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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South America pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a destructive pest of tomato that causes important losses worldwide. Breeding of resistant/tolerant tomato cultivars could be an effective strategy for T. absoluta management but, despite the economic importance of tomato, very limited information is available about its response to this treat. To elucidate the defense mechanisms to herbivore feeding a comparative analysis was performed between a tolerant and susceptible cultivated tomato at both morphological and transcriptome level to highlight constitutive leaf barriers, molecular and biochemical mechanisms to counter the effect of T. absoluta attack. RESULTS: The tolerant genotype showed an enhanced constitutive barrier possibly as result of the higher density of trichomes and increased inducible reactions upon mild infestation thanks to the activation/repression of key transcription factors regulating genes involved in cuticle formation and cell wall strength as well as of antinutritive enzymes, and genes involved in the production of chemical toxins and bioactive secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that tomato resilience to the South America pinworm is achieved by a combined strategy between constitutive and induced defense system. A well-orchestrated modulation of plant transcription regulation could ensure a trade-off between defense needs and fitness costs. Our finding can be further exploited for developing T. absoluta tolerant cultivars, acting as important component of integrated pest management strategy for more sustainable production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/parasitologia
2.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(5): 556-563, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating and harmful pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops causing up to 80-100% yield losses. A large arsenal of plant metabolites is induced by the leafminer feeding including defence compounds that could differ among varieties. OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolomic changes of different genotypes of tomato (tolerant "T", susceptible "S" and "F1" hybrid obtained between T and S) after exposition to T. absoluta. METHODOLOGY: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy followed by multivariate data analysis were performed to analyse the metabolic profiles of control and infested samples on three different tomato genotypes. RESULTS: Signals related to GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) were relatively much higher in all infested samples compared to the non-infested plants used as control. Infested T genotype samples were the most abundant in organic acids, including fatty acids and acyl sugars, chlorogenic acid, neo-chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid, indicating a clear link between the exposure to leafminer. Results also showed an increase of trigonelline in all tomato varieties after exposition to T. absoluta. CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach based on NMR spectroscopy followed by multivariate data analysis allowed for a detailed metabolite profile of plant defences, providing fundamental information for breeding programmes in plant crops.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metabolômica , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Genes de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Análise Multivariada
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217050

RESUMO

Following herbivore attacks, plants modify a blend of volatiles organic compounds (VOCs) released, resulting in the attraction of their antagonists. However, volatiles released constitutively may affect herbivores and natural enemies' fitness too. In tomato there is still a lack of information on the genetic bases responsible for the constitutive release of VOC involved in direct and indirect defenses. Here we studied the constitutive emissions related to the two most abundant sesquiterpene synthase genes expressed in tomato and their functional role in plant defense. Using an RNA interference approach, we silenced the expression of TPS9 and TPS12 genes and assessed the effect of this transformation on herbivores and parasitoids. We found that silenced plants displayed a different constitutive volatiles emission from controls, resulting in reduced attractiveness for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi and in an impaired development of Spodoptera exigua larvae. We discussed these data considering the transcriptional regulation of key-genes involved in the pathway of VOC metabolism. We provide several lines of evidence on the metabolic flux from terpenoids to phenylpropanoids. Our results shed more light on constitutive defenses mediated by plant volatiles and on the molecular mechanisms involved in their metabolic regulation.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia
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