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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability may be a key mechanism of death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study of 3239 critically ill adults with COVID-19, the incidence of VTE and major bleeding within 14 days after intensive care unit (ICU) admission was evaluated. A target trial emulation in which patients were categorized according to receipt or no receipt of therapeutic anticoagulation in the first 2 days of ICU admission was done to examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. A Cox model with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding was used. SETTING: 67 hospitals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19 admitted to a participating ICU. MEASUREMENTS: Time to death, censored at hospital discharge, or date of last follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 3239 patients included, the median age was 61 years (interquartile range, 53 to 71 years), and 2088 (64.5%) were men. A total of 204 patients (6.3%) developed VTE, and 90 patients (2.8%) developed a major bleeding event. Independent predictors of VTE were male sex and higher D-dimer level on ICU admission. Among the 2809 patients included in the target trial emulation, 384 (11.9%) received early therapeutic anticoagulation. In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 days, patients who received early therapeutic anticoagulation had a similar risk for death as those who did not (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.35]). LIMITATION: Observational design. CONCLUSION: Among critically ill adults with COVID-19, early therapeutic anticoagulation did not affect survival in the target trial emulation. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs worsens or improves the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with plausible mechanisms for both. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in 2121 consecutive adults with acute inpatient hospital admission between 4 March and 29 August 2020 with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in a large academic health system, with adjustment for confounding with propensity score-derived stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights. Chronic immunosuppression was defined as prescriptions for immunosuppressive drugs current at the time of admission. Outcomes included mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay. RESULTS: There were 2121 patients admitted with laboratory-confirmed (1967, 93%) or suspected (154, 7%) COVID-19 during the study period, with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range, 40-67). Of these, 108 (5%) were classified as immunosuppressed before COVID-19, primarily with prednisone (>7.5 mg/day), tacrolimus, or mycophenolate mofetil. Among the entire cohort, 311 (15%) received mechanical ventilation; the median (interquartile range) length of stay was 5.2 (2.5-10.6) days, and 1927 (91%) survived to discharge. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in the risk of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR], .79; 95% confidence interval [CI], .46-1.35), in-hospital mortality (HR, .66; 95% CI, .28-1.55), or length of stay (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, .92-1.47) among individuals with immunosuppression and counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs was neither associated with worse nor better clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in one US health system.

3.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284498

RESUMO

Immunosuppression and comorbidities might place solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients at higher risk from COVID-19, as suggested by recent case series. We compared 45 SOT vs 2427 non-SOT patients who were admitted with COVID-19 to our health-care system (3/1/20-8/21/20), evaluating hospital length-of-stay and inpatient mortality using competing risks regression. We compared trajectories of WHO COVID-19 severity scale using mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for severity score at admission. SOT and non-SOT patients had comparable age, sex, and race, but SOT recipients were more likely to have diabetes (60% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), hypertension (69% vs. 44%, p = 0.001), HIV (7% vs 1.4%, p = 0.024), and peripheral vascular disorders (19% vs. 8%, p = 0.018). There were no statistically significant differences between SOT and non-SOT in maximum illness severity score (p = 0.13), length-of-stay (sHR=0.9 1.11.4 , p = 0.5), or mortality (sHR:0.1 0.41.6 , p = 0.19), although the severity score on admission was slightly lower for SOT (median (IQR) 3 (3, 4)) than for non-SOT (median (IQR) 4 (3-4)), (p = 0.042) Despite a higher risk profile, SOT recipients had a faster decline in disease severity over time (OR=0.76 0.810.86 , p < 0.001) compared with non-SOT patients. These findings have implications for transplant decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic, and insights about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on immunosuppressed patients.

