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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 581(Pt A): 135-147, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771725

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Molecular architecture and composition of amphiphilic bottlebrush copolymers will dictate the dominant interfacial relaxation modes and the corresponding dilatational rheology for adsorbed layers at oil/water interfaces in a way that will correlate with the emulsifying efficiency of different bottlebrush copolymers. EXPERIMENTS: Amphiphilic, xylene-soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PBA) heterografted bottlebrush copolymers with controlled differences in backbone length, hydrophilicity and arm length were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. Dilatational rheology of adsorbed layers at the xylene/water interface was probed via pendant drop tensiometry by measuring the interfacial stress response to either large-amplitude strain cycling or small-amplitude strain oscillation. The rheological response was recorded as a function of interfacial pressure for adsorbed layers under different compression states. Emulsifying efficiency was determined as the lowest copolymer concentration that yielded water-in-xylene emulsions with at least one-month stability against coalescence. FINDINGS: The more hydrophilic copolymers with longer PEO arms exhibited non-hysteretic stress-strain response curves in large-amplitude strain cycling and a tendency for the modulus to increase with increasing interfacial pressure. These were more efficient emulsifiers than less hydrophilic copolymers that exhibited hysteretic interfacial rheology. Mere existence of significant moduli did not correlate with high emulsifying efficiency, while an increase in modulus with increasing interfacial pressure did so.

2.
Soft Matter ; 16(1): 238-246, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777903

RESUMO

We analytically calculate the one-dimensional advective-diffusive spreading of a point source of diffusiophoretic (DP) colloids, driven by the simultaneous diffusion of a Gaussian solute patch. The spreading of the DP colloids depends critically on the ratio of the DP mobility, M (which can be positive or negative), to the solute diffusivity, Ds. For instance, we demonstrate, for the first time, that solute-repelling colloids (M < 0) undergo long-time super-diffusive transport for M/Ds < -1. In contrast, the spreading of strongly solute-attracting colloids (M/Ds≫ 1) can be spatially arrested over long periods on the solute diffusion timescale, due to a balance between colloid diffusion and DP under the evolving solute gradient. Further, a patch of the translating solute acts as a "shuttle" that rapidly transports the colloids relative to their diffusive timescale. Finally, we use numerical computations to show that the above behaviors persist for three-dimensional, radially symmetric DP spreading. The results presented here could guide the use of DP colloids for microscale particle sorting, deposition, and delivery.

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 553: 136-147, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202050

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Surfactant-driven Marangoni flow on liquid films is predicted to depend on subphase depth and initial surface tension difference between the subphase and deposited surfactant solution drop. Changes in flow behavior will impact transport of soluble species entrained in the Marangoni flow along the surface. In extreme cases, the subphase film may rupture, limiting transport. Understanding this behavior is important for applications in drug delivery, coatings, and oil spill remediation. EXPERIMENTS: A trans-illumination optical technique measured the subphase height profiles and drop content transport after drop deposition when varying initial subphase depth, surfactant concentration, and subphase viscosity. FINDINGS: Three distinct flow regimes were identified depending on the subphase depth and surfactant concentration and mapped onto an operating diagram. These are characterized as a "central depression" bounded by an outwardly traveling ridge, an "annular depression" bounded by a central dome and the traveling ridge, and an "annular dewetting" when the subphase ruptures. Well above the critical micelle concentration, transitions between regimes occur at characteristic ratios of gravitational and initial surface tension gradient stresses; transitions shift when surfactant dilution during spreading weakens the stress before the completion of the spreading event. Drop contents travel with the ridge, but dewetting hinders transport.

