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2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684554

RESUMO

Infertility is the condition of about 15% of couples that cannot get a conception after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. In females, the reduced reproductive capacity underlies the most varied causes. Dietary supplements (DS) might be used to improve the pregnancy rate and a wide range of DS are proposed today to support female fertility. Although many authors demonstrated the positive effect of some of these products, the real efficacy of this approach is still debated. In order to evaluate the potential efficacy of DS for female infertility, we analysed the products marketed in Italy, using an original approach. A review of literature was performed to evaluate the effect of nutraceuticals on various female reproductive outcomes and to detect the minimal effective daily dose (mED) able to improve at least one of these. Thereafter, we conceived a formula to classify the expected efficacy of each DS. Each DS was scored and included into three classes of expected efficacy: higher, lower, and none. Ten out of 24 supplements (41.7%) resulted in the higher and 8 (34.3%) in the lower efficacy group, the remaining 6 DS (25.0%) were expected to have no efficacy. DS marketed in Italy are usually blends of many substances that are frequently employed at a negligible dose or without any evidence of efficacy. These findings raise serious doubt about the potential effectiveness of most commercial DS for female infertility.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639175

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility. Genetic contribution is one of the main causes of primary osteoporosis; therefore, both genders are affected by this skeletal disorder. Nonetheless, osteoporosis in men has received little attention, thus being underestimated and undertreated. The aim of this study was to identify novel genetic variants in a cohort of 128 males with idiopathic low bone mass using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel including genes whose mutations could result in reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Genetic analysis detected in eleven patients ten rare heterozygous variants within the LRP5 gene, which were categorized as VUS (variant of uncertain significance), likely pathogenic and benign variants according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. Protein structural and Bayesian analysis performed on identified LRP5 variants pointed out p.R1036Q and p.R1135C as pathogenic, therefore suggesting the likely association of these two variants with the low bone mass phenotype. In conclusion, this study expands our understanding on the importance of a functional LRP5 protein in bone formation and highlights the necessity to sequence this gene in subjects with idiopathic low BMD.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Mutação , Osteoporose/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/genética , Fenótipo
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 632927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539566

RESUMO

Perfluoro-alkyl substances (PFAS) are chemical pollutants with prevalent stability and environmental persistence. Exposure to PFAS, particularly perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA), has been associated with increased diabetes-related cardiovascular mortality in subjects residing areas of high environmental contamination, however the exact pathogenic mechanism remains elusive. Here we used HepG2 cells, an in vitro model of human hepatocyte, to investigate the possible role of PFOA exposure in the alteration of hepatic glucose metabolism. HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 hours to PFOA at increasing concentration from 0 to 1000 ng/mL and then stimulated with 100 nm Insulin (Ins). The consequent effect on glycogen synthesis, glucose uptake and Glut-4 glucose transporter translocation was then evaluated by, respectively, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake assay and immunofluorescence. Exposure to PFOA was associated with reduced glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake, at concentration equal or greater than, respectively, 0,1 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, with parallel impaired membrane translocation of Glut-4 upon Ins stimulation. Western blot analysis showed early uncoupling of Insulin Receptor (InsR) activation from the downstream Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation. Computational docking analysis disclosed the possible stabilizing effect of PFOA on the complex between InsR and GM3 ganglioside, previously shown to be associated with the low grade chronic inflammation-related insulin resistance. Consistently, long term treatment with glucosyl-ceramide synthase inhibitor PDMP was able to largely restore glycogen synthesis, glucose uptake and Glut-4 translocation upon Ins stimulation in HepG2 exposed to PFOA. Our data support a novel pathogenic mechanism linking exposure to PFOA to derangement of hepatocyte cell metabolism.

5.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 25(4): 653-656, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415134

RESUMO

TESE-ICSI (testicular sperm extraction associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection) represents a technique to attain pregnancy in couples with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and other unlikely situations. Because of the poor pregnancy outcomes obtained by this procedure, we need new sperm selection techniques to improve the livebirth rate of NOA patients. Here we describe a successful micro TESE-ICSI cycle performed with sperm selected through high magnification and polarized light microscopy in a couple with two previous ICSI failures.