4.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 95, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168072

RESUMO

Genomic studies of patients with COVID-19, or exposed to it, are underway to delineate host factors associated with variability in susceptibility, infectivity, and disease severity. Here, we highlight the ethical implications-both potential benefits and harms-of genomics for clinical practice and public health in the era of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Genômica/ética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Saúde Pública/ética , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública/métodos
5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 65: 101205, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137510

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, moved across the globe at an unprecedented speed, and is having a profound and yet still unfolding health and socioeconomic impacts. SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes a disease that has been termed the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clinical experience thus far indicates that COVID-19 is highly heterogeneous, ranging from being asymptomatic and mild to severe and causing death. Host factors including age, sex, and comorbid conditions are key determinants of disease severity and progression. Aging itself is a prominent risk factor for severe disease and death from COVID-19. We hypothesize that age-related decline and dysregulation of immune function, i.e., immunosenescence and inflammaging play a major role in contributing to heightened vulnerability to severe COVID-19 outcomes in older adults. Much remains to be learned about the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We need to begin partitioning all immunological outcome data by age to better understand disease heterogeneity and aging. Such knowledge is critical not only for understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis but also for COVID-19 vaccine development.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2025594, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079199

RESUMO

Importance: The development of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine has progressed at unprecedented speed. Widespread public uptake of the vaccine is crucial to stem the pandemic. Objective: To examine the factors associated with survey participants' self-reported likelihood of selecting and receiving a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. Design, Setting, and Participants: A survey study of a nonprobability convenience sample of 2000 recruited participants including a choice-based conjoint analysis was conducted to estimate respondents' probability of choosing a vaccine and willingness to receive vaccination. Participants were asked to evaluate their willingness to receive each hypothetical vaccine individually. The survey presented respondents with 5 choice tasks. In each, participants evaluated 2 hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines and were asked whether they would choose vaccine A, vaccine B, or neither vaccine. Vaccine attributes included efficacy, protection duration, major adverse effects, minor adverse effects, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process, national origin of vaccine, and endorsement. Levels of each attribute for each vaccine were randomly assigned, and attribute order was randomized across participants. Survey data were collected on July 9, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Average marginal component effect sizes and marginal means were calculated to estimate the relationship between each vaccine attribute level and the probability of the respondent choosing a vaccine and self-reported willingness to receive vaccination. Results: A total of 1971 US adults responded to the survey (median age, 43 [interquartile range, 30-58] years); 999 (51%) were women, 1432 (73%) White, 277 (14%) were Black, and 190 (10%) were Latinx. An increase in efficacy from 50% to 70% was associated with a higher probability of choosing a vaccine (coefficient, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.06-0.09), and an increase from 50% to 90% was associated with a higher probability of choosing a vaccine (coefficient, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.15-0.18). An increase in protection duration from 1 to 5 years was associated with a higher probability of choosing a vaccine (coefficient, 0.05 95% CI, 0.04-0.07). A decrease in the incidence of major adverse effects from 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 1 000 000 was associated with a higher probability of choosing a vaccine (coefficient, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.05-0.08). An FDA emergency use authorization was associated with a lower probability of choosing a vaccine (coefficient, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01) compared with full FDA approval. A vaccine that originated from a non-US country was associated with a lower probability of choosing a vaccine (China: -0.13 [95% CI, -0.15 to -0.11]; UK: -0.04 [95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02]). Endorsements from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (coefficient, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.07-0.11) and the World Health Organization (coefficient, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.04-0.08), compared with an endorsement from President Trump were associated with higher probabilities of choosing a vaccine. Analyses of participants' willingness to receive each vaccine when assessed individually yielded similar results. An increase in efficacy from 50% to 90% was associated with a 10% higher marginal mean willingness to receive a vaccine (from 0.51 to 0.61). A reduction in the incidence of major side effects was associated with a 4% higher marginal mean willingness to receive a vaccine (from 0.54 to 0.58). A vaccine originating in China was associated with a 10% lower willingness to receive a vaccine vs one developed in the US (from 0.60 to 0.50) Endorsements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization were associated with increases in willingness to receive a vaccine (7% and 6%, respectively) from a baseline endorsement by President Trump (from 0.52 to 0.59 and from 0.52 to 0.58, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of US adults, vaccine-related attributes and political characteristics were associated with self-reported preferences for choosing a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine and self-reported willingness to receive vaccination. These results may help inform public health campaigns to address vaccine hesitancy when a COVID-19 vaccine becomes available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Probabilidade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083808

