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1.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(12): 686-699, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure causes distinctive craniofacial anomalies that arise, in part, from the apoptotic elimination of neural crest (NC) progenitors that form the face. This vulnerability of NC to alcohol is puzzling as they normally express the transcriptional repressor Snail1/2 (in chick Snai2), which suppresses apoptosis and promotes their migration. Here, we investigate alcohol's impact upon Snai2 function. METHODS: Chick cranial NC cells were treated with acute alcohol (52 mM, 2 hr). We evaluated NC migration, gene expression, proliferation, and apoptosis thereafter. RESULTS: Transient alcohol exposure induced Snai2 (191% ± 23%; p = .003) and stimulated NC migration (p = .0092). An alcohol-induced calcium transient mediated this Snai2 induction, and BAPTA-AM blocked whereas ionomycin mimicked these pro-migratory effects. Alcohol suppressed CyclinD1 protein content (59.1 ± 12%, p = .007) and NC proliferation (19.7 ± 5.8%, p < .001), but these Snai2-enriched cells still apoptosed in response to alcohol. This was explained because alcohol induced p53 (198 ± 29%, p = .023), and the p53 antagonist pifithrin-α prevented their apoptosis. Moreover, alcohol counteracted Snai2's pro-survival signals, and Bcl2 was repressed (68.5 ± 6.0% of controls, p = .016) and PUMA was not induced, while ATM (1.32-fold, p = .01) and PTEN (1.30-fold, p = .028) were elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol's calcium transient uncouples the Snai2/p53 regulatory loop that normally prevents apoptosis during EMT. This represents a novel pathway in alcohol's neurotoxicity, and complements demonstrations that alcohol suppresses PUMA in mouse NC. We propose that the NCs migratory behavior, and their requirement for Snai2/p53 co-expression, makes them vulnerable to stressors that dysregulate Snai2/p53 interactions, such as alcohol.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006937, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973878

RESUMO

Gestational alcohol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and is a prominent cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) offer insights into mechanisms underlying FASD, but gene-level analysis provides limited information regarding complex transcriptional processes such as alternative splicing and non-coding RNAs. Moreover, traditional analytical approaches that use multiple hypothesis testing with a false discovery rate adjustment prioritize genes based on an adjusted p-value, which is not always biologically relevant. We address these limitations with a novel approach and implemented an unsupervised machine learning model, which we applied to an exon-level analysis to reduce data complexity to the most likely functionally relevant exons, without loss of novel information. This was performed on an RNA-Seq paired-end dataset derived from alcohol-exposed neural fold-stage chick crania, wherein alcohol causes facial deficits recapitulating those of FASD. A principal component analysis along with k-means clustering was utilized to extract exons that deviated from baseline expression. This identified 6857 differentially expressed exons representing 1251 geneIDs; 391 of these genes were identified in a prior gene-level analysis of this dataset. It also identified exons encoding 23 microRNAs (miRNAs) having significantly differential expression profiles in response to alcohol. We developed an RDAVID pipeline to identify KEGG pathways represented by these exons, and separately identified predicted KEGG pathways targeted by these miRNAs. Several of these (ribosome biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation) were identified in our prior gene-level analysis. Other pathways are crucial to facial morphogenesis and represent both novel (focal adhesion, FoxO signaling, insulin signaling) and known (Wnt signaling) alcohol targets. Importantly, there was substantial overlap between the exomes themselves and the predicted miRNA targets, suggesting these miRNAs contribute to the gene-level expression changes. Our novel application of unsupervised machine learning in conjunction with statistical analyses facilitated the discovery of signaling pathways and miRNAs that inform mechanisms underlying FASD.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Animais , Big Data , Embrião de Galinha , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/toxicidade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169351, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28046103

