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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360826

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a complex post-translational modification that conveys functional diversity to glycoconjugates. Cell surface glycosylation mediates several biological activities such as induction of the intracellular signaling pathway and pathogen recognition. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane N-glycans determine blood type and influence cell lifespan. Although several proteomic studies have been carried out, the glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins has not been systematically investigated. This work aims at exploring the human RBC N-glycome by high-sensitivity MALDI-MS techniques to outline a fingerprint of RBC N-glycans. To this purpose, the MALDI-TOF spectra of healthy subjects harboring different blood groups were acquired. Results showed the predominant occurrence of neutral and sialylated complex N-glycans with bisected N-acetylglucosamine and core- and/or antennary fucosylation. In the higher mass region, these species presented with multiple N-acetyllactosamine repeating units. Amongst the detected glycoforms, the presence of glycans bearing ABO(H) antigens allowed us to define a distinctive spectrum for each blood group. For the first time, advanced glycomic techniques have been applied to a comprehensive exploration of human RBC N-glycosylation, providing a new tool for the early detection of distinct glycome changes associated with disease conditions as well as for understanding the molecular recognition of pathogens.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glicômica , Polissacarídeos/análise , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Glicosilação , Humanos , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2500-2509, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tear fluid N-Glycome from patients affected with vernal (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) was investigated to identify specific changes in tears and to recognize possible glyco-biomarkers. METHODS: The analysis of the N-glycans was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry on single tear samples. Tears from control normal subjects (CTRL), VKC and AKC patients were processed and treated with peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) to deglycosylate N-glycoproteins. Released N-glycans were purified, permethylated, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS). RESULTS: More than 150 complex N-glycans, including highly fucosylated biantennary, triantennary, tetra-antennary, and bisecting species, were observed in our spectra. Three distinct patterns for CTRL, VKC, and AKC patients were identified in terms of relative intensities for some N-glycans structures. Major variations involved bisecting and hyperfucosylated glycoforms. The most intense ions were associated with species at m/z 1907.0 (asialo, agalacto, bisected, biantennary structure-NGA2B) in CTRL MS profiles, at m/z 2605.3 and 2966.5 in VKC, and at m/z 2792.4 in AKC corresponding to a well-known biantennary, disialylated N-glycan. Several peaks were associated with structures bearing one or two Lewis X epitopes. Structures were confirmed by MS/MS analysis. Quantitative differences among the three groups were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Tear MS profiles are rich in specific glycoforms, particularly those with a high fucosylation degree, indicating both core and peripheral decoration. Tear N-glycome analysis provided important information for a better comprehension of VKC and AKC alterations at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Alérgica , Ceratoconjuntivite , Conjuntivite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Glicômica , Humanos , Polissacarídeos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Lágrimas
3.
Cerebellum ; 20(4): 596-605, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619652

RESUMO

We aimed to identify clinical, molecular and radiological correlates of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with cerebellar atrophy caused by PMM2 mutations (PMM2-CDG), the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation. Twenty-six PMM2-CDG patients (12 males; mean age 13 ± 11.1 years) underwent a standardized assessment to measure ADL, ataxia (brief ataxia rating scale, BARS) and phenotype severity (Nijmegen CDG rating scale, NCRS). MRI biometry of the cerebellum and the brainstem were performed in 23 patients (11 males; aged 5 months-18 years) and 19 control subjects with equal gender and age distributions. The average total ADL score was 15.3 ± 8.5 (range 3-32 out of 36 indicating severe functional disability), representing variable functional outcome in PMM2-CDG patients. Total ADL scores were significantly correlated with NCRS (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and BARS scores (r2 = 0.764; p < 0.001). Severe intellectual disability, peripheral neuropathy, and severe PMM2 variants were all significantly associated with worse functional outcome. Higher ADL scores were significantly associated with decreased diameters of cerebellar vermis (r2 = 0.347; p = 0.004), hemispheres (r2 = 0.436; p = 0.005), and brainstem, particularly the mid-pons (r2 = 0.64; p < 0.001) representing the major radiological predictor of functional disability score in multivariate regression analysis. We show that cerebellar syndrome severity, cognitive level, peripheral neuropathy, and genotype correlate with ADL used to quantify disease-related deficits in PMM2-CDG. Brainstem involvement should be regarded among functional outcome predictors in patients with cerebellar atrophy caused by PMM2-CDG.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(18): 10023-10031, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522128