4.
Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp ; 546: 266-275, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416264

RESUMO

Traditionally, an interface is defined as a boundary between immiscible phases. However, previous work has shown that even when two fluids are completely miscible, they maintain a detectable "effective interface" for long times. Miscible interfaces have been studied in various systems of two fluids with a single boundary between them. However, this work has not extended to the three-phase system of a fluid droplet placed on top of a miscible pool. We show that these three-phase systems obey the same wetting conditions as immiscible systems, and that their drop shapes obey the Augmented Young-Laplace Equation. Over time, the miscible interface diffuses and the shape of the drop evolves. We place 2-microliter drops of water atop miscible poly(acrylamide) solutions. The drop is completely wetted by the subphase, and then remains detectable beneath the surface for many minutes. An initial effective interfacial tension can be approximated to be on the order of 0.5 mN/m using the capillary number. Water and poly(acrylamide) are completely miscible in all concentrations, and yet, when viewed from the side, the drop maintains a capillary shape. Study of this behavior is important to the understanding of effective interfaces between miscible polymer phases, which are pervasive in nature.

5.
Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci ; 36: 58-69, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147429

RESUMO

Understanding the fundamentals of surface transport on thin viscous films has important application in pulmonary drug delivery. The human lung contains a large-area interface between its complex fluid lining and inhaled air. Marangoni flows driven by surface tension gradients along this interface would promote enhanced distribution of inhaled therapeutics by carrying them from where they are deposited in the upper airways, along the fluid interface to deeper regions of the lung. Motivated by the potential to improve therapies for acute and chronic lung diseases, we review recent progress in modeling and experimental studies of Marangoni transport induced by the deposition of surfactant-containing microliter drops and liquid aerosols (picoliter drops) onto a fluid interface. The roles of key system variables are identified, including surfactant solubility, drop miscibility with the subphase, and the thickness, composition and surface properties of the subphase liquid. Of particular interest is the unanticipated but crucial role of aerosol processing to achieve Marangoni transport via phospholipid vesicle dispersions, which are likely candidates for a biocompatible delivery system. Progress in this field has the potential to not only improve outcomes in patients with chronic and acute lung diseases, but also to further our understanding of surface transport in complex systems.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 527: 151-158, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793169

RESUMO

Fluid movement in microfluidic devices, porous media, and textured surfaces involves coupled flows over the faces and corners of the media. Spontaneous wetting of simple grooved surfaces provides a model system to probe these flows. This numerical study investigates the spontaneous rise of a liquid in an array of open rectangular channels under gravity, using the Volume-of-Fluid method with adaptive mesh refinement. The rise is characterized by the meniscus height at the channel center, outer face and the interior and exterior corners. At lower contact angles and higher channel aspect ratios, the statics and dynamics of the rise in the channel center show little deviation with the classical model for capillarity, which ignores the existence of corners. For contact angles smaller than 45°, rivulets are formed in the interior corners and a cusp at the exterior corner. The rivulets at long times obey the one-third power law in time, with a weak dependence on the geometry. The cusp behaviour at the exterior corner transforms into a smooth meniscus when the capillary force is higher in the channel, even for contact angles smaller than 45°. The width of the outer face does not influence the capillary rise inside the channel, and the channel size does not influence the rise on the outer face.

7.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 31(4): 212-220, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary lung infections are the primary cause of morbidity associated with cystic fibrosis lung disease. Aerosolized antibiotic inhalation is potentially advantageous but has limited effectiveness due to altered airway aerodynamics and deposition patterns that limit drug access to infected regions. One potential strategy to better reach infected areas is to formulate aerosols with surfactants that induce surface tension gradients and drive postdeposition drug dispersal via Marangoni transport along the airway surface liquid (ASL). Since this relies on surfactant-induced surface tension reduction, the presence of endogenous lipid monolayers may hinder drug dispersal performance. METHODS: Tobramycin solutions were formulated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major component of endogenous pulmonary surfactant, to drive postdeposition aerosol dispersal across a model ASL based on a liquid layer or "subphase" of aqueous porcine gastric mucin (PGM) solution with predeposited DPPC monolayers to mimic the endogenous surfactant. In vitro subphase samples were collected from regions outside the aerosol deposition zone and assayed for tobramycin concentration using a closed enzyme donor immunoassay. The motion of a tracking bead across the subphase surface and the corresponding decrease in surface tension on aerosol deposition were tracked both with and without a predeposited DPPC monolayer. The surface tension/area isotherm for DPPC on PGM solution subphase was measured to aid in the interpretation of the tobramycin dispersal behavior. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Transport of tobramycin away from the deposition region occurs in aerosols formulated with DPPC whether or not predeposited lipid is present, and tobramycin concentrations are similar in both cases across biologically relevant length scales (∼8 cm). When DPPC is deposited from an aerosol, it induces ultralow surface tensions (<5 mN/m), which drive Marangoni flows, even in the presence of a dense background layer of DPPC. Therefore, aerosolized phospholipids, such as DPPC, will likely be effective spreading agents in the human lung.