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Individuals with FASD may exhibit a characteristic facial appearance that has diagnostic utility. The mechanism by which alcohol disrupts craniofacial development is incompletely understood, as are the genetic factors that can modify individual alcohol vulnerability. Using an established avian model, we characterized the cranial transcriptome in response to alcohol to inform the mechanism underlying these cells' vulnerability. Gallus gallus embryos having 3-6 somites were exposed to 52 mM alcohol and the cranial transcriptomes were sequenced thereafter. A total of 3422 genes had significantly differential expression. The KEGG pathways with the greatest enrichment of differentially expressed gene clusters were Ribosome (P = 1.2 x 10-17, 67 genes), Oxidative Phosphorylation (P = 4.8 x 10-12, 60 genes), RNA Polymerase (P = 2.2 x 10-3, 15 genes) and Spliceosome (P = 2.6 x 10-2, 39 genes). The preponderance of transcripts in these pathways were repressed in response to alcohol. These same gene clusters also had the greatest altered representation in our previous comparison of neural crest populations having differential vulnerability to alcohol-induced apoptosis. Comparison of differentially expressed genes in alcohol-exposed (3422) and untreated, alcohol-vulnerable (1201) transcriptomes identified 525 overlapping genes of which 257 have the same direction of transcriptional change. These included 36 ribosomal, 25 oxidative phosphorylation and 7 spliceosome genes. Using a functional approach in zebrafish, partial knockdown of ribosomal proteins zrpl11, zrpl5a, and zrps3a individually heightened vulnerability to alcohol-induced craniofacial deficits and increased apoptosis. In humans, haploinsufficiency of several of the identified ribosomal proteins are causative in craniofacial dysmorphologies such as Treacher Collins Syndrome and Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. This work suggests ribosome biogenesis may be a novel target mediating alcohol's damage to developing neural crest. Our findings are consistent with observations that gene-environment interactions contribute to vulnerability in FASD.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Biogênese de Organelas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Teratogênese/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
4.
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today ; 102(3): 210-20, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25219761

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the "classic" fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active ß-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology and include genes important for neural crest development, including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol's effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol's CNS pathologies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/patologia , Crista Neural/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
5.
Front Genet ; 5: 224, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25147554

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development, including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from ß-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genome-wide SNP analysis links PDGFRA with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and - resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss-and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to ethanol's neurotoxicity.

6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 38(7): 1874-82, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24962712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Genetic factors can modify vulnerability to FASD, but these elements are poorly characterized. METHODS: We performed high-throughput transcriptional profiling to identify gene candidates that could potentially modify vulnerability to ethanol's (EtOH's) neurotoxicity. We interrogated a unique genetic resource, neuroprogenitor cells from 2 closely related Gallus gallus lines having well-characterized robust or attenuated EtOH responses with respect to intracellular calcium mobilization and CaMKII/ß-catenin-dependent apoptosis. Samples were not exposed to EtOH prior to analysis. RESULTS: We identified 363 differentially expressed genes in neuroprogenitors from these 2 lines. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed several gene clusters having significantly differential enrichment in gene expression. The largest and most significant cluster comprised ribosomal proteins (38 genes, p = 1.85 × 10(-47) ). Other significantly enriched gene clusters included metabolism (25 genes, p = 0.0098), oxidative phosphorylation (18 genes, p = 1.10 × 10(-11) ), spliceosome (13 genes, p = 7.02 × 10(-8) ), and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (9 genes, p = 0.0011). Inspection of gene ontogeny (GO) terms identified 24 genes involved in the calcium/ß-catenin signals that mediate EtOH's neurotoxicity in this model, including ß-catenin itself and both calmodulin isoforms. CONCLUSIONS: Four of the identified pathways with altered transcript abundance mediate the flow of cellular information from RNA to protein. Importantly, ribosome biogenesis also senses nucleolar stress and regulates p53-mediated apoptosis in neural crest. Human ribosomopathies produce craniofacial malformations and 11 known ribosomopathy genes were differentially expressed in this model of neural crest apoptosis. Rapid changes in ribosome expression are consistently observed in EtOH-treated mouse embryo neural folds, a model that is developmentally similar to ours. The recurring identification of ribosome biogenesis suggests it is a candidate modifier of EtOH vulnerability. These results highlight this approach's efficacy to formulate new, mechanistic hypotheses regarding EtOH's developmental damage.