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces severe disease in a subpopulation of patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We demonstrate robust IgM autoantibodies that recognize angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) in 18/66 (27%) patients with severe COVID-19, which are rare (2/52; 3.8%) in hospitalized patients who are not ventilated. The antibodies do not undergo class-switching to IgG, suggesting a T-independent antibody response. Purified IgM from anti-ACE2 patients activates complement. Pathological analysis of lung obtained at autopsy shows endothelial cell staining for IgM in blood vessels in some patients. We propose that vascular endothelial ACE2 expression focuses the pathogenic effects of these autoantibodies on blood vessels, and contributes to the angiocentric pathology observed in some severe COVID-19 patients. These findings may have predictive and therapeutic implications.

9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883382

RESUMO

In response to the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016, the US Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) established 10 regional treatment centers, called biocontainment units (BCUs), to prepare and provide care for patients infected with high-consequence pathogens. Many of these BCUs were among the first units to activate for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient care. The activities of the Johns Hopkins BCU helped prepare the Johns Hopkins Health System for COVID-19 in the 3 domains of containment care: (1) preparedness planning, education and training, (2) patient care and unit operations, and (3) research and innovation. Here, we describe the role of the JH BCU in the Hopkins COVID-19 response to illustrate the value of BCUs in the current pandemic and their potential role in preparing healthcare facilities and health systems for future infectious disease threats.

10.
Chest ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991873

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic may require rationing of various medical resources if demand exceeds supply. Theoretical frameworks for resource allocation have provided much needed ethical guidance, but hospitals still need to address objective practicalities and legal vetting to operationalize scarce resource allocation schemata. To develop operational scarce resource allocation processes for public health catastrophes, including the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, five health systems in Maryland formed a consortium-with diverse expertise and representation-representing more than half of all hospitals in the state. Our efforts built on a prior statewide community engagement process that determined the values and moral reference points of citizens and health-care professionals regarding the allocation of ventilators during a public health catastrophe. Through a partnership of health systems, we developed a scarce resource allocation framework informed by citizens' values and by general expert consensus. Allocation schema for mechanical ventilators, ICU resources, blood components, novel therapeutics, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and renal replacement therapies were developed. Creating operational algorithms for each resource posed unique challenges; each resource's varying nature and underlying data on benefit prevented any single algorithm from being universally applicable. The development of scarce resource allocation processes must be iterative, legally vetted, and tested. We offer our processes to assist other regions that may be faced with the challenge of rationing health-care resources during public health catastrophes.

11.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for progression of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) to severe disease or death are underexplored in U.S. cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors on hospital admission that are predictive of severe disease or death from COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Five hospitals in the Maryland and Washington, DC, area. PATIENTS: 832 consecutive COVID-19 admissions from 4 March to 24 April 2020, with follow-up through 27 June 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Patient trajectories and outcomes, categorized by using the World Health Organization COVID-19 disease severity scale. Primary outcomes were death and a composite of severe disease or death. RESULTS: Median patient age was 64 years (range, 1 to 108 years); 47% were women, 40% were Black, 16% were Latinx, and 21% were nursing home residents. Among all patients, 131 (16%) died and 694 (83%) were discharged (523 [63%] had mild to moderate disease and 171 [20%] had severe disease). Of deaths, 66 (50%) were nursing home residents. Of 787 patients admitted with mild to moderate disease, 302 (38%) progressed to severe disease or death: 181 (60%) by day 2 and 238 (79%) by day 4. Patients had markedly different probabilities of disease progression on the basis of age, nursing home residence, comorbid conditions, obesity, respiratory symptoms, respiratory rate, fever, absolute lymphocyte count, hypoalbuminemia, troponin level, and C-reactive protein level and the interactions among these factors. Using only factors present on admission, a model to predict in-hospital disease progression had an area under the curve of 0.85, 0.79, and 0.79, at day 2, 4, and 7, respectively. LIMITATION: The study was done in a single health care system. CONCLUSION: A combination of demographic and clinical variables is strongly associated with severe COVID-19 disease or death and their early onset. The COVID-19 Inpatient Risk Calculator (CIRC), using factors present on admission, can inform clinical and resource allocation decisions. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Hopkins inHealth and COVID-19 Administrative Supplement for the HHS Region 3 Treatment Center from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.