6.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

7.
Andrology ; 9(5): 1490-1498, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and transrectal ultrasonography provide crucial information about the clinical status of testes and male accessory glands. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of ultrasound in the evaluation of infertile males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1120 records from infertile men were retrospectively evaluated (from January 2016 up to June 2020). Data on physical examination, semen analysis, sperm culture, scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and transrectal ultrasonography, as well as sex hormones were analyzed. Among them, 238 reports from oligozoospermic/azoospermic infertile patients (P) fulfilling the inclusion criteria were considered for data analysis. Patients were subdivided into two groups according to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values (Pa with FSH < 8 U/L and Pb with FSH ≥ 8 U/L). Sixty-three fertile volunteers (mean ± SD years) were enrolled as controls (C). RESULTS: A higher prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities was recorded in P compared to C. Pb group had significantly lower bitesticular volume compared to Pa and C. Pa had a higher prevalence of transrectal ultrasonography abnormalities than Pb (69.9% vs. 38.4%), whereas Pb had a higher prevalence of abnormalities at scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography (60.0% vs. 28.3%, both p < 0.01). Bitesticular volume was inversely proportional to the number of altered seminal parameters and able to predict gonadotropin levels. A bitesticular volume <17 cc was associated with a higher risk of azoospermia (odds ratio = 1.799). Intratesticular vascularization was inversely correlated with gonadotropin levels and directly correlated with sperm count. A higher prevalence of prostate and seminal vesicle alterations was detected in patients and in Pa group, when compared with Pb group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Ultrasound abnormalities are correlated with seminal parameters and may guide the clinician in the diagnostic workflow of male infertility, suggesting spermatogenesis impairment or genital tract obstructions.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073338

RESUMO

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent sexual disorder in adult men. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal disorder and a frequent cause of male hypogonadism. Psychological and cognitive aspects are quite typical in KS and have been linked to ED, while the role of testosterone (T) levels in sexual function of KS subjects has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of hormonal disturbances in erectile function of subjects with KS. We conducted a retrospective study involving 52 Klinefelter patients newly diagnosed who never received androgen replacing therapy. All the subjects underwent medical history, accurate physical examination, and blood tests. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF-EF) score correlated negatively with estradiol/testosterone ratio (E2/T); this correlation remained statistically significant after correction for age (ρ -0.320 p = 0.018). A multiple linear regression analysis identified age and E2/T as the main predictors of IIEF-EF score (R2 0.169 F = 3.848 p = 0.008). Our findings corroborate previous KS data obtained in the general population showing an association between higher E2/T ratio and impaired erectile function. Larger studies are required to better elucidate the pathophysiology of ED in patients with KS.

10.
Sex Med ; 9(3): 100347, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) is a burdensome condition, associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) represents the maximum pulse velocity in the cavernous artery measured by a penile color doppler ultrasonography (PCDU) during a pharmacologically induced erection and is considered a reliable parameter for the diagnosis of vascular ED. However, the cut-off value of standard PSV (30 cm/s) provides high sensitivity only in the diagnosis of advanced arteriogenic disease. Thus, an age-adjusted PSV (6.73 + 0.7 x age cm/s) has been proposed to offer a more accurate diagnosis of vascular ED. AIM: In this study it was aimed to answer the following question: "Is there any positive association between indexes of vascular erectile dysfunction and cardiorespiratory fitness?" MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND METHODS: 25 patients with a medical history of ED (median age 55.3 years) underwent PCDU after pharmacological stimulation. Subsequently, a functional evaluation with ECG-monitored, incremental, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed. RESULTS: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak oxygen uptake per body weight (VO2 peak/kg) and Watt/kg correlated with standard PSV, even when corrected for age and BMI (p < 0.05). No differences emerged in cardiopulmonary fitness between pathological and healthy patients (4 vs 21) identified using the standard PSV cut-off. Conversely, the age-adjusted PSV cut-off identified a greater number of patients as pathological (18 vs 7), presenting a significantly lower cardiopulmonary fitness, exercise capacity and efficiency when compared to patients with normal age-adjusted PSV (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Data showed an age and BMI independent association between vascular disfunction of cavernous artery and cardiopulmonary fitness, a known solid predictor of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. Moreover, the age-adjusted PSV better identified a subgroup of patients with vascular ED presenting impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and thus increased cardiovascular risk. De Rocco Ponce M, Vecchiato M, Neunhaeuserer D, et al. Association Between Penile Color Doppler Ultrasonography and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Patients With Vascular Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2021;9:100347.