RESUMO

Alcaligenes faecalis is the predominant Gram-negative bacterium inhabiting gut-associated lymphoid tissues, Peyer's patches. We previously reported that an A. faecalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acted as a weak agonist for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) receptor as well as a potent inducer of IgA without excessive inflammation, thus suggesting that A. faecalis LPS might be used as a safe adjuvant. In this study, we characterized the structure of both the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and LPS from A. faecalis. We synthesized three lipid A molecules with different degrees of acylation by an efficient route involving the simultaneous introduction of 1- and 4'-phosphates. Hexaacylated A. faecalis lipid A showed moderate agonistic activity towards TLR4-mediated signaling and the ability to elicit a discrete interleukin-6 release in human cell lines and mice. It was thus found to be the active principle of the LOS/LPS and a promising vaccine adjuvant candidate.


Assuntos
Alcaligenes faecalis/química , Lipídeo A/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Animais , Configuração de Carboidratos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipídeo A/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas
5.
Glycoconj J ; 38(2): 201-211, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915358

RESUMO

N-glycan analyses may serve uncovering disease-associated biomarkers, as well as for profiling distinctive changes supporting diagnosis of genetic disorders of glycan biosynthesis named congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) preferentially coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) - mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful analytical methods for N-glycan identification and characterization. To enhance detection sensitivity, glycans are commonly labelled with a functional tag prior to LC-MS analysis. Since most derivatization techniques are notoriously time-consuming, some commercial analytical kits have been developed to speed up N-deglycosylation and N-glycan labelling of glycoproteins of pharmaceutical and biological interest such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We exploited the analytical capabilities of RapiFluor-MS (RFMS) to perform, by a slightly modified protocol, a detailed N-glycan characterization of total serum and single serum glycoproteins from specific patients with CDG (MAN1B1-CDG, ALG12-CDG, MOGS-CDG, TMEM199-CDG). This strategy, accomplished by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC)-UPLC-ESI-MS separation of the RFMS derivatized N-glycans, allowed us to uncover structural details of patients serum released N-glycans, thus extending the current knowledge on glycan profiles in these individual glycosylation diseases. The applied methodology enabled to differentiate in some cases either structural isomers and isomers differing in the linkage type. All the here reported applications demonstrated that RFMS method, coupled to HILIC-UPLC-ESI-MS, represents a sensitive high throughput approach for serum N-glycome analysis and a valuable option for glycan detection and separation particularly for isomeric species.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(46): 28735-28742, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139538

RESUMO

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1) is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus that infects the unicellular green alga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. Unlike many other viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of the glycans attached to its major capsid protein. Importantly, these glycans differ from those reported from the three domains of life in terms of structure and asparagine location in the sequon of the protein. Previous data collected from 20 PBCV-1 spontaneous mutants (or antigenic variants) suggested that the a064r gene encodes a glycosyltransferase (GT) with three domains, each with a different function. Here, we demonstrate that: domain 1 is a ß-l-rhamnosyltransferase; domain 2 is an α-l-rhamnosyltransferase resembling only bacterial proteins of unknown function, and domain 3 is a methyltransferase that methylates the C-2 hydroxyl group of the terminal α-l-rhamnose (Rha) unit. We also establish that methylation of the C-3 hydroxyl group of the terminal α-l-Rha is achieved by another virus-encoded protein A061L, which requires an O-2 methylated substrate. This study, thus, identifies two of the glycosyltransferase activities involved in the synthesis of the N-glycan of the viral major capsid protein in PBCV-1 and establishes that a single protein A064R possesses the three activities needed to synthetize the 2-OMe-α-l-Rha-(1→2)-ß-l-Rha fragment. Remarkably, this fragment can be attached to any xylose unit.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Estruturais , Phycodnaviridae/enzimologia , Escherichia coli , Ramnose/metabolismo
7.
J Biol Chem ; 295(32): 10969-10987, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546484