Assuntos
1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Tobramicina/farmacocinética , Aerossóis , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Mucinas/química , Tensão Superficial , Suínos , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem
8.
Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp ; 521: 49-60, 2017 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479673

RESUMO

Marangoni flows offer an interesting and useful means to transport particles at fluid interfaces with potential applications such as dry powder pulmonary drug delivery. In this article, we investigate the transport of partially wetted particles at a liquid/vapor interface under the influence of Marangoni flows driven by gradients in the surface excess concentration of surfactants. We deposit a microliter drop of soluble (sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous solution) surfactant solution or pure insoluble liquid (oleic acid) surfactant on a water subphase and observe the transport of a pre-deposited particle. Following the previous observation by Wang et al. [1] that a surfactant front rapidly advances ahead of the deposited drop contact line initiates particle motion but then moves beyond the particle, we now characterize the two dominant, time- and position-dependent forces acting on the moving particle: 1) a surface tension force acting on the three-phase contact line around the particle periphery due to the surface tension gradient at the liquid/vapor interface which always accelerates the particle and 2) a viscous force acting on the immersed surface area of the particle which accelerates or decelerates the particle depending on the difference in the velocities of the liquid and particle. We find that the particle velocity evolves over time in two regimes. In the acceleration regime, the net force on the particle acts in the direction of particle motion, and the particle quickly accelerates and reaches a maximum velocity. In the deceleration regime, the net force on the particle reverses and the particle decelerates gradually and stops. We identify the parameters that affect the two forces acting on the particle, including the initial particle position relative to the surfactant drop, particle diameter, particle wettability, subphase thickness, and surfactant solubility. We systematically vary these parameters and probe the spatial and temporal evolution of the two forces acting on the particle as it moves along its trajectory in both regimes. We find that a larger particle always lags behind the smaller particle when placed at an equal initial distance from the drop. Similarly, particles more deeply engulfed in the subphase lag behind those less deeply engulfed. Further, the extent of particle transport is reduced as the subphase thickness decreases, due to the larger velocity gradients in the subphase recirculation flows.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 484: 270-278, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27623189

RESUMO

It has long been known that deposited drops of surfactant solution induce Marangoni flows at air-liquid interfaces. These surfactant drops create a surface tension gradient, which causes an outward flow at the fluid interface. We show that aqueous phospholipid dispersions may be used for this same purpose. In aqueous dispersions, phospholipids aggregate into vesicles that are not surface-active; therefore, drops of these dispersions do not initiate Marangoni flow. However, aerosolization of these dispersions disrupts the vesicles, allowing access to the surface-active monomers within. These lipid monomers do have the ability to induce Marangoni flow. We hypothesize that monomers released from broken vesicles adsorb on the surfaces of individual aerosol droplets and then create localized surface tension reduction upon droplet deposition. Deposition of lipid monomers via aerosolization produces surface tensions as low as 1mN/m on water. In addition, aerosolized lipid deposition also drives Marangoni flow on entangled polymer solution subphases with low initial surface tensions (∼34mN/m). The fact that aerosolization of phospholipids naturally found within pulmonary surfactant can drive Marangoni flows on low surface tension liquids suggests that aerosolized lipids may be used to promote uniform pulmonary drug delivery without the need for exogenous spreading agents.