11.
J Sex Med ; 18(6): 1053-1064, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only few studies have assessed sexual dysfunction in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). AIM: To define pooled prevalence estimates and correlates of erectile dysfunction (ED) and decreased libido (DL) in KS. METHODS: A thorough search of Medline, Embase and Web of Science was performed to identify suitable studies. Quality of the articles was scored using the Assessment Tool for Prevalence Studies. Data were combined using random effect models and the between-studies heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochrane's Q and I2. The sources of heterogeneity were investigated by meta-regression and sub-group analyses. Funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation and trim-and-fill test were used to assess publication bias. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The pooled prevalence of ED and DL in KS as well as 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from the proportion of cases of sexual dysfunction and the sample size. Variables that could affect the estimates were identified by linear meta-regression models. RESULTS: Sixteen studies included collectively gave information about ED and DL in 482 and 368 KS men, respectively, resulting in a pooled prevalence of 28% (95% CI: 19%-36%) for ED and 51% (95% CI: 36%-66%) for DL, with a large heterogeneity. The trim-and-fill adjustment for publication bias produced a negligible effect on the pooled estimates. At the meta-regression analyses, a higher prevalence of ED was significantly associated with an older age but not with lower testosterone levels. In series with a mean age >35 years, the ED prevalence estimate increased up to 38% (95% CI: 31%-44%) with no heterogeneity (I2=0.0%, P=0.6). On the contrary, the prevalence of DL increased significantly as testosterone levels decreased, without a significant relationship with age. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: While DL would largely reflect an androgen deficiency, in older men with KS, erectile function should be assessed irrespective of testosterone levels. STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: This is the first meta-analysis defining pooled prevalence estimates and correlates of ED and DL in KS. Nevertheless, caution is required when interpreting results, due to the high risk of bias in many studies, as well as the dearth of data about psychosocial and/or psychosexological variables and age at the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: ED and DL represent common clinical complaints in KS. While the prevalence of ED would increase with age, DL gets more common as serum testosterone decreases. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanism(s) underlying the age-dependent increase in the prevalence of ED, apparently unrelated to the androgenic status. A Barbonetti, S D'Andrea, W Vena, et al. Erectile Dysfunction and Decreased Libido in Klinefelter Syndrome: A Prevalence Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Study. J Sex Med 2021;18:1054-1064.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Síndrome de Klinefelter , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Libido , Masculino , Ereção Peniana , Prevalência
12.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(706): e372-e380, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in male survivors of cancer across cancer types has not been systematically analysed. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of ED in all types of cancer and identify characteristics associated with ED in survivors of cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) of cross-sectional studies. METHOD: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were searched, targeting reports published from inception to 1 February 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting prevalence of ED in male patients with cancer and using a validated tool for detection of ED were included. A random-effects MA model was used to pool prevalence of ED as absolute estimates at three different stages, that is, 'healthy', 'at diagnosis', and 'after treatment'. A univariate MA regression including the three-level group variable as the only independent variable was used to assess the difference in ED prevalence across the three groups. Further MAs were conducted for studies involving patients at diagnosis and after treatment, and statistical inferences were made with setting for multiple testing controlling for a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05. RESULTS: In total, 1301 studies were assessed for inclusion. Of these, 141 were potentially eligible and subsequently scrutinised in full text. Finally, 43 studies were included with a total of 13 148 participants. Overall, pooled data of the included studies showed an ED prevalence of 40.72% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.80 to 50.29) in patients with cancer, with prevalences of 28.60% (95% CI = 12.10 to 53.83) at time of diagnosis and 42.70% (95% CI = 32.97 to 53.03) after treatment, with significant difference between these two stages and across cancer locations, controlling for an FDR <0.05. CONCLUSION: Erectile dysfunction was particularly high in male survivors of cancer and was associated with cancer treatment, cancer site, and age.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Neoplasias , Estudos Transversais , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803867

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential channels-vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) regulates thermotaxis in sperm-oriented motility. We investigated the role of membrane cholesterol (Chol) on TRPV1-mediated human sperm migration. Semen samples were obtained from five normozoospemic healthy volunteers. Sperm membrane Chol content, quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, was modified by incubating cells with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (CD) or the complex between CD and Chol (CD:Chol). The effect on sperm migration on a 10 µM capsaicin gradient (CPS), a TRPV1 agonist, was then investigated. Motility parameters were evaluated by Sperm Class Analyser. Intracellular calcium concentration and acrosome reaction were measured by staining with calcium orange and FITC-conjugated anti-CD46 antibody, respectively. TRPV1-Chol interaction was modelled by computational molecular-modelling (MM). CD and CD:Chol, respectively, reduced and increased membrane Chol content in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a dose-dependent increase and reduction of sperm migration in a CPS gradient. MM confirmed a specific interaction of Chol with a TRPV1 domain that appeared precluded to the Chol epimer epicholesterol (Epi-Chol). Accordingly, CD:Epi-Chol was significantly less efficient than CD:Chol, in reducing sperm migration under CPS gradient. Chol inhibits TRPV1-mediated sperm function by directly interacting with a consensus sequence of the receptor.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Adulto , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Canais de Cátion TRPV/química
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806168