RESUMO

Rhizobia are soil bacteria that form important symbiotic associations with legumes, and rhizobial surface polysaccharides, such as K-antigen polysaccharide (KPS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), might be important for symbiosis. Previously, we obtained a mutant of Sinorhizobium fredii HH103, rkpA, that does not produce KPS, a homopolysaccharide of a pseudaminic acid derivative, but whose LPS electrophoretic profile was indistinguishable from that of the WT strain. We also previously demonstrated that the HH103 rkpLMNOPQ operon is responsible for 5-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-7-(3-hydroxybutyramido)-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acid [Pse5NAc7(3OHBu)] production and is involved in HH103 KPS and LPS biosynthesis and that an HH103 rkpM mutant cannot produce KPS and displays an altered LPS structure. Here, we analyzed the LPS structure of HH103 rkpA, focusing on the carbohydrate portion, and found that it contains a highly heterogeneous lipid A and a peculiar core oligosaccharide composed of an unusually high number of hexuronic acids containing ß-configured Pse5NAc7(3OHBu). This pseudaminic acid derivative, in its α-configuration, was the only structural component of the S. fredii HH103 KPS and, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported from any other rhizobial LPS. We also show that Pse5NAc7(3OHBu) is the complete or partial epitope for a mAb, NB6-228.22, that can recognize the HH103 LPS, but not those of most of the S. fredii strains tested here. We also show that the LPS from HH103 rkpM is identical to that of HH103 rkpA but devoid of any Pse5NAc7(3OHBu) residues. Notably, this rkpM mutant was severely impaired in symbiosis with its host, Macroptilium atropurpureum.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Sinorhizobium fredii/química , Soja/microbiologia , Simbiose , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Configuração de Carboidratos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Epitopos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sinorhizobium fredii/genética , Sinorhizobium fredii/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Açúcares Ácidos/química
8.
Glycoconj J ; 36(6): 461-472, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529350

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases characterized by deficient synthesis (CDG type I) and/or abnormal processing (CDG type II) of glycan moieties linked to protein and lipids. The impact of the molecular defects on protein glycosylation and in turn on the clinical phenotypes of patients with CDG is not yet understood. ALG12-CDG is due to deficiency of ALG12 α1,6-mannosyltransferase that adds the eighth mannose residue on the dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum. ALG12-CDG is a severe multisystem disease associated with low to deficient serum immunoglobulins and recurrent infections. We thoroughly investigated the glycophenotype in a patient with novel ALG12 variants and immunodeficiency. We analyzed serum native transferrin, as first line test for CDG and we profiled serum IgG and total serum N-glycans by a combination of consolidated (N-glycan analysis by MALDI MS) and innovative mass spectrometry-based protocols, such as GlycoWorks RapiFluor N-glycan analysis coupled with LC-ESI MS. Intact serum transferrin showed, as expected for a CDG type I defect, underoccupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Surprisingly, total serum proteins and IgG N-glycans showed some specific changes, consisting in accumulating amounts of definite high-mannose and hybrid structures. As a whole, ALG12-CDG behaves as a dual CDG (CDG-I and II defects) and it is associated with distinct, abnormal glycosylation of total serum and IgG N-glycans. Glycan profiling of target glycoproteins may endorse the molecular defect unraveling the complex clinical phenotype of CDG patients.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Deficiência de IgG/genética , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Manosiltransferases/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/sangue , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Glicosilação , Humanos , Deficiência de IgG/sangue , Deficiência de IgG/metabolismo , Deficiência de IgG/patologia , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/deficiência , Lactente , Masculino , Manosiltransferases/sangue , Oligossacarídeos/genética , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Transferrina/genética , Transferrina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2044: 255-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432418

RESUMO

CSF diagnostics has proved to be a formidable testing ground for N-glycoproteomic analysis of neurological diseases. To characterize specific N-glycan profiles of CSF in early and advanced phases of Alzheimer's disease, as well as in lysosomal storage disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, we set up in our lab a robust and feasible protocol by coupling bioanalytical methods and mass spectrometry analysis.Starting from a few microliters of CSF, after protein denaturation, reduction, and alkylation, N-glycans are released from glycoproteins using the peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and purified. The analysis of permethylated N-glycans by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and MALDI-TOF MS/MS allowed us to identify specific glyco-structures and also to distinguish between isobaric N-glycans.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicoproteínas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicoproteínas/química , Polissacarídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Doença de Tay-Sachs/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso , Gangliosídeo G(M2)/metabolismo , Humanos , Íons/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Carbohydr Res ; 481: 43-51, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228656