Assuntos
1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Dimiristoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Mucinas/química , Surfactantes Pulmonares/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Aerossóis , Animais , Transição de Fase , Reologia , Soluções , Tensão Superficial , Suínos , Água/química
10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 467: 105-114, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26775240

RESUMO

Complexation of surfactants and oppositely charged polyelectrolytes is expected to alter Marangoni transport at a fluid interface compared to either single component system due to altered interfacial tension isotherms and mass transfer rates as well as adsorption irreversibility effects. We investigate Marangoni transport at the oil/water interface by passing mixtures of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic polyelectrolyte poly(3-(2-methylpropionamide)propyl) trimethylammonium chloride-acrylamide (poly[AM-MAPTAC]), or rinsing solutions, over an oil/water interface in a radial, stagnation point flow. The displacements of adsorbed tracer particles are recorded through optical microscopy. The net displacement, defined as the sum of the displacements occurring during the adsorption and desorption stages of one application and rinsing cycle, is up to 10 times greater for complexing surfactant/polymer mixtures compared to either single component system. The enhanced net displacement is largely determined by the enhanced transport upon adsorption, while the reverse displacement that would normally occur upon rinsing is partially suppressed by partially irreversible polymer adsorption at the oil/water interface. In addition to effects of complexation on interfacial tension gradient induced flow, complexation effects on the bulk, and possibly interfacial, viscosity also influence the interfacial transport.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 462: 75-87, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26433480

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Interfacial tension gradients at a liquid/liquid interface drive Marangoni flows. When colloidal particles are adsorbed to an interface in systems with spatial and temporal gradients of surfactant concentration, these interfacial flows can be potentially significant contributors to the direction and rate of particle transport. EXPERIMENTS: In this work, we use optical microscopy to measure the interfacial velocities of 5µm diameter polystyrene latex particles adsorbed at an oil/water interface, using olive oil to represent polar oils often encountered in cleaning applications. FINDINGS: On surfactant adsorption the maximum interfacial velocity scales linearly with bulk surfactant concentration, even for concentrations exceeding the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The maximum interfacial velocity weakly decreases with increasing flow rate, but it varies non-monotonically with the radial distance from the inlet. Upon surfactant desorption into a rinse solution, the maximum velocity increases with increasing concentration of the original surfactant solution, but only up to a plateau near the CMC. These experimental trends are well-described by a convective-diffusion model for surfactant transport to or from the liquid/liquid interface coupled with Langmuir-type adsorption, using a constitutive relation between the interfacial tension gradient and interfacial velocity based on the interfacial tangential stress jump.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 462: 88-99, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26433481

RESUMO

The equilibrium configuration of compound sessile drops has been calculated previously in the absence of gravity. Using the Laplace equations, we establish seven dimensionless parameters describing the axisymmetric configuration in the presence of gravity. The equilibrium axisymmetric configuration can be either stable or unstable depending on the fluid properties. A stability criterion is established by calculating forces on a perturbed Laplacian shape. In the zero Bond number limit, the stability criterion depends on the density ratio, two ratios of interfacial tensions, the volume ratio of the two drops, and the contact angle. We use Surface Evolver to examine the stability of compound sessile drops at small and large Bond numbers and compare with the zero Bond number approximation. Experimentally, we realize a stable axisymmetric compound sessile drop in air, where the buoyancy force exerted by the air is negligible. Finally, using a pair of fluids in which the density ratio can be tuned nearly independently of the interfacial tensions, the stability transition is verified for the axisymmetric configuration. Even though the perturbations are different for the theory, simulations and experiments, both simulations and experiments agree closely with the zero Bond number approximation, exhibiting a small discrepancy at large Bond number.

