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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 135: 303-310, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301042

RESUMO

Few studies have focused so far on plastic ingestion by sharks in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this paper was to determine, for the first time, the plastic litter ingested by blue sharks (Prionace glauca), categorized as "Critically Endangered" in the Mediterranean Sea by IUCN, caught in the Pelagos Sanctuary SPAMI (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). The analysis of the stomach contents was performed following the MSFD Descriptor 10 standard protocol implemented with FT-IR spectroscopy technique. The results showed that 25.26% of sharks ingested plastic debris of wide scale of sizes from microplastics (<5 mm) to macroplastics (>25 mm). The polyethylene sheetlike user plastics, widely used as packaging material, are the most ingested debris. This research raises a warning alarm on the impact of plastic debris on a threatened species, with a key role in the food web, and adds important information for futures mitigation actions.


Assuntos
Plásticos/metabolismo , Tubarões/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/análise , Polietileno/efeitos adversos , Polietileno/análise , Polietileno/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 219, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255028

RESUMO

Tattoo skin disease (TSD) is a poxviral disease typical of cetaceans. Two juvenile and well-preserved male striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), found stranded along the Tuscany and Latium coasts of Italy in 2015 and 2016, respectively, showed typical skin lesions ascribable to TSD. Histological, ultrastructural and biomolecular investigations confirmed a poxviral aetiology for the aforementioned skin lesions. To our knowledge, this should be the first report of TSD in cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline. As organochlorines like PCBs and DDTs are known to be highly immunotoxic, the tissue loads of these contaminants were evaluated, in order to increase our knowledge on their potential role as well as on the relationships between the level of exposure to these pollutants and poxviral infection's occurrence.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(2): 137-144, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384483

RESUMO

A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Histological features suggestive of tracheobronchial aspergillosis were observed. Cultures of lung tissue and tracheo-bronchial exudate isolated Aspergillus fumigatus, identified by a Microseq D2 LSUrDNA fungal sequencing kit. A pan-Herpesvirus nested-PCR assay on frozen samples obtained from multiple organs was positive. Phylogenetic analysis on the partial DNA polymerase gene revealed that the striped dolphin isolate was closely related to known cetacean Alphaherpesvirus sequences from the same host species. Attempted virus isolation was unsuccessful. The tissue levels of different persistent organic pollutants and the toxicological stress, evaluated using a theoretical model, showed a severely impaired immune response. This study reports the first case of occlusive mycotic tracheobronchitis in a free-living cetacean and the first molecular identification of an Alphaherpesvirus in a free-ranging striped dolphin stranded on the coast of Italy.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Bronquite/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Stenella/microbiologia , Traqueíte/veterinária , Animais , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Traqueíte/epidemiologia , Traqueíte/microbiologia
5.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 18(3): 620-638, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405659

RESUMO

The Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species emblematic of the challenges associated with shared fisheries management. In an effort to resolve the species' stock dynamics, a genomewide search for spatially informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken, by way of sequencing reduced representation libraries. An allele frequency approach to SNP discovery was used, combining the data of 555 larvae and young-of-the-year (LYOY) into pools representing major geographical areas and mapping against a newly assembled genomic reference. From a set of 184,895 candidate loci, 384 were selected for validation using 167 LYOY. A highly discriminatory genotyping panel of 95 SNPs was ultimately developed by selecting loci with the most pronounced differences between western Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea LYOY. The panel was evaluated by genotyping a different set of LYOY (n = 326), and from these, 77.8% and 82.1% were correctly assigned to western Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea origins, respectively. The panel revealed temporally persistent differentiation among LYOY from the western Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea (FST  = 0.008, p = .034). The composition of six mixed feeding aggregations in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was characterized using genotypes from medium (n = 184) and large (n = 48) adults, applying population assignment and mixture analyses. The results provide evidence of persistent population structuring across broad geographic areas and extensive mixing in the Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of St. Lawrence. The genomic reference and genotyping tools presented here constitute novel resources useful for future research and conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Atum/genética , Migração Animal , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mar Mediterrâneo , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Atum/fisiologia
6.
PeerJ ; 5: e4112, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230359