RESUMO

One of the strategies adopted for the development of a bivalent conjugate vaccine against invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella consists of linking the O-antigen component of S. Typhimurium and S. Entertidis lipopolysaccharides to the carrier protein CRM197, a non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin. The conjugation reaction uses the reducing end residue 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) of the core to which the O-antigen chain is bound (OAg-core). OAg-core chains are cleaved from the lipid A directly in the fermentation broth by mild acid treatment. Kdo has been reported to undergo structural changes under these conditions and therefore the Kdo at the reducing end was thoroughly analysed to verify its structural integrity. For this purpose, low molecular mass OAg-core chains extracted from S. Typhimurium wild type bacteria and core oligosaccharides extracted from S. Typhimurium bacteria mutated not to produce O-antigen repeats were characterized by GLC-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, a combination of 1H-1H and 1H-13C experiments confirmed the linkage positions, sequence and structure of the octasaccharide core with 5-linked Kdo present at the reducing end in its native structure: α-GlcpNAc-(1→2)-α-Glcp-(1→2)-α-Galp-(1→3)-[α-Galp-(1→6)]-α-Glcp-(1→3)-[α-Hepp-(1→7)]-α-Hepp-(1→3)-α-Hepp-(1→5)-Kdo.


Assuntos
Antígenos O/química , Salmonella typhimurium/química , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Vacinas Conjugadas/química , Antígenos O/imunologia , Oxirredução , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
11.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Galactose/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Células CHO , Células Cultivadas , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/metabolismo , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Cricetulus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
12.
J Biol Chem ; 294(14): 5688-5699, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737276

RESUMO

The chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is a large dsDNA virus that infects the microalga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. Unlike most other viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery required to glycosylate its major capsid protein (MCP). The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the PBCV-1 MCP consist of nonasaccharides, and similar glycans are not found elsewhere in the three domains of life. Here, we identified the roles of three virus-encoded glycosyltransferases (GTs) that have four distinct GT activities in glycan synthesis. Two of the three GTs were previously annotated as GTs, but the third GT was identified in this study. We determined the GT functions by comparing the WT glycan structures from PBCV-1 with those from a set of PBCV-1 spontaneous GT gene mutants resulting in antigenic variants having truncated glycan structures. According to our working model, the virus gene a064r encodes a GT with three domains: domain 1 has a ß-l-rhamnosyltransferase activity, domain 2 has an α-l-rhamnosyltransferase activity, and domain 3 is a methyltransferase that decorates two positions in the terminal α-l-rhamnose (Rha) unit. The a075l gene encodes a ß-xylosyltransferase that attaches the distal d-xylose (Xyl) unit to the l-fucose (Fuc) that is part of the conserved N-glycan core region. Last, gene a071r encodes a GT that is involved in the attachment of a semiconserved element, α-d-Rha, to the same l-Fuc in the core region. Our results uncover GT activities that assemble four of the nine residues of the PBCV-1 MCP N-glycans.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Phycodnaviridae/enzimologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Chlorella/genética , Chlorella/virologia , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/imunologia , Phycodnaviridae/genética , Phycodnaviridae/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/genética , Polissacarídeos/imunologia
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1104: 237-257, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484252

RESUMO

The capsid of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) contains a heavily glycosylated major capsid protein, Vp54. The capsid protein contains four glycans, each N-linked to Asn. The glycan structures are unusual in many aspects: (1) they are attached by a ß-glucose linkage, which is rare in nature; (2) they are highly branched and consist of 8-10 neutral monosaccharides; (3) all four glycoforms contain a dimethylated rhamnose as the capping residue of the main chain, a hyper-branched fucose residue and two rhamnose residues ''with opposite absolute configurations; (4) the four glycoforms differ by the nonstoichiometric presence of two monosaccharides, L-arabinose and D-mannose ; (5) the N-glycans from all of the chloroviruses have a strictly conserved core structure; and (6) these glycans do not resemble any structures previously reported in the three domains of life.The structures of these N-glycoforms remained elusive for years because initial attempts to solve their structures used tools developed for eukaryotic-like systems, which we now know are not suitable for this noncanonical glycosylation pattern. This chapter summarizes the methods used to solve the chlorovirus complex glycan structures with the hope that these methodologies can be used by scientists facing similar problems.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Chlorella/virologia , Glicosilação , Phycodnaviridae/química , Polissacarídeos/química
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535976