13.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 28(5): 394-405, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25757067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with the accumulation of dehydrated mucus in the pulmonary airways. This alters ventilation and aerosol deposition patterns in ways that limit drug delivery to peripheral lung regions. We investigated the use of surfactant-based, self-dispersing aerosol carriers that produce surface tension gradients to drive two-dimensional transport of aerosolized medications via Marangoni flows after deposition on the airway surface liquid (ASL). We considered the post-deposition spreading of individual aerosol droplets and two-dimensional expansion of a field of aerosol droplets, when deposited at low fluxes that are representative of aerosol deposition in the small airways. METHODS: We used physically entangled aqueous solutions of poly(acrylamide) or porcine gastric mucin as simple ASL mimics that adequately capture the full miscibility but slow penetration of entangled macromolecular chains of the ASL into the deposited drop. Surfactant formulations were prepared with aqueous solutions of nonionic tyloxapol or FS-3100 fluorosurfactant. Fluorescein dye served as a model "drug" tracer and to visualize the extent of post-deposition spreading. RESULTS: The surfactants not only enhanced post-deposition spreading of individual aerosol droplets due to localized Marangoni stresses, as previously observed with macroscopic drops, but they also produced large-scale Marangoni stresses that caused the deposited aerosol fields to expand into initially unexposed regions of the subphase. We show that the latter is the main mechanism for spreading drug over large distances when aerosol is deposited at low fluxes representative of the small airways. The large scale convective expansion of the aerosol field drives the tracer (drug mimic) over areas that would cover an entire airway generation or more, in peripheral airways, where sub-monolayer droplet deposition is expected during aerosol inhalation. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that aerosolized surfactant formulations may provide the means to maximize deposited drug uniformity in and access to small airways.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Pulmão/metabolismo , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Mucinas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 28(5): 382-93, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25723759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerosol drug delivery is a viable option for treating diseased airways, but airway obstructions associated with diseases such as cystic fibrosis cause non-uniform drug distribution and limit efficacy. Marangoni stresses produced by surfactant addition to aerosol formulations may enhance delivery uniformity by post-deposition spreading of medications over the airway surface, improving access to poorly ventilated regions. We examine the roles of different variables affecting the maximum post-deposition spreading of a dye (drug mimic). METHODS: Entangled aqueous solutions of either poly(acrylamide) (PA) or porcine gastric mucin (PGM) serve as airway surface liquid (ASL) mimicking subphases for in vitro models of aerosol deposition. Measured aerosol deposition fluxes indicate that the experimental delivery conditions are representative of aerosol delivery to the conducting airways. Post-deposition spreading beyond the locale of direct aerosol deposition is tracked by fluorescence microscopy. Aqueous aerosols formulated with either nonionic surfactant (tyloxapol) or fluorosurfactant (FS-3100) are compared with surfactant-free control aerosols. RESULTS: Significant enhancement of post-deposition spreading is observed with surfactant solutions relative to surfactant-free control solutions, provided the surfactant solution surface tension is less than that of the subphase. Amongst the variables considered--surfactant concentration, aerosol flow-rate, total deposited volume, time of delivery, and total deposited surfactant mass--surfactant mass is the primary predictor of maximum spread distance. This dependence is also observed for solutions deposited as a single, microliter-scale drop with a volume comparable to the total volume of deposited aerosol. CONCLUSIONS: Marangoni stress-assisted spreading after surfactant-laden aerosol deposition at high fluxes on a complex fluid subphase is capable of driving aerosol contents over significantly greater distances compared to surfactant-free controls. Total delivered surfactant mass is the primary determinant of the extent of spreading, suggesting a great potential to extend the reach of aerosolized medication in partially obstructed airways via a purely physical mechanism.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Pulmão/metabolismo , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(12): 5542-9, 2013 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705869

RESUMO

Motivated by the possibility of enhancing aerosol drug delivery to mucus-obstructed lungs, the spreading of a drop of aqueous surfactant solution on a physically entangled aqueous poly(acrylamide) solution subphase that mimics lung airway surface liquid was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as the surfactant. To visualize spreading of the drop and mimic the inclusion of a drug substance, fluorescein, a hydrophilic and non-surface-active dye, was added to the surfactant solution. The spreading progresses through a series of events. Marangoni stresses initiate the convective spreading of the drop. Simultaneously, surfactant escapes across the drop's contact line within a second of deposition and causes a change in subphase surface tension outside the drop on the order of 1 mN/m. Convective spreading of the drop ends within 2-3 s of drop deposition, when a new interfacial tension balance is achieved. Surfactant escape depletes the drop of surfactant, and the residual drop takes the form of a static lens of nonzero contact angle. On longer time scales, the surfactant dissolves into the subphase. The lens formed by the water in the deposited drop persists for as long as 3 min after the convective spreading process ends due to the long diffusional time scales associated with the underlying entangled polymer solution. The persistence of the lens suggests that the drop phase behaves as if it were immiscible with the subphase during this time period. Whereas surfactant escapes the spreading drop and advances on the subphase/vapor interface, hydrophilic dye molecules in the drop do not escape but remain with the drop throughout the convective spreading. The quasi-immiscible nature of the spreading event suggests that the chemical properties of the surfactant and subphase are much less important than their physical properties, consistent with prior qualitative studies of spreading of different types of surfactants on entangled polymer subphases: the selection of surfactant for pulmonary delivery applications may be limited only by physical and toxicological considerations. Further, the escape of surfactant from individual drops may provide an additional spreading mechanism in the lung, as hydrodynamic and/or surface pressure repulsions may drive individual droplets apart after deposition.


