key roles in its diagnosis and differentiation from central PNET. We describe here the CT scan and MRI findings of an interesting case of intracranial pPNET-ES arising from the anterior falx cerebri with a trancalvarial-subgaleal extension.

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