RESUMO

Telomeres are considered to be an internal biological clock, and their progressive shortening has been associated with the risk of age-related diseases and reproductive alterations. Over recent years, an increasing number of studies have focused on the association between telomere length and fertility, identifying sperm telomere length (STL) as a novel biomarker of male fertility. Although typically considered to be repeated DNA sequences, telomeres have recently been shown to also include a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) known as TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNAs). Interestingly, males with idiopathic infertility show reduced testicular TERRA expression, suggesting a link between TERRA and male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of seminal TERRA expression in embryo quality. To this end, STL and TERRA expression were quantified by Real Time qPCR in the semen of 35 men who underwent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and 30 fertile men. We found that TERRA expression in semen and STL was reduced in patients that underwent ART (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, TERRA and STL expressions were positively correlated (p = 0.010), and TERRA expression was positively associated with embryo quality (p < 0.001). These preliminary findings suggest a role for TERRA in the maintenance of sperm telomere integrity during gametogenesis, and for the first time, TERRA expression was found as a predictive factor for embryo quality in the setting of assisted reproduction.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Espermatozoides/citologia , Telômero/genética , Adulto , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 643539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763033

RESUMO

Infertility is an important health problem that affects up to 16% of couples worldwide. Male infertility is responsible for about 50% of the cases, and the various causes of male infertility may be classified in pre-testicular (for example hypothalamic diseases), testicular, and post-testicular (for example obstructive pathologies of seminal ducts) causes. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are increasingly widely accepted by researchers and clinicians as etiological factors of male infertility. In particular, several recent reports have documented the presence of HPV in seminal fluid and observed that sperm infection can also be present in sexually active asymptomatic male and infertile patients. In this review, we aimed to perform a systematic review of the whole body of literature exploring the impact of HPV infection in natural and assisted fertility outcomes, from both an experimental and a clinical point of view. Starting from in-vitro studies in animals up to in-vivo studies in humans, we aimed to study and evaluate the weight of this infection as a possible cause of idiopathic infertility in males with any known cause of conception failure.

16.
Asian J Androl ; 23(5): 462-467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753581

RESUMO

We analyzed the efficacy of penile low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) combined with cavernous artery disease (CAD). ED was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function, subdividing patients into mild and moderate/severe forms. CAD was assessed using penile color Doppler ultrasonography. Patients (n = 111) with a positive outcome after treatment, based upon the minimal clinically important difference of the International Index of ED, were followed up for 3 months and 6 months. We found a significant mean increase in the index of erectile function, with an overall improvement in hemodynamic parameters of the cavernous artery. In particular, 93.9% of the patients with mild ED without CAD responded to treatment and 72.7% resumed normal erectile function. Only 31.2% of the patients with moderate/severe ED and CAD responded to treatment, and none resumed normal erectile function. All patients with mild ED and no CAD maintained the effects of therapy after 3 months, while no patients with moderate/severe ED and CAD maintained the benefits of treatment after 3 months. Thus, patients with mild ED and no CAD have better and longer lasting responses to such treatment, with a higher probability of resuming normal erectile function than patients with moderate/severe ED and CAD.

17.
Eur Urol Focus ; 7(1): 205-213, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that infertile men, who are at increased risk for hypogonadism, metabolic derangements, and osteoporosis, have higher long-term morbidity and mortality than controls, but data are scarce and not conclusive. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether semen quality and reproductive function could represent a marker of general male health. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective study of 5177 individuals from a prospectively collected database of 11516 males of infertile couples who had semen analysis in a tertiary university center. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Of them, 5177 had all data for reproductive hormones, testis ultrasound, and biochemical determinations for glucose and lipid metabolism. Hypogonadism was defined as testosterone <10.5nmol/l and/or luteinizing hormone >9.4 IU/l. Individuals with a total sperm count of <10 million had genetic testing (karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions, and CFTR gene mutations) and those with hypogonadism underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density. Descriptive statistics and odds ratio (OR) calculation were used. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Men with a low sperm count (<39 million/ejaculate) are at a high risk of hypogonadism (OR 12.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2-14.6) and have higher body mass index, waist circumference, systolic pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index; lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.246, 95 CI 1.005-1.545). All data are worse in men with hypogonadism, but a low sperm count per se is associated with a poor metabolic parameter. Men with hypogonadism have lower bone mineral density and 51% prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia. Longitudinal studies are necessary to support these data. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study with comprehensive evaluation of semen quality and reproductive function, etiology and risk factor determination, and metabolic, cardiovascular, and osteoporosis risk assessment, performed in men referred for fertility evaluation. A low sperm count is associated with poorer metabolic, cardiovascular, and bone health. Hypogonadism is mainly involved in this association, but a low sperm count in itself is a marker of general health. PATIENT SUMMARY: This large study evaluated semen quality, reproductive function, and metabolic risk in men referred for fertility evaluation, and showed that a man's semen count is a marker of his general health. Men with low sperm counts are more likely than those with normal sperm counts to have greater body fat, higher blood pressure, higher "bad" (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and triglycerides, and lower "good" (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. They also have a higher frequency of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, a condition that can lead to diabetes. Men with low sperm counts had a 12-fold increased risk of hypogonadism or low testosterone levels, and half of them had osteoporosis or low bone mass. Fertility evaluation gives men the unique opportunity for health assessment and disease prevention.