Assuntos
Polímeros/química , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Tensoativos/química , Fluoresceína/química , Hidrodinâmica , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensão Superficial , Água/química
16.
Langmuir ; 28(43): 15212-21, 2012 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23039250

RESUMO

We investigated the phenomenon of incomplete wetting of a high-energy liquid subphase by drops of pure amphiphilic molecules as well as drops of amphiphile solutions that are immiscible with the subphase. We show that amphiphiles escape across the contact line of the drop, move on the subphase/vapor interface, and form a submonolayer or full monolayer external to the drop. If this monolayer is sufficiently dense, then it can reduce the surface tension of the subphase, raise the contact angle of the drop, and prevent the drop from fully wetting the subphase. This phenomenon is called autophobing and has been extensively studied on solid substrates. For the liquid subphase studied here, we measure the surface tensions of the three relevant interfaces before and after the drop is deposited. The measured surface tension external to the drop shows that amphiphiles can move across the contact line and form a monolayer outside of the drop. In some cases, at equilibrium, the monolayer is in a sufficiently packed state to create the nonwetting condition. In other cases, at equilibrium the monolayer density is insufficient to lower the surface tension enough to achieve the nonwetting condition. Unlike on solid substrates where the formation of the monolayer external to the drop is kinetically hindered, the amphiphiles can move rapidly across the liquid subphase by Marangoni-driven surface transport, and local equilibrium is achieved. However, because the amphiphile inventory and subphase area are limited, the achievement of autophobing on a liquid subphase depends not only on the instrinsic subphase/amphiphile interaction but also on the total amphiphile inventory and area of the liquid subphase.


Assuntos
Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Tensão Superficial , Volatilização
17.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 25(5): 290-6, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22393908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerodynamic forces provide the primary means of distributing aerosol medications within the lungs. Partial airway obstructions can limit both air flow and aerosol penetration into diseased zones. We hypothesize that low surface tension additives may help to disperse aerosol medications after deposition in the airways, improving dose uniformity and drug delivery to underventilated regions. To test this, we performed a pilot scintigraphy study of surfactant and saline deposition and postdeposition dispersion. METHODS: Because inhaled antibiotics for cystic fibrosis provide an example of where self-dispersing medications may be useful, we administered calfactant and saline aerosols with added Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC; 100 nm filtered) on different days in randomized order to eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects (average FEV(1)%, p=85 ± 12%). Nebulized delivery was matched (similar aerosol sizes and volume delivery rates, fixed breathing patterns). Tc-SC distribution in the lungs was imaged continuously for 30 min after delivery. RESULTS: Both aerosols were well tolerated. Aerosol distribution was mostly peripheral (58/42%) and initially similar for saline and surfactant. Changes in whole lung counts after 30 min were also similar. Peripheral lung activity decreased more rapidly on average with calfactant though the difference versus saline was not statistically significant. Central to peripheral count ratio decreased with saline and increased with calfactant and c/p changes approached significance (-0.05 ± 0.16 vs. 0.10 ± 0.10; p=0.07 Wilcoxon). CONCLUSIONS: Our results lack statistical significance, but suggest that inhaled calfactant increased peripheral clearance, due to either surfactant-based dispersion or mucociliary effects. Further studies are needed to define the potential for low surface tension carriers to improve drug delivery.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Aerossóis , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Tamanho da Partícula , Projetos Piloto , Cintilografia , Coloide de Enxofre Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m/química , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 45(3): 592-9, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21239602