13.
Health Secur ; 18(3): 212-218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559152

RESUMO

The biocontainment unit at Johns Hopkins Hospital is a specially designed, inactive high-level isolation unit designated to care for patients infected with high-consequence pathogens. The unit team designed a facility-specific readiness scale and checklist that focus on infrastructure, consumable supplies, and staffing to assess activation readiness of the biocontainment unit. Over a period of 50 days and 14 days, these tools were used as part of a routine risk assessment to first identify barriers and then tier the impact of these barriers into activation categories of "Ready," "Ready with Considerations," and "Not Ready." The assessment identified the greatest risks to activation readiness were staffing and waste management capabilities. Assessing threats to activation readiness and the risk of not being ready should be a priority for maintaining facility, regional, and national capacity to safely isolate and care for patients infected with high-consequence pathogens while maintaining healthcare worker safety.

15.
Lancet ; 395(10230): e63, 2020 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247399
16.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 7(3): 197-203, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146439

RESUMO

The genealogy of graduate medical education in America begins at the bedside. However, today's graduate medical trainees work in a training environment that is vastly different from medical training a century ago. The goal of the Graduate Medical Education Laboratory (GEL) Study, supported by the American Medical Association's (AMA) "Reimagining Residency" initiative, is to determine the factors in the training environment that most contribute to resident well-being and developing diagnostic skills. We believe that increasing time at the bedside will improve clinical skill, increase professional fulfillment, and reduce workplace burnout. Our graduate medical education laboratory will test these ideas to understand which interventions can be shared among all training programs. Through the GEL Study, we aim to ensure resident readiness for practice as we understand, then optimize, the learning environment for trainees and staff.

17.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167926

RESUMO

Background Feedback based on direct observation of the physical examination (PE) is associated with enhanced educational outcomes, yet attending physicians do not frequently observe graduate trainees performing the PE. Methods We recruited volunteer patients (VPs), each with an abnormality of the cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological system. Interns examined each VP, then presented a differential diagnosis and management plan to two clinician educators, who, themselves, had independently examined the VPs. The clinician educators assessed interns along five domains and provided post-examination feedback and teaching. We collected data on intern performance, faculty inter-rater reliability, correlation with a simulation-based measure of clinical skill, and resident and VP perceptions of the assessment. Results A total of 72 PGY-1 interns from a large academic training program participated. Performance on the cardiovascular and respiratory system was superior to performance on the neurologic exam. There was no correlation between results of an online test and directly observed cardiovascular skill. Interns preferred feedback from the direct observation sessions. VPs and faculty also rated the experience highly. Inter-rater reliability was good for the respiratory exam, but poor for the cardiovascular and neurologic exams. Conclusions Direct observation of trainees provides evidence about PE skill that cannot be obtained via simulation. Clinician educators' ability to provide reliable PE assessment may depend on the portion of the PE being assessed. Our experience highlights the need for ongoing training of clinician educators in direct observation, standard setting, and assessment protocols. This assessment can inform summative or formative assessments of physical exam skill in graduate medical education.