18.
Andrology ; 9(1): 27-29, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452644

RESUMO

The coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic carries clinical, economic, and social burdens that are currently being disclosed. The key steps of virus life cycle have been recently clarified, highlighting the role of host type 2 angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 serine protease in virus-cell binding and entry, respectively. Importantly, major concerns derive from the androgen-dependent tissue-expression of both TMPRSS2 and ACE2, suggesting a differential clinical course of the infection between genders. In agreement with this model, available epidemiological data show that the disease in males has an higher risk to display an heavier pattern and associates with both an increased access to critical care unit and higher mortality rate. In this opinion article, available evidence linking the androgen activity with the gender differences observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection are discussed, hypothesizing possible therapeutic approaches in male based on the disruption of androgen signaling. On these bases, gender-specific recommendations for the management of male patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection are warmly suggested, in order to improve the clinical course of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Androgênios/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Andrology ; 9(1): 39-41, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent report of SARS-CoV-2 presence in semen samples of six patients, including two subjects who were recovering from the clinical disease, re-opened the discussion on possible male genital tract infection, virus shedding in semen, sexual transmission and safety of fertility treatments during the pandemic period. OBJECTIVES: To explore current data and hypothesis on the possible sites of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the male reproduction system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the current literature to describe: a) the evidences on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (AC2E) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) expression in the testes, accessory glands (including prostate) and the urinary tract; b) other coronaviruses' (SARS and MERS) ability to infect these sites. RESULTS: The co-expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes was reported in spermatogonial stem cells, elongated spermatids, in at least a small percentage of prostate hillock cells and in renal tubular cells. Testicular damage was described in autopsies of SARS patients, without evidence of the virus in the specimens. Prostate is a known infection site for MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in urines. DISCUSSION: There are still al lot of open questions on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the male reproductive tract. The presence of receptors is not a proof that the testis provides a site for viral infection and it is still unknown if SARS-CoV-2 is capable to pass the blood-testis barrier. The possibility of a prostate involvement has not been investigated yet: we have no data, but theoretically it cannot be excluded. Moreover, the RNA detected in semen could have been just a residual of urinary shedding. CONCLUSION: Opening our prospective beyond the testis could be the key to better understand the possibility of a semen-related viral transmission as well as COVID19 short and long-term effects on male reproductive function.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sêmen/virologia , Testículo/virologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Internalização do Vírus , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
20.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 19(1): 27-32, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026886

RESUMO

Introduction: In Italy, the transport of cryopreserved biological material is controlled by several Decrees (Legislative Decree No. 191/2007 and No. 16/2010 and Health Ministry's Decree of October 10, 2012). Given the nature of their applications, the transport of reproductive cells has peculiar quality and safety requirements that must be applied universally, minimizing the chance of error. To standardize the cross-border shipping procedure to meet the quality, traceability, and safety criteria for cells and tissues, it is appropriate to establish a unified process using the same tools, forms, and communication channels. Methods: A working group has been created by SIERR. This "FOCUS Group" was constituted by representatives from Italian-assisted reproductive technology centers and sperm banks who worked together to define joint procedural steps and create specific forms to support the movement of cryopreserved samples. Results: The FOCUS Group identified the critical steps in the communication procedures between Italian centers and created the related forms: patient authorization, request from the recipient center, critical checks carried out by both sending and recipient centers, start of samples transfer, collection, transport and taking responsibility of the biological material, acknowledgment of samples arrival, and acknowledgement of any adverse event that occurred. Discussion: Indications on shipping between tissue institutions and legal responsibilities are important points and a working protocol with shared transport forms has been defined. Standard Operating Procedures are necessary in light of the increasingly widespread movement of biological samples between the various countries, and represent a valid means of support for the patients who could have a higher awareness of safety and traceability during each stage of gamete transport.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Reprodução , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
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