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni, the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans. With the help of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we showed that LPS from a C. jejuni strain O2A consists of both hexaacyl and tetraacyl forms. Since such hypoacylation can result in a reduced immune response in humans, we assessed the activity of LPS from C. jejuni in mouse macrophages by measuring its capacity to activate TLR4-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, as well as NFκB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Our data support the hypothesis that LPS acylation correlates with its bioactivity.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Lipídeo A/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeo A/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1750: 75-91, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512066

RESUMO

In this chapter, we present the methodology currently applied in our laboratory for the structural elucidation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) N-glycome. N-glycans are released from denatured carboxymethylated glycoproteins by digestion with peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and purified using both C18 Sep-Pak® and porous graphitized carbon (PGC) HyperSep™ Hypercarb™ solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The glycan pool is subsequently permethylated to increase mass spectrometry sensitivity. Molecular assignments are performed through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) analysis considering either the protein N-linked glycosylation pathway or MALDI TOF MS/MS data. Each stage has been optimized to obtain high-quality mass spectra in reflector mode with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio up to m/z 4800. This method has been successfully adopted to associate specific N-glycome profiles to the early and the advanced phases of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicômica/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Glicoproteínas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicosilação , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano
16.
JIMD Rep ; 38: 97-100, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643274

RESUMO

We report on a 12-year-old adopted boy with psychomotor disability, absence seizures, and normal brain MRI. He showed increased (but initially, at 5 months, normal) serum cholesterol, increased alkaline phosphatases, transiently increased transaminases and hypoceruloplasminemia with normal serum and urinary copper. Blood levels of immunoglobulins, haptoglobin, antithrombin, and factor XI were normal. A type 2 serum transferrin isoelectrofocusing and hypoglycosylation of apoCIII pointed to a combined N- and O-glycosylation defect. Neither CDG panel analysis with 79 CDG-related genes, nor whole exome sequencing revealed the cause of this CDG. Whole genome sequencing was not performed since the biological parents of this adopted child were not available.

17.
J Bacteriol ; 200(2)2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109183

RESUMO

In Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to the robust permeability barrier of the outer membrane (OM), preventing the entry of toxic molecules, such as detergents and antibiotics. LPS is transported from the inner membrane (IM) to the OM by the Lpt multiprotein machinery. Defects in LPS transport compromise LPS assembly at the OM and result in increased antibiotic sensitivity. LptA is a key component of the Lpt machine that interacts with the IM protein LptC and chaperones LPS through the periplasm. We report here the construction of lptA41, a quadruple mutant in four conserved amino acids potentially involved in LPS or LptC binding. Although viable, the mutant displays increased sensitivity to several antibiotics (bacitracin, rifampin, and novobiocin) and the detergent SDS, suggesting that lptA41 affects LPS transport. Indeed, lptA41 is defective in Lpt complex assembly, and its lipid A carries modifications diagnostic of LPS transport defects. We also selected and characterized two phenotypic bacitracin-resistant suppressors of lptA41 One mutant, in which only bacitracin sensitivity is suppressed, harbors a small in-frame deletion in mlaA, which codes for an OM lipoprotein involved in maintaining OM asymmetry by reducing accumulation of phospholipids in the outer leaflet. The other mutant, in which bacitracin, rifampin, and SDS sensitivity is suppressed, harbors an additional amino acid substitution in LptA41 and a nonsense mutation in opgH, encoding a glycosyltransferase involved in periplasmic membrane-derived oligosaccharide synthesis. Characterization of the suppressor mutants highlights different strategies adopted by the cell to overcome OM defects caused by impaired LPS transport.IMPORTANCE Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major constituent of the outer membrane (OM) of most Gram-negative bacteria, forming a barrier against antibiotics. LPS is synthesized at the inner membrane (IM), transported across the periplasm, and assembled at the OM by the multiprotein Lpt complex. LptA is the periplasmic component of the Lpt complex, which bridges IM and OM and ferries LPS across the periplasm. How the cell coordinates the processes involved in OM biogenesis is not completely understood. We generated a mutant partially defective in lptA that exhibited increased sensitivity to antibiotics and selected for suppressors of the mutant. The analysis of two independent suppressors revealed different strategies adopted by the cell to overcome defects in LPS biogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Supressão Genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Lipídeo A/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Rifampina/farmacologia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
ChemistryOpen ; 6(4): 541-553, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794950

