Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 13 de 13
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 177, 2017 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769033

RESUMO

The Earth's lowermost mantle large low velocity provinces are accompanied by small-scale ultralow velocity zones in localized regions on the core-mantle boundary. Large low velocity provinces are hypothesized to be caused by large-scale compositional heterogeneity (i.e., thermochemical piles). The origin of ultralow velocity zones, however, remains elusive. Here we perform three-dimensional geodynamical calculations to show that the current locations and shapes of ultralow velocity zones are related to their cause. We find that the hottest lowermost mantle regions are commonly located well within the interiors of thermochemical piles. In contrast, accumulations of ultradense compositionally distinct material occur as discontinuous patches along the margins of thermochemical piles and have asymmetrical cross-sectional shape. Furthermore, the lateral morphology of these patches provides insight into mantle flow directions and long-term stability. The global distribution and large variations of morphology of ultralow velocity zones validate a compositionally distinct origin for most ultralow velocity zones.Ultralow velocity zones are detected on the core-mantle boundary, but their origin is enigmatic. Here, the authors find that the global distribution and large variations of morphology of ultralow velocity zones are consistent with most having a compositionally-distinct origin.

2.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8937, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26596781

RESUMO

Chemical differences between mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs) provide critical evidence that the Earth's mantle is compositionally heterogeneous. MORBs generally exhibit a relatively low and narrow range of (3)He/(4)He ratios on a global scale, whereas OIBs display larger variability in both time and space. The primordial origin of (3)He in OIBs has motivated hypotheses that high (3)He/(4)He ratios are the product of mantle plumes sampling chemically distinct material, but do not account for lower MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratios in OIBs, nor their observed spatial and temporal variability. Here we perform thermochemical convection calculations which show the variable (3)He/(4)He signature of OIBs can be reproduced by deep isolated mantle reservoirs of primordial material that are viscously entrained by thermal plumes. Entrainment is highly time-dependent, producing a wide range of (3)He/(4)He ratios similar to that observed in OIBs worldwide and indicate MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratios in OIBs cannot be used to preclude deep mantle-sourced hotspots.

3.
Nature ; 522(7555): 202-6, 2015 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26062512

RESUMO

The relative motion of lithospheric plates and underlying mantle produces localized deformation near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The transition from rheologically stronger lithosphere to weaker asthenosphere may result from a small amount of melt or water in the asthenosphere, reducing viscosity. Either possibility may explain the seismic and electrical anomalies that extend to a depth of about 200 kilometres. However, the effect of melt on the physical properties of deformed materials at upper-mantle conditions remains poorly constrained. Here we present electrical anisotropy measurements at high temperatures and quasi-hydrostatic pressures of about three gigapascals on previously deformed olivine aggregates and sheared partially molten rocks. For all samples, electrical conductivity is highest when parallel to the direction of prior deformation. The conductivity of highly sheared olivine samples is ten times greater in the shear direction than for undeformed samples. At temperatures above 900 degrees Celsius, a deformed solid matrix with nearly isotropic melt distribution has an electrical anisotropy factor less than five. To obtain higher electrical anisotropy (up to a factor of 100), we propose an experimentally based model in which layers of sheared olivine are alternated with layers of sheared olivine plus MORB or of pure melt. Conductivities are up to 100 times greater in the shear direction than when perpendicular to the shear direction and reproduce stress-driven alignment of the melt. Our experimental results and the model reproduce mantle conductivity-depth profiles for melt-bearing geological contexts. The field data are best fitted by an electrically anisotropic asthenosphere overlain by an isotropic, high-conductivity lowermost lithosphere. The high conductivity could arise from partial melting associated with localized deformation resulting from differential plate velocities relative to the mantle, with subsequent upward melt percolation from the asthenosphere.