RESUMO

In the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, the airway surface liquid (ASL) volume is depleted, impairing mucus clearance from the lung and leading to chronic airway infection and obstruction. Several therapeutics have been developed that aim to restore normal airway surface hydration to the CF airway, yet preclinical evaluation of these agents is hindered by the paucity of methods available to directly measure the ASL. Therefore, we sought to develop a straightforward approach to measure the ASL volume that would serve as the basis for a standardized method to assess mucosal hydration using readily available resources. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells cultured at an air-liquid interface develop a liquid meniscus at the edge of the culture. We hypothesized that the size of the fluid meniscus is determined by the ASL volume, and could be measured as an index of the epithelial surface hydration status. A simple method was developed to measure the volume of fluid present in meniscus by imaging the refraction of light at the ASL interface with the culture wall using low-magnification microscopy. Using this method, we found that primary CF HBE cells had a reduced ASL volume compared with non-CF HBE cells, and that known modulators of ASL volume caused the predicted responses. Thus, we have demonstrated that this method can detect physiologically relevant changes in the ASL volume, and propose that this novel approach may be used to rapidly assess the effects of airway hydration therapies in high-throughput screening assays.


Assuntos
Brônquios/citologia , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Microscopia/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , Humanos , Íons , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Mol Pharm ; 8(2): 387-94, 2011 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21250745

RESUMO

Surface tension gradient driven, or "Marangoni", flow can be used to move exogenous fluid, either surfactant dispersions or drug carrying formulations, through the lung. In this paper, we investigate the spreading of aqueous solutions of water-soluble surfactants over entangled, aqueous mucin solutions that mimic the airway surface liquid of the lung. We measure the movement of the formulation by incorporating dyes into the formulation while we measure surface flows of the mucin solution subphase using tracer particles. Surface tension forces and/or Marangoni stresses initiate a convective spreading flow over this rheologically complex subphase. As expected, when the concentration of surfactant is reduced until its surface tension is above that of the mucin solution, the convective spreading does not occur. The convective spreading front moves ahead of the drop containing the formulation. Convective spreading ends with the solution confined to a well-defined static area which must be governed by a surface tension balance. Further motion of the spread solution progresses by much slower diffusive processes. Spreading behaviors are qualitatively similar for formulations based on anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactants, containing either hydrophilic or hydrophobic dyes, on mucin as well as on other entangled aqueous polymer solution subphases. This independence of qualitative spreading behaviors from the chemistry of the surfactant and subphase indicates that there is little chemical interaction between the formulation and the subphase during the spreading process. The spreading and final solution distributions are controlled by capillary and hydrodynamic phenomena and not by specific chemical interactions among the components of the system. It is suggested that capillary forces and Marangoni flows driven by soluble surfactants may thereby enhance the uniformity of drug delivery to diseased lungs.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucinas/química , Polímeros/química , Tensoativos/química , Humanos , Tensão Superficial
20.
Langmuir ; 26(16): 13210-5, 2010 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20695560

RESUMO

The effect of polymer functionalization on the two-dimensional (2-D) assembly of uniform as well as highly asymmetric binary colloidal mixtures with both neutral and incompatible polymer grafts is presented. In ordered assemblies of uniform particle brush systems, the observed size-segregation is analogous to that of hard sphere colloidal systems, suggesting that lateral capillary interactions are responsible for the crystal nucleation in the early stages of assembly formation. Structure formation in binary blends of asymmetric particle brush systems is found to be strongly influenced by three major energetic contributions, that is, the interfacial energies associated with the particle brush/air boundaries, the interfacial energies between the distinct brush components, as well as the elastic energy associated with the stretching of the polymer-brush to fill the interstitial regions within locally ordered particle arrays. Our results demonstrate the relevance of capillary interactions in soft particle brush systems but also highlight distinctive differences in the order formation as compared to hard sphere colloidal systems. In particular, the compliant response of grafted polymer chains is shown to promote phase separation in binary blends of incompatible and asymmetric colloidal systems.

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