RESUMO

Background: The blue shark (Prionace glauca, Linnaeus 1758) is one of the most abundant epipelagic shark inhabiting all the oceans except the poles, including the Mediterranean Sea, but its genetic structure has not been confirmed at basin and interoceanic distances. Past tagging programs in the Atlantic Ocean failed to find evidence of migration of blue sharks between the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic, despite the extreme vagility of the species. Although the high rate of by-catch in the Mediterranean basin, to date no genetic study on Mediterranean blue shark was carried out, which constitutes a significant knowledge gap, considering that this population is classified as "Critically Endangered", unlike its open-ocean counterpart. Methods: Blue shark phylogeography and demography in the Mediterranean Sea and North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean were inferred using two mitochondrial genes (Cytb and control region) amplified from 207 and 170 individuals respectively, collected from six localities across the Mediterranean and two from the North-Eastern Atlantic. Results: Although no obvious pattern of geographical differentiation was apparent from the haplotype network, Φst analyses indicated significant genetic structure among four geographical groups. Demographic analyses suggest that these populations have experienced a constant population expansion in the last 0.4-0.1 million of years. Discussion: The weak, but significant, differences in Mediterranean and adjacent North-eastern Atlantic blue sharks revealed a complex phylogeographic structure, which appears to reject the assumption of panmixia across the study area, but also supports a certain degree of population connectivity across the Strait of Gibraltar, despite the lack of evidence of migratory movements observed by tagging data. Analyses of spatial genetic structure in relation to sex-ratio and size could indicate some level of sex/stage biased migratory behaviour.

7.
J Wildl Dis ; 53(4): 795-803, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475451

RESUMO

Between 2007 and 2014, 83 cetaceans were found stranded along the Ligurian coast of Italy, in the Pelagos Sanctuary, the largest marine protected area in the Mediterranean basin. Forty-nine (59%) were submitted to complete or partial necropsy, depending on the conservation status of the carcass. Based on gross and histological pathology and ancillary testing, the cause of death was determined and categorized as anthropogenic or natural (i.e., nonanthropogenic) in origin for 33 animals (67%) and of undetermined origin in the remaining 16 (33%). Natural causes of death, accompanied by either poor or good nutritional status, were attributed to 29 animals (59%), whereas four (8%) were diagnosed with an anthropogenic cause of death, consisting of interaction with fishing activities. Infectious and noninfectious disease was the most common cause of death, involving 29 cetaceans (59%). These data are valuable for understanding health and mortality trends in cetacean populations and can provide information for establishing policies for cetacean conservation and management in such an important protected area of the Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Autopsia/veterinária , Causas de Morte , Cetáceos , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/veterinária , Adenoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adenoma Adrenocortical/veterinária , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/veterinária , Atividades Humanas , Itália , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Urológicas/mortalidade , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 118(2): 169-74, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912047

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Listeriose/veterinária , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Coinfecção , Golfinhos , Feminino , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Listeriose/patologia , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
9.
PLoS One ; 6(5): e19417, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21673789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) remain peculiar and rather unexplained events, which rarely occur in the Mediterranean Sea. Solar cycles and related changes in the geomagnetic field, variations in water temperature and weather conditions, coast geographical features and human activities have been proposed as possible causes. In December 2009, a pod of seven male sperm whales stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the sixth instance from 1555 in this basin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete necropsies were performed on three whales whose bodies were in good condition, carrying out on sampled tissues histopathology, virology, bacteriology, parasitology, and screening of veins looking for gas emboli. Furthermore, samples for age determination, genetic studies, gastric content evaluation, stable isotopes and toxicology were taken from all the seven specimens. The animals were part of the same group and determined by genetic and photo-identification to be part of the Mediterranean population. Causes of death did not include biological agents, or the "gas and fat embolic syndrome", associated with direct sonar exposure. Environmental pollutant tissue concentrations were relatively high, in particular organochlorinated xenobiotics. Gastric content and morphologic tissue examinations showed a prolonged starvation, which likely caused, at its turn, the mobilization of lipophilic contaminants from the adipose tissue. Chemical compounds subsequently entered the blood circulation and may have impaired immune and nervous functions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multi-factorial cause underlying this sperm whales' mass stranding is proposed herein based upon the results of postmortem investigations as well as of the detailed analyses of the geographical and historical background. The seven sperm whales took the same "wrong way" into the Adriatic Sea, a potentially dangerous trap for Mediterranean sperm whales. Seismic surveys should be also regarded as potential co-factors, even if no evidence of direct impact has been detected.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Cachalote/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Geografia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais Pesados/química , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Cachalote/anatomia & histologia
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 57(1-2): 173-5, 2003 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14735938

RESUMO

Examination of 3 specimens of the Mediterranean flyingfish Cheilopogon heterurus (Rafinesque) from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, revealed the presence of numerous, dark-shelled trichinelloid eggs (69 to 75 x 30 to 33 microm) inside the innermost layer of the swimbladder, mostly located in clumps arranged in a distinct pattern. These were identified as Huffmanela schouteni Moravec et Campbell, 1991, a species known so far as eggs in flyingfishes and in the stools of humans in Curaçao. This is the first finding of this parasite in Europe and C. heterurus represents a new host record.


Assuntos
Sacos Aéreos/parasitologia , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Animais , Geografia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia
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