4.
Science ; 331(6015): 309-12, 2011 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21212323

RESUMO

Despite recent insight regarding the history and current state of the Moon from satellite sensing and analyses of limited Apollo-era seismic data, deficiencies remain in our understanding of the deep lunar interior. We reanalyzed Apollo lunar seismograms using array-processing methods to search for the presence of reflected and converted seismic energy from the core. Our results suggest the presence of a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partially molten boundary layer. The relative sizes of the inner and outer core suggest that the core is ~60% liquid by volume. Based on phase diagrams of iron alloys and the presence of partial melt, the core probably contains less than 6 weight % of lighter alloying components, which is consistent with a volatile-depleted interior.

5.
Science ; 324(5924): 224-6, 2009 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19359580

RESUMO

Seismic shear anisotropy in the lowermost mantle most likely results from elastic shear anisotropy and lattice preferred orientation of its constituent minerals, including perovskite, post-perovskite, and ferropericlase. Measurements of the elastic shear anisotropy of single-crystal (Mg0.9Fe0.1)O up to 69 gigapascals (GPa) show that it increased considerably across the pressure-induced spin transition of iron between 40 and 60 GPa. Increasing iron content further enhances the anisotropy. This leads to at least 50% stronger elastic shear anisotropy of (Mg,Fe)O in the lowermost mantle compared to MgO, which is typically used in geodynamic modeling. Our results imply that ferropericlase is the dominant cause of seismic shear anisotropy in the lower mantle.

6.
Science ; 320(5879): 1070-4, 2008 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18497297

RESUMO

Earth's lowermost mantle has thermal, chemical, and mineralogical complexities that require precise seismological characterization. Stacking, migration, and modeling of over 10,000 P and S waves that traverse the deep mantle under the Cocos plate resolve structures above the core-mantle boundary. A small -0.07 +/- 0.15% decrease of P wave velocity (Vp) is accompanied by a 1.5 +/- 0.5% increase in S wave velocity (V(s)) near a depth of 2570 km. Bulk-sound velocity [Vb = (Vp2 - 4/3Vs2)1/2] decreases by -1.0 +/- 0.5% at this depth. Transition of the primary lower-mantle mineral, (Mg(1-x-y) Fe(x)Al(y))(Si,Al)O3 perovskite, to denser post-perovskite is expected to have a negligible effect on the bulk modulus while increasing the shear modulus by approximately 6%, resulting in local anticorrelation of Vb and Vs anomalies; this behavior explains the data well.

7.
Science ; 320(5876): 626-8, 2008 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18451293

RESUMO

Processes within the lowest several hundred kilometers of Earth's rocky mantle play a critical role in the evolution of the planet. Understanding Earth's lower mantle requires putting recent seismic and mineral physics discoveries into a self-consistent, geodynamically feasible context. Two nearly antipodal large low-shear-velocity provinces in the deep mantle likely represent chemically distinct and denser material. High-resolution seismological studies have revealed laterally varying seismic velocity discontinuities in the deepest few hundred kilometers, consistent with a phase transition from perovskite to post-perovskite. In the deepest tens of kilometers of the mantle, isolated pockets of ultralow seismic velocities may denote Earth's deepest magma chamber.

8.
Science ; 318(5850): 623-6, 2007 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17962558

RESUMO

Using high-resolution stacks of precursors to the seismic phase SS, we investigated seismic discontinuities associated with mineralogical phase changes approximately 410 and 660 kilometers (km) deep within Earth beneath South America and the surrounding oceans. Detailed maps of phase boundary topography revealed deep 410- and 660-km discontinuities in the down-dip direction of subduction, inconsistent with purely isochemical olivine phase transformation in response to lowered temperatures. Mechanisms invoking chemical heterogeneity within the mantle transition zone were explored to explain this feature. In some regions, multiple reflections from the discontinuities were detected, consistent with partial melt near 410-km depth and/or additional phase changes near 660-km depth. Thus, the origin of upper mantle heterogeneity has both chemical and thermal contributions and is associated with deeply rooted tectonic processes.