RESUMO

The importance of the outer membrane and of its main constituent, lipopolysaccharide, in the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous host plants has been well studied. Here, the first complete structural characterization of the entire lipopolysaccharide from an O-chain-deficient Bradyrhizobium ORS285 rfaL mutant is achieved by a combination of chemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy, MALDI MS and MS/MS. The lipid A structure is shown to be consistent with previously reported Bradyrhizobium lipid A, that is, a heterogeneous blend of penta- to hepta-acylated species carrying a nonstoichiometric hopanoid unit and possessing very-long-chain fatty acids ranging from 26:0(25-OH) to 32:0(31-OH). The structure of the core oligosaccharide region, fully characterized for the first time here, is revealed to be a nonphosphorylated linear chain with methylated sugar residues, with a heptose residue exclusively present in the outer core region, and with the presence of two singly substituted 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) residues, one of which is located in the outer core region. The lipid A moiety is linked to the core moiety through an uncommon 4-substituted Kdo unit.

19.
Mar Drugs ; 15(7)2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653982

RESUMO

The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroideslacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis, represents a fascinating microorganism to investigate in terms of its LPS component. Here we report the elucidation of the full structure of the R-type LPS isolated from H. lacunaris TB21 that was attained through a multi-technique approach comprising chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cellular immunology studies were executed on the pure R-LPS revealing a very interesting effect on human innate immunity as an inhibitor of the toxic Escherichia coli LPS.


Assuntos
Extremófilos/química , Bactérias Anaeróbias Gram-Negativas/química , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Escherichia coli/química , Extremófilos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Bactérias Anaeróbias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
20.
FASEB J ; 31(8): 3467-3483, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28442549

RESUMO

Gangliosides (sialylated glycolipids) play an essential role in the CNS by regulating recognition and signaling in neurons. Metabolic blocks in processing and catabolism of gangliosides result in the development of severe neurologic disorders, including gangliosidoses manifesting with neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We demonstrate that 2 mammalian enzymes, neuraminidases 3 and 4, play important roles in catabolic processing of brain gangliosides by cleaving terminal sialic acid residues in their glycan chains. In neuraminidase 3 and 4 double-knockout mice, GM3 ganglioside is stored in microglia, vascular pericytes, and neurons, causing micro- and astrogliosis, neuroinflammation, accumulation of lipofuscin bodies, and memory loss, whereas their cortical and hippocampal neurons have lower rate of neuritogenesis in vitro Double-knockout mice also have reduced levels of GM1 ganglioside and myelin in neuronal axons. Furthermore, neuraminidase 3 deficiency drastically increased storage of GM2 in the brain tissues of an asymptomatic mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, a severe human gangliosidosis, indicating that this enzyme is responsible for the metabolic bypass of ß-hexosaminidase A deficiency. Together, our results provide the first in vivo evidence that neuraminidases 3 and 4 have important roles in CNS function by catabolizing gangliosides and preventing their storage in lipofuscin bodies.-Pan, X., De Britto Pará De Aragão, C., Velasco-Martin, J. P., Priestman, D. A., Wu, H. Y., Takahashi, K., Yamaguchi, K., Sturiale, L., Garozzo, D., Platt, F. M., Lamarche-Vane, N., Morales, C. R., Miyagi, T., Pshezhetsky, A. V. Neuraminidases 3 and 4 regulate neuronal function by catabolizing brain gangliosides.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Mamíferos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Mucolipidoses/metabolismo , Neuraminidase/genética
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