Assuntos
Etanol/toxicidade , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
7.
J Neurochem ; 128(4): 523-35, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24117889

RESUMO

Prenatal ethanol exposure causes persistent neurodevelopmental deficits by inducing apoptosis within neuronal progenitors including the neural crest. The cellular signaling events underlying this apoptosis are unclear. Using an established chick embryo model, we previously identified ethanol's activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) as a crucial early step in this pathway. Here, we report that CaMKII is pro-apoptotic because it mediates the loss of transcriptionally active ß-catenin, which normally provides trophic support to these cells. ß-catenin over-expression normalized cell survival in ethanol's presence. CaMKII inhibition similarly restored ß-catenin content and transcriptional activity within ethanol-treated cells and prevented their cell death. In contrast, inhibition of alternative effectors known to destabilize ß-catenin, including glycogen synthase kinase-3ß, Protein Kinase C, JNK, and calpain, failed to normalize cell survival and ß-catenin activity in ethanol's presence. Importantly, we found that purified CaMKII can directly phosphorylate ß-catenin. Using targeted mutagenesis we identified CaMKII phosphorylation sites within human ß-catenin at T332, T472, and S552. This is the first demonstration that ß-catenin is a phosphorylation target of CaMKII and represents a novel mechanism by which calcium signals could regulate ß-catenin-dependent transcription. These results inform ethanol's neurotoxicity and offer unexpected insights into other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders having dysregulated calcium or ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/farmacologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Etanol/toxicidade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Eletroporação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Crista Neural/enzimologia , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 889: 85-103, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22669661

RESUMO

The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha/citologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Embrião de Galinha/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Cultura , Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Teratologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
9.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 91(7): 591-602, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21630427

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common birth defect in many societies. Affected individuals have neurodevelopmental disabilities and a distinctive craniofacial dysmorphology. These latter deficits originate during early development from the ethanol-mediated apoptotic depletion of cranial facial progenitors, a population known as the neural crest. We showed previously that this apoptosis is caused because acute ethanol exposure activates G-protein-dependent intracellular calcium within cranial neural crest progenitors, and this calcium transient initiates the cell death. The dysregulated signals that reside downstream of ethanol's calcium transient and effect neural crest death are unknown. Here we show that ethanol's repression of the transcriptional effector ß-catenin causes the neural crest losses. Clinically relevant ethanol concentrations (22-78 mM) rapidly deplete nuclear ß-catenin from neural crest progenitors, with accompanying losses of ß-catenin transcriptional activity and downstream genes that govern neural crest induction, expansion, and survival. Using forced expression studies, we show that ß-catenin loss of function (via dominant-negative T cell transcription factor [TCF]) recapitulates ethanol's effects on neural crest apoptosis, whereas ß-catenin gain-of-function in ethanol's presence preserves neural crest survival. Blockade of ethanol's calcium transient using Bapta-AM normalizes ß-catenin activity and prevents the neural crest losses, whereas ionomycin treatment is sufficient to destabilize ß-catenin. We propose that ethanol's repression of ß-catenin causes the neural crest losses in this model of FAS. ß-Catenin is a novel target for ethanol's teratogenicity. ß-Catenin/Wnt signals participate in many developmental events and its rapid and persistent dysregulation by ethanol may explain why the latter is such a potent teratogen.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/metabolismo , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
10.
J Neurochem ; 118(4): 646-57, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21496022

RESUMO

Prenatal ethanol exposure causes significant neurodevelopmental deficits through its induction of apoptosis in neuronal progenitors including the neural crest. Using an established chick embryo model, we previously showed that clinically relevant ethanol concentrations cause neural crest apoptosis through mobilization of an intracellular calcium transient. How the calcium transient initiates this cell death is unknown. In this study, we identify CaMKII as the calcium target responsible for ethanol-induced apoptosis. Immunostaining revealed selective enrichment of activated phosphoCaMKII(Thr286) within ethanol-treated neural crest. CaMKII activation in response to ethanol was rapid (< 60 s) and robust, and CaMKII activity was increased 300% over control levels. Treatment with CaMKII-selective inhibitors but not those directed against CaMKIV or PKC completely prevented the cell death. Forced expression of dominant-negative CaMKII prevented ethanol's activation of CaMKII and prevented the ethanol-induced death, whereas constitutively active CaMKII in ethanol's absence significantly increased cell death to levels caused by ethanol treatment. In summary, CaMKII is the key signal that converts the ethanol-induced, short-lived Ca(i) (2+) transient into a long-lived cellular effector. This is the first identification of CaMKII as a critical mediator of ethanol-induced cell death. Because neural crest differentiates into several neuronal lineages, our findings offer novel insights into how ethanol disrupts early neurogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/toxicidade , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista Neural/patologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Estimulação Química
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