9.
Science ; 314(5803): 1272-6, 2006 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17124317

RESUMO

Temperature gradients in a low-shear-velocity province in the lowermost mantle (D'' region) beneath the central Pacific Ocean were inferred from the observation of a rapid S-wave velocity increase overlying a rapid decrease. These paired seismic discontinuities are attributed to a phase change from perovskite to post-perovskite and then back to perovskite as the temperature increases with depth. Iron enrichment could explain the occurrence of post-perovskite several hundred kilometers above the core-mantle boundary in this warm, chemically distinct province. The double phase-boundary crossing directly constrains the lowermost mantle temperature gradients. Assuming a standard but unconstrained choice of thermal conductivity, the regional core-mantle boundary heat flux (approximately 85 +/- 25 milliwatts per square meter), comparable to the average at Earth's surface, was estimated, along with a lower bound on global core-mantle boundary heat flow in the range of 13 +/- 4 terawatts. Mapped velocity-contrast variations indicate that the lens of post-perovskite minerals thins and vanishes over 1000 kilometers laterally toward the margin of the chemical distinct region as a result of a approximately 500-kelvin temperature increase.

10.
Nature ; 441(7091): 333-6, 2006 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16710418

RESUMO

Seismic tomography has been used to infer that some descending slabs of oceanic lithosphere plunge deep into the Earth's lower mantle. The fate of these slabs has remained unresolved, but it has been postulated that their ultimate destination is the lowermost few hundred kilometres of the mantle, known as the D'' region. Relatively cold slab material may account for high seismic velocities imaged in D'' beneath areas of long-lived plate subduction, and for reflections from a seismic velocity discontinuity just above the anomalously high wave speed regions. The D'' discontinuity itself is probably the result of a phase change in relatively low-temperature magnesium silicate perovskite. Here, we present images of the D'' region beneath the Cocos plate using Kirchhoff migration of horizontally polarized shear waves, and find a 100-km vertical step occurring over less than 100 km laterally in an otherwise flat D'' shear velocity discontinuity. Folding and piling of a cold slab that has reached the core-mantle boundary, as observed in numerical and experimental models, can account for the step by a 100-km elevation of the post-perovskite phase boundary due to a 700 degrees C lateral temperature reduction in the folded slab. We detect localized low velocities at the edge of the slab material, which may result from upwellings caused by the slab laterally displacing a thin hot thermal boundary layer.

11.
Nature ; 435(7042): 666-9, 2005 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15931220

RESUMO

Recent seismological discoveries have indicated that the Earth's core-mantle boundary is far more complex than a simple boundary between the molten outer core and the silicate mantle. Instead, its structural complexities probably rival those of the Earth's crust. Some regions of the lowermost mantle have been observed to have seismic wave speed reductions of at least 10 per cent, which appear not to be global in extent. Here we present robust evidence for an 8.5-km-thick and approximately 50-km-wide pocket of dense, partially molten material at the core-mantle boundary east of Australia. Array analyses of an anomalous precursor to the reflected seismic wave ScP reveal compressional and shear-wave velocity reductions of 8 and 25 per cent, respectively, and a 10 per cent increase in density of the partially molten aggregate. Seismological data are incompatible with a basal layer composed of pure melt, and thus require a mechanism to prevent downward percolation of dense melt within the layer. This may be possible by trapping of melt by cumulus crystal growth following melt drainage from an anomalously hot overlying region of the lowermost mantle. This magmatic evolution and the resulting cumulate structure seem to be associated with overlying thermal instabilities, and thus may mark a root zone of an upwelling plume.

12.
Science ; 306(5694): 259-61, 2004 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15472071

RESUMO

A persistent reversal in the expected polarity of the initiation of vertically polarized shear waves that graze the D'' layer (the layer at the boundary between the outer core and the lower mantle of Earth) in some regions starts at the arrival time of horizontally polarized shear waves. Full waveform modeling of the split shear waves for paths beneath the Caribbean requires azimuthal anisotropy at the base of the mantle. Models with laterally coherent patterns of transverse isotropy with the hexagonal symmetry axis of the mineral phases tilted from the vertical by as much as 20 degrees are consistent with the data. Small-scale convection cells within the mantle above the D'' layer may cause the observed variations by inducing laterally variable crystallographic or shape-preferred orientation in minerals in the D'' layer.

13.
Science ; 304(5672): 834-6, 2004 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15131297
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...