18.
Teach Learn Med ; 32(4): 442-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090631

RESUMO

Issue: The physical examination has been in decline for many years and poorer skills contribute to medical errors and adverse events. Diagnostic error is also increasing with the complexity of medicine. Comparing the physical examination in Ireland and the United States with a focus on education, assessment, culture, and health systems may provide insight into the decline of the physical exam in the United States, uncover possible strategies to improve clinical skills, and limit diagnostic error. Evidence: The physical exam is a core component of both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Ireland. This is reflected by the time and effort invested by medical schools and medical societies in Ireland in teaching and assessing skills. This high standard of skills results in the physical exam being a key component of the diagnostic process and a gatekeeper to expensive investigations essential in a resource-limited health system such as Ireland. Use of the physical exam in the United States is hindered by the high-tech transformation of healthcare and a more litigious society. Known strategies to highlight the role of the physical exam in clinical practice include creating an evidence base to show that better physical exam skills improve outcomes, identifying accurate physical exam maneuvers, stressing the therapeutic alliance the physical exam brings to the patient encounter, and the incorporation of technology into the bedside exam. Implications: Contrasting the education and clinical use of the physical examination in the United States with Ireland allowed us to identify a number of strategies which could be used to promote the physical exam among learners in both countries. Highlighting simple and pragmatic physical exam maneuvers combined with evidence-based physical exam diagnostic data may renew confidence in the physical exam as a core diagnostic tool. Use of the hypothesis-driven approach may streamline a clinician's physical exam during a patient encounter, focusing on the key examination components and avoiding unnecessary and low yield maneuvers. The absence of assessment of physical exam skills using real patients in United States licensing exams communicates to learners that these skills are not important. However, steps to introduce a culture of assessment to drive learning are being introduced. One area Ireland could learn from the United States is incorporating more technology into the bedside exam. Enhanced physical examination skills in both countries could reduce reliance on expensive investigations and improve diagnostic accuracy.

19.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 129(12): 907-912, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777402

RESUMO

At its most fundamental level, the clinical encounter between a patient and their doctor seeks to solve a mystery. Clinicians uncover clues through the history, physical examination, and ancillary tests to arrive at a diagnosis and develop a management plan. Despite advances in technology, the majority of clinical diagnoses are still reached through the history and physical examination without the use of laboratory and imaging tests. However, in the modern American hospital, clinicians spend as little as 12% of their time in direct contact with patients and their families. This has led to a decline in clinical examination skills and contributes to diagnostic error. There is a growing movement to return clinicians and trainees back to the bedside. In 2017, we formed the Society of Bedside Medicine to encourage innovation, education, and research on the role of the clinical encounter in 21st century medicine. Over the last 3 years, we have embraced the following 6 strategies to reinvigorate the practice of the clinical examination: 1) be present with the patient; 2) practice an evidence­based approach to the physical exam; 3) create opportunities for intentional practice of the physical exam; 4) recognize the power of the physical examination beyond diagnosis; 5) use point­of­care technology to aid in diagnosis and reinforce skills; and 6) seek and provide specific feedback on physical examination skills. By employing these strategies in both teaching and practice, clinicians can maximize the value of time spent with patients and renew the importance of the clinical examination in 21st century practice.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências , Anamnese/normas , Exame Físico/normas , Exame Físico/tendências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Previsões , Humanos , Polônia
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 3): S248-S255, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 28 000 people were infected with Ebola virus during the 2014-2015 West African outbreak, resulting in more than 11 000 deaths. Better methods are needed to reduce the risk of self-contamination while doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) to prevent pathogen transmission. METHODS: A set of interventions based on previously identified failure modes was designed to mitigate the risk of self- contamination during PPE doffing. These interventions were tested in a randomized controlled trial of 48 participants with no prior experience doffing enhanced PPE. Contamination was simulated using a fluorescent tracer slurry and fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres (PLSs). Self-contamination of scrubs and skin was measured using ultraviolet light visualization and swabbing followed by microscopy, respectively. Doffing sessions were videotaped and reviewed to score standardized teamwork behaviors. RESULTS: Participants in the intervention group contaminated significantly fewer body sites than those in the control group (median [interquartile range], 6 [3-8] vs 11 [6-13], P = .002). The median contamination score was lower for the intervention group than the control group when measured by ultraviolet light visualization (23.15 vs 64.45, P = .004) and PLS swabbing (72.4 vs 144.8, P = .001). The mean teamwork score was greater in the intervention group (42.2 vs 27.5, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention package addressing the PPE doffing task, tools, environment, and teamwork skills significantly reduced the amount of self-contamination by study participants. These elements can be incorporated into PPE guidance and training to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pele , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fluorescência , Luvas Protetoras , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Humanos , Poliestirenos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Treinamento